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very significant dimension in behavior

dynamics is communication


is a basic component in ones relationship

with others


is at the center of all human existence


links us to others physically, emotionally,

and intellectually


twisted or overdosed communication

is one of the causes of conflict between and
among persons, groups and organizations


is the lifeblood of any


ideas and information makes

action and coordination possible


impairment of communication due to

certain barriers only causes confusion and

To perform

well, organizations must foster

effective communication.

Definition and Process


is a process which aims to

transfer and implement the meaning of
symbols from one person, group or
organization to another.


ultimate goal is the sharing of meaning


sender is the communicator who can be

any person, group or organization

*The qualities and characteristics of the sender

are usually reflected in the message that is sent.


receiver, likewise, can be an individual,

group or organization


recipient of the message is, likewise,

characterized by his role, authority,
educational level and personal, social,
educational qualities as reflected partly as the
reason for his being sent the message in the
first place


more congruent the qualities and

characteristics of both sender and receiver, the
more likely the communication is taken and
understood at the same level and depth.


message is communicated through symbols

that are sent through a medium.


symbols can take various forms such as

verbal and non-verbal, oral and written, textual
and visual.


elements to consider in non-verbal

communication include general appearance,
kinesics, proxemics and para language.


message goes through pathways which are

channels along which its passage may either
be facilitated or impeded.


reaction by the recipient which may be

expressed either in silence or actual response
directed to the sender is the feedback.


short, communication is conveying

thoughts and feelings to others and receiving
them from others as expressed by Dean and


the business world, communication is

needed to establish and disseminate goals for
an organization.

1. Number of People Involved
a. Intrapersonal Communication this occurs when the sender
and he receiver of the message is one and the same person.
This could involve self-rationalizing, daydreaming or
conscience examination.
b. Interpersonal Communication requires two people
interacting with each other.
c. Group Communication the process involves several
d. Mass Communication takes place indefinite number of
people which some would term as faceless audience. The use
of television, radio, newspapers, magazines and billboards
falls under his category.

2.Levels of Source and Receiver

a.Downward message flows from top to bottom, from
higher to lower authority. This is best exemplified in a
work setting when leadership is autocratic and the
workers group is shy, timid or afraid.
b. Upward very opposite on downward. The group
below feels free to initiate and suggest new programs
and projects which are welcomed by management.
Illustrations of upward communication are: feelings of
employees about their jobs, about the organization or
about their immediate supervisors, prospect from
promotion, complaints, suggestion, clarification of
roles, function, tasks.

c. Horizontal communication across rather than

along the formal chain of command. Individuals
communicate with others who are on the same level.
The middle managers group together to discuss
common problems. The following, activities utilize
horizontal communication: coordination of work
assignments, sharing information and plans, joint
problem solving, conciliation, negotiation, settlement
of differences, development of interpersonal relation.
d. Circular communication starts in any point or
level; moves on the another point or level, moves
back and forth in either formal or informal
progression or retrogression.

e. Cross- Channel/ Diagonal Communication

the direction of information flow takes this type
of communication in inter-unit exchanges, or in
co-orientation activities. Again, communication
flows across the chain of command.

Ways of communication by
Informal Channels
For Top Management
Policy issuance/statements
Meetings (board)

Hosted meals
Use of key informants like secretaries, aids, runners

For Middle Management

Meetings (staff)

Informal meetings

For Rank and File

Meetings (associations)

Small talk

Factors that Affect

the Quality of

1. Goal Clarity

The ultimate goal of communication is to

share meanings.

The sender must clarify the goals.

In organizations which use the Management

By Objectives (MBO) approach, the
objectives are jointly set by both supervisor
and subordinate. MBO serves to ensure that
the objectives are clear to both the
organization and the individual.

2. Sender

His qualities, characteristics, status, role

affects communication flow.

Example 1: A highly autocratic university

president, for instance, would most likely be
misunderstood by an autonomous academic

Example 2: A lax foreman may cause confusion

among factory workers who have been used to
being given detailed specific procedures.

3. Receiver

His qualities, characteristics, status, role,

emotional state is a factor in the success or
failure of communication.

Example: A pretty but dumb secretary can be a

pain in the neck of a highly energized,
aggressive and intelligent boss.

A person with ability to listen, without this

ability, communication breaks down

4. Shared Experience

Experience common to participants helps

enhance communication process.

The greater the area of shared experience, the

greater the likelihood that communication
would succeed.

Example: An engineer is better able to

communicate technical matters to another
engineer than to a non engineer. The more
effective sharing of meaning between the
engineers derives mostly from their similar
education and professional experience.

5. Symbol

Communication is largely symbolic.

It is achieved through the use of symbols both

verbal and non verbal.

