Anda di halaman 1dari 58

8-Bit Gray Code Converter

By
Martin Serena, Dang Ly, Khoa Ly

Overview

Gray Code Background


Delegated Duties
Method of Design
Target Specifications
Simulation Results
Block Diagram
Schematics, Symbols, Layouts, and Simulations
Design References
Conclusion
2

Gray Code Background

Conversion works in both directions


Binary Gray , Gray Binary
One bit changes from number to number
Not arithmetic
Not weighted (e.g. 222120)
Limits the amount of error that can occur
when several bits change between numbers
No limit to number of converted bits
3

Binary to Gray Code Conversion


(BC)

(GC)

1
0

0
1

0
0

MSB does not change as a result of conversion


Start with MSB of binary number and add it to
neighboring binary bit to get the next Gray code
bit
Repeat for subsequent Gray coded bits
4

Gray to Binary Code Conversion


(GC)

0
+

(BC)

1
+

0
+

MSB does not change as a result of conversion


Start with MSB of binary number and add it to the
second MSB of the Gray code to get the next
binary bit
Repeat for subsequent binary coded bits
5

Delegated Duties
Martin Binary to Gray Conversion,
Gray to Binary Conversion
(XOR gates)
Dang Binary/Gray Output Selection
(MUXs)
Khoa Binary Code Counter,
Parallel-to-Parallel Shift Register
(D flip-flops)
6

Method of Design
Decided on an initial load capacitance (Cin)
Partitioned the circuit into different propagation
delay times according to gate/device requirements,
and divided propagation delay times amongst the
individual gates and devices
Created the symbol and layout for out each type of
gate (XOR, MUX, NAND)
Connected gate symbols to create device symbols
Connected gate layouts to create device layouts
Connected device symbols to create circuit
schematics, and connected device layouts to create
circuit layouts
7

Target Specifications
Conversion:
Binary Code to Gray Code
Gray Code to Binary Code

Propagation delay times:


XOR (each): 0.4 nS
MUX (each): 0.3 nS
D flip-flop (each): 0.63 nS (worst-case fall time)
Technology specs (size):
Minimum Channel Width = 1.5 m
Minimum Channel Length = 0.6 m
Power < Watt
Clock Speed = 200 MHz
Total area as small as possible

Simulation Results
Successfully converts binary and Gray codes
Propagation Delay
XOR (each): 0.338 nS (worst-case)
MUX (each): 0.35 nS (worst-case)
D flip-flop (each): 1.14 nS (worst-case fall time)

Technology specs (size)

Transistor Lengths: 0.6 m


XOR:
Wp = 3.9 m
MUX:
Wp = 6 m
D Flip-Flop: Wp = 18 m

Wn = 3.75 m
Wn = 3 m
Wn = 10 m
9

Simulation Results
Power (using the power meter)
39.94 mW

Clock Speed
200 MHz

Total Area
Gray code converter: 6.03E-4 cm2
Counter: 10.2E-4 cm2
10

Block Diagram

11

XOR Schematic

12

XOR Symbol

13

XOR Layout

14

XOR Extracted

15

XOR LVS Report

16

XOR Test Bench

17

XOR Transient Analysis

18

XOR Threshold

19

MUX Schematic

20

MUX Symbol

21

MUX Layout

22

MUX Extracted

23

MUX LVS Report

24

MUX Test Bench

25

MUX Transient Analysis

26

MUX Transient Analysis

27

NAND3 Schematic

28

NAND3 Symbol

29

NAND3 Layout

30

NAND3 Extracted

31

NAND3 LVS Report

32

NAND3 Test Bench

33

NAND3 Transient Analysis

34

D Flip-Flop Schematic

35

D Flip-Flop Symbol

36

D Flip-Flop Layout

37

D Flip-Flop Extracted

38

D Flip-Flop LVS Report

39

D Flip-Flop Test Bench

40

D Flip-Flop Transient Analysis

41

Counter Schematic

42

Counter Symbol

43

Counter Layout

44

Counter Extracted

45

Counter LVS Report

46

Counter Transient Analysis

47

Gray Code Converter Schematic

48

Gray Code Converter Symbol

49

Gray Code Converter Layout

50

Gray Code Converter Extracted

51

Gray Code Converter LVS Report

52

Gray Code Converter Test Circuit

53

Gray Coded Transient Analysis

54

Binary Coded Transient Analysis

55

Power

56

Design References
CMOS Integrated Circuits
By Kang

Digital Fundamentals
Thomas Floyd

57

Conclusion
We designed and simulated a Gray code converter
that converts binary coded numbers to Gray coded
numbers and vice versa
The nmos and pmos transistor widths were greater
than 1.5 m
The power specifications were well below Watt
and a code conversion took place within 5 nS
Our target specifications were met
58