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Single-Phase Half-Wave Rectifier

Waveforms

Single-Phase Half-Wave Rectifier

Performance Parameters
Average value of the output voltage, V dc
Average value of the output current, I dc
Output dc power, Pdc
Pdc = VdcIdc

rms value of the output voltage, Vrms


Output ac power, Pac
Pac = VrmsIrms

Performance Parameters (continued)


Efficiency,
= Pdc/Pac

Effective (rms) value of the ac component


of the output voltage, Vac
Vac = Vrms2 Vdc2

Form factor, FF
FF = Vrms/Vdc

Ripple factor, RF
RF = Vac/Vdc

Performance Parameters (continued)


Alternate form for ripple factor
V
RF ( ) 1 FF 1
V
rms

dc

Transformer utilization factor, TUF


TUF = Pdc/VsIs
Vs, Is are rms voltage and current of the
transformer secondary

Input Voltage and Current

Performance Parameters (continued)


Displacement angle,
Displacement Factor, DF
DF = cos()

Harmonic Factor, HF

I I
HF (
) ( ) 1

I
I

s1

1
2

s1

s1

1
2

Performance Parameters (continued)


Power Factor, PF

VI
I
PF
cos cos
VI
I
s

s1

s1

Performance Parameters (continued)


Crest Factor, CF

CF

s ( peak )

Example 3.1
Determine , FF, RF, TUF, PIV of the
diode, CF of the input current, input PF.

Determine the Average Voltage, Vdc

1
V v (t)dt
T
1
V V sin tdt
T
V
T
V
(cos
1)
T
2
T

dc

T
2

dc

dc

1
f
T
2 f
V
V
0.318V

V
0.318V
I

R
R
m

dc

dc

dc

Determine the rms Voltage, Vrms


1

V
v (t)dt
T

rms

1
2

V (V sin t) dt
T

V
V
0.5V
2
V
0.5V
I

R
R
T
2

rms

rms

rms

rms

1
2

Determine Pdc, Pac, and

(0.318V )
P
R
(0.5V )
P
R
(0.318V )

40.5%
(0.5V )
2

dc

ac

Determine FF and RF

V
0.5V
FF

V
0.318V
FF 1.57 157%
rms

dc

RF FF 1
2

RF 1.57 1 1.21 121%


2

Determine the TUF


1
2

1
V

V
0.707V
(V sin t) dt
T

2
0.5V
I I
R
(0.318V )
P
R
T UF

0.5V
VI
(0.707V )(
)
R
T UF 0.286
T

load

dc

Determine the PIV


PIV is the maximum (peak) voltage that
appears across the diode when reverse
biased. Here, PIV = Vm.

PIV +

Determine CF
CF

I s ( peak )
Is

Vm
I s ( peak )
R
0.5Vm
Is
R
Vm
CF R 2
0.5Vm
R

Determine PF

Pac
PF cos
VA
2
(0.5Vm )
R
PF
0.707
0.5Vm
(0.707Vm )(
)
R

Summary Half-Wave Rectifier


RF=121%
High
Efficiency = 40.5 Low
TUF = 0.286
Low
1/TUF = 3.496
transformer must be 3.496 times larger than
when using a pure ac voltage source

Half-Wave Rectifier with R-L Load

Waveforms of Current and Voltage

Conduction period of D1 extends beyond t =

Average Output Voltage


Vm
Vdc
2

sin td (t )

Vm

Vdc
cos t 0
2
Vm
Vdc
1 cos( )
2
Vdc
I dc
R
Increase average voltage and current by making = 0

Waveforms with Dm installed

Application as a Battery Charger

Diode conducts for vs > E,


starting when Vmsin = E

Waveforms for the Battery Charger

Diode turns off when


vs < E (at = )
Charging current
io = (vs E)/R
io = (Vmsint E)/R
for < t <

Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier

Center-Tapped Transformer

Waveforms for the Full-Wave Rectifier


T
2

2
Vdc Vm sin t
T 0
2Vm
Vdc

Vdc 0.636Vm

Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier

PIV = 2Vm

Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier

Waveforms for the Full-Wave Bridge

Full-Wave Bridge with Waveforms

Conduction pattern
D1 D2

D 3 D4

PIV = Vm