Verbal communication should be formulated with

much care. Example: The speaker would
suddenly laugh in the midst of a truly sad story.

Non Verbal communication occurs very

frequently and can be very expressive. Example:
Traffic enforcer using hand signal in managing the

6. Medium

The message can take various forms: a typed

letter, a bulletin board notice, a lecture, a
demonstration, a slide, a radio broadcast, a
televised program, a telephone call, a drawing, a
painting, a song, ringing of a bell and many more.

The medium used depends on the content,

objectives, scope of the message, the senders
choice, resources, skills, the size of the group to
which the message is to be sent and the time
available to formulate the message.

Communication is greatly improved if a mix of

different media is used.

7. Pathways

The passages through which the message travels can

either be clear or clogged up with physical or
psychological disturbances.

A clean, clear passage devoid of noise and breakdowns

make for fast communication and thus more and better

Psychological/emotional problems caused by envy,

jealousy, insecurity, prejudices, immaturity may prod
them to hide information or deter its flow.

Psychologically caused communication problems are

more difficult to resolve than those that are physically

Inattention due to poor motivation is more difficult to

handle than a broken typewriter.

8. Information Overload

Due to fast technological processes of

accumulating and transmitting information thru the
radio, television, newspapers, etc.,

Many of our managers are drowning in a flood of

numbers, data, information, and their failure to
cope effectively with such information overload
will have serious and even disastrous
consequences not only for their organizations but
for our entire economy

Thus, Wallace and Szilagzi, Jr. caution managers,

not to be bogged down by excessive details
furnished to them by their staff but to concentrate
on long-run strategic planning based on concise,
relevant and meaningful summaries.

9. Feedback

How do we know if communication has been


When do we say that our communication is good?

The reaction by the recipient to the

communication is, by and large, the main
criterion that determines its success or failure.

Chung and Megginson put in this way: Effective

interpersonal communication is achieved only
when the sender obtains the intended response
from the receiver.

Barriers to Communication

that can impede the flow of

communication in any form and at any point is
a barrier to communication. Manifestation of
problems or temporary breakdowns may
include some difficulties on what to say, how
to say it, when to say it, whom to say it, and
where to say it.

Communication may fail due to

certain reasons.
1. Physical Barriers. This includes impediments in relation to
distance, timing, efficiency of modes used like telephone,
telegraph, or post office amenities. Companies that have
branches all over the country need to set up regional offices
whose vice-presidents oversee the operations. While time is
related to distance, timeliness, is another factor to consider
particularly in decision making.
2. Social Barriers. Differences between sender and receiver
in certain factors like age, financial status, educational and
family backgrounds, intellectual ability, religion, health
status may deter the flow or the understanding of messages
that are sent.

3. Psychological Barriers. The affective mode is the most

difficult area to tackle in communication. envy,
jealousy, unpleasant feelings, and emotions caused by
insecurity and conflict should be given outlets for
expression and those in charge should know how to
manage these outbursts.
Transactional Analysis

An analysis of the verbal transaction between two

persons is a very interesting process called
transactional analysis. It can help improve
interpersonal communication based on a study of ego
states of the persons communicating with each other.
These ego states are parent, child, and adult as
discussed by Berne.

PARENT Judgmental,
critical of self and others, moralistic,

directive, and how to oriented, rigid, prejudiced, controlling of

others, particularly by invoking guilt feelings, authoritarianpermissive, tradition-bound, supportive, paternalistic.


Logical, non-emotional, rational, objective, factoriented, calculating, fun less, ageless, computer-like with
constant data updating, probabilistic, here-and-now oriented.


Spontaneous, fun-loving, curious, creative, impulsive,

stubborn, rebellious, manipulative, sulking, poor me
dependency, reactionary, non-confronting, self-centered, and


and Champagne also discuss three

response patterns when a person sends a
message: Complementary, Crossed or Ulterior.
A transaction is complementary when a
message sent to one ego state gets the
predicted or expected response from the other
individual. A crossed transaction occurs when a
message addressed to one ego state gets an
unexpected response from another ego state.
And an Ulterior transaction involves hidden


A Complementary Transaction
1. Have you read the 1990 audit report of our
company done by our external auditor?
2. I received it to the other day but I havent read
A Crossed Transaction
1. Have you read the 1990 audit report of our
company done by our external auditor?
2. (Angry) I received it to the other day but I havent
read it. There is so much to do in this office.

An Ulterior Transaction
1. (Approaches suddenly the responder with a
hurried tone in voice). Have you read the 1990 audit
report of our company done by our external auditor?
Ulterior message: Hoping youve read it.
2. (Taken a back but catches voice with a sullen
smile). Is this the report? It will be the next thing I
will read. Ulterior message: Please dont worry, Ill
read it for sure.

Assertive communication

modes of behavior are displayed when

communicating with others: passiveness,
aggressiveness and assertiveness. Reece and Brandt
explain that passive behavior is displayed by a
person who fails to express to his thoughts and
feelings and does not stand up for the rights being
violated. Aggressive behavior is expressing your
thoughts and feelings and defending your rights in a
way that is usually inappropriate and often violates
the right of others. Assertive behavior is standing
up for your rights and expressing your thoughts and
feelings in a direct appropriate way that does not
violate the rights of others.


assertive communication the use of I

messages is emphasized in the statement
which contains three parts; the description of
behavior, the disclosure of feeling that is
displayed due to the behavior, the disclosure
of feeling that is displayed due to the behavior
and its effects. Below are the examples of
three part assertion messages depicting the
three parts of assertive communication :

1. 1. When you
talk with your
classmate while
somebody is
making an oral


I feel annoyed

2. When you come I feel frustrated

and peeved


because I do not
want you and your
classmate to miss
any important
points of the
because you
distract the
attention of the

The behavior description should be clear,

specific and direct instead of being hazy,
general and implicit. Examples of correct
and incorrect behavior:

Correct Behavior

Incorrect Behavior

1. When you sleep on

your job

when you break

company policies

2. When you keep

interrupting your
Classmates when they
are talking.

when you are impolite

and discourteous to
your Classmates.


stresses that when a person violates your

space, the behavior to be altered must be described to
be altered must be described very accurately and
objectively, otherwise, the other person may not clearly
understand what behavior you find offensive


assertive is being frank, candid and sincere

without being abrasive. It aims to make other person
know how one feels about certain individuals, issues,
rules, and policies so that a better understanding of
these is arrived at.


to become assertive is becoming more popular

as the need is felt to help people overcome their
hesitancy in expressing their true feeling, sentiments,
opinions, ideas, and values.


enumerates the three goals of

assertiveness training: knowing how one feels.
Saying what one wants and getting what one


assertive, one gives others opportunity

to change since they are told how their
behavior affects him. His rights as a person are
defined and he shows respect for other
peoples right to know where they stand with
him. He must determine which rights are
important to defend when they are violated.

Keen Observation and

Reflective Listening Skills

Criterion to use in determining whether

communication is successful or not is the
congruence between the senders purpose of
the message and the way it is received by the
recipient. There are 2 ways of achieving this
are through perceptive observation and keen
listening skills on the sender and receiver.


sender must have a comprehensive and

adequate knowledge of the situation concerned
and of the needs of the organization and
constituents before the message is sent.The
recipient should , upon receiving the message,
take in the posture of a keen observer and
reflective listener. Looking around him, he maybe
asking the questions:

What conditions exist in my space that prompted

the sender to give me this message?


is the meaning of this message?

are its implications What will I do as a reply

to this message?


Megginson, an industrial psychologist for effective

counseling points out, The first rule for a counselor is
to keep his mouth shut; second is to keep his ears
open; the third is to keep his eyes open; the fourth
rules as given by Walters is to keep his perception and
intuition alert to sense what is really bothering the


counselor does not only listen to what the

counselee says but must also listen for what he does
not say.


skills should not just be active, thet should

also be reflective especially on very important matters
or decisions to be made. Ausburger's message below
summarizes the essence of reflective listening skills.

I want to hear you accurately, so I'll need to check

out what i hear at crucial points to be as sure as I
can that my meanings match your meanings. I get
an inkling of what your meanings are from your;


tone of voice



But it is only an inkling, I must check it out at

times by replaying what I heard for your
approval, until you agree that you have been
heard. I want to hear deeply, clearly, accurately
enough that I am able (to some real extent) to:


what you feel


a bit where you hurt

want for you the freedom to be all you are



we have learned to attend to the sender

of the message, we follow his lead. We
verbalize the essence of his content/feeling. If
we can do this, we are ready to improve our
reflecting skills. Bolton gives guidelines for
improved reflective listening, lists down many
occasions that call for reflective listening and
the occasions not to listen reflectively.

Filipino Values


order not to hurt any person or group and be left alienated,

the typical Filipino uses smooth interpersonal relations
techniques like euphemisms. It is usually difficult if not
impossible,for others to surmise us. Often we are criticized for
not saying what we mean and for not meaning what we say.
Some Filipino tries to smile even if he is mad at his boss. We
discloses his complaints to a friend instead of settling it with
his superior. For the Filipino worker, these strange behaviors
carry positive meaning and significance. His smile instead of
being mad at his boss may keep him his job which he needs to
support his family. These strange behaviors, therefore are a
shield to protect him. However, we consider the American's
brutal frankness an anachronism to our communication style.
This difference in style cause some strained relationship
between us and foreign groups.