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Sistem Informasi

Geografis
Manajemen Basis Data dalam SIG

Aurelio Rahmadian

Sistem Manajemen Basis Data


SIG
SIG

merupakan perangkat pengelolaan


basis data (DBMS = Data Base
Management System) dimana interaksi
dengan pemakai dilakukan dengan
suatu sistem antar muka dan sistem
query dan basis data dibangun untuk
aplikasi multiuser.
SIG
merupakan perangkat analisis
keruangan (spatial analysis) dengan
kelebihan dapat mengelola data spasial
dan data non-spasial sekaligus.

Sistem Manajemen Basis Data


SIG

Syarat pengorganisasian
data:
Volum kecil dengan klasifikasi
data yang baik;
Penyajian yang akurat;
Mudah dan cepat dalam
pencarian kembali (data
retrieval) dan penggabungan
(proses komposit).

Tipe Data
Data

lokasi:

Koordinat lokasi
Nama lokasi
Lokasi topologi (letak relatif: sebelah kiri danau A,
sebelah kanan pertokoan B)
Data

non-lokasi:

Curah hujan
Jumlah panen padi
Terdiri dari variabel (tanah), kelas (alluvial), nilai luas (10
ha), jenis (pasir)
Data

dimensi waktu (temporal):

Data non-lokasi di lokasi bersangkutan dapat berubah


dengan waktu (misal: data curah hujan bulan Desember
akan berbeda dengan bulan Juli)

Desain Konseptual
Data

Model

A data model is a formal specification


for the entities, their attributes and all
relationships between the entities for
the GIS.
The purpose of a data model is to
make it possible for both user and GIS
analyst agree on the data definitions
which is represented completely
rigorous and unambiguous fashion.

Desain Konseptual
Building

Located on

Resides

Simple Entity
Relationship
(E-R) Diagram

Parcel

Owned
by

Shel
f
Uppe

Occupantr

Joe Jones
Owner
Plateau

Slope

or
Terrace

Apex Co.

Entities
represented as
rectangles,
relationship as
diamonds and
attributes as
ellipses.

Lowe
Deep
Rise
Ocean
r
Slope

Desain Konseptual
E-R Model
1. Parts of E-R Model:
Entities;
Relationships between entities;
Attributes of entities or
relationships.

2. Types of normal
relationships:
Belonging to;
Set and subset relationships;
Parent-child relationships;
Component parts of an
object.

3. Rules for identifying


entities,
relationships,
and attributes:
A common noun
corresponds
to an entity type;
A transitive verb
corresponds
to a relationship type;
An adjective corresponds
to
an attribute type.

Desain Konseptual
Each

entity and its attribute map into one or more


relational tables.

Area terbangun

Each

Bangunan
Bangunan
sakit
Bangunan
Bangunan
Rise

kantor
rumah

Koordinat Letak

sekolah
pertokoan

Milik

Luas

relationship is a regular relationship executed by


the relational database query system or a spatial
relationship and if it is not a standard operation then
the indicated operation which usually includes a
complex computation need to be written (using
Avenue Script/Macro Language).

Desain Konseptual
Metadata

is information about data: (i) describe the


characteristics of the data (entity and attributes) using its
standard name, and (ii) provide information on its accuracy
and its source and its archiving provision.

Important

functions of metadata: provide (i) a basic data


description of a data set; (ii) information for data transfer /
sharing; (iii) information for entries into clearinghouses to
catalogue the availability of data.

Metadata

should serve as: (i) a documentation and data


management tool; (ii) data definition, source
documentation, management and updating, data archiving
and retention requirement; (iii) information to support
database description for spatial data clearinghouses.

Desain Konseptual
An example of metadata
tables:
1. Organization
Information
Name of Organization
Department
Room/Suite#
Number & Street Name
City
State
ZipShel
Code
Phone
Number
f
Fax Number
Uppe
Contact Person
Plateau
r
or
ExtensionSlope
Number
Terrace
E-mail Address
Internet Address
Comments

2. Reference
Information
Filename
File Format
Availability
Cost
File Internet Address
Metadata Created By
Date Metada Created
Metadata Updated By
Date Metadata
Updated
Metadata Standard
Lowe
Deep
Name
Rise
Ocean
r
Comments
Slope

5. Attribute
Information
Data Object Name
Data Attribute Name
Attribute Description
Attribute Filename
Code Set Name
Code Set Description
Measurement units
Accuracy Description
Comments

Perencanaan DB
The

quality of information

Information is stored in a database;


Bad construction and data error will give Garbage
instead of Geographic Information System;
What kind of map projection will be used;
What scale is the data;
What is the coverage;
How much attribution should be included;
What is the attribute data format;
What is the data reliability;
How fast is it to be retrieved.

Perencanaan DB
Information

required for database design:

A complete list of data, properly defined


and checked for validity and consistency
(from the master data list, E-R data model,
and metadata entries);
A list of potential data source (maps,
aerial photos, tabular files, digital files)
cataloged and evaluated for accuracy and
completeness (from available data survey);
The list of functional capabilities
required from the GIS (from needs
assessment). Such as visualization, spatial
analysis, statistical analysis and modeling.

Perencanaan DB

Entities,
Attributes,
and Spatial
Object
Plateau
or
Terrace

Lowe
Deep
Rise
Ocean
r
Slope

Perencanaan DB
Plan

for data sharing

Benefits of data sharing include: (i) the


development of much larger database for
far less cost; (ii) the development of more
efficient interaction between public
agencies; and (iii) all agencies shared the
same up-to-date database / information.
Database maintenance requires two
efforts: ongoing user training (how to
maintain the database) and user support
(who will be responsible for updating which
data).

Perencanaan DB
Designing

the Database

Most of databases in GIS software


packages are based on the relational
database model;
Two choices of using data table: as
much data in one table or
small/compact data in one table;
How you will represent the data:
point, line, polygon, network, etc.

Konstruksi DB
Database

construction/conversion
is the process of building the
digital database from the source
data - maps and tabular files.

The

main emphasis is
management of the activity and
quality assurance / quality control
of the converted data.

Konstruksi DB
Data

Conversion

Manual digitizing using a digitizing tablet


and cursor tool (puck);
Scanning (converts lines and text into
series of pixels);
Raster to Vector Conversion (convert series
of pixels into series of (x,y) coordinates
points), this facility is usually provided by a
GIS software;
Hybrid solution (overlaying vector format
data with an image provides a powerful
graphic display tool;

Konstuksi DB

Map graphics represent all of the features (entities)


on a map as points, lines, areas, or pixels;

Tabular databases contain the attribute information


which describe the entities (building, parcel, etc.);

A common key (graphics data index) must be


established between the map graphics and the
tabular database records to create a link.
Graphics Data Index

Konstuksi DB
Raster

Data (pixels)
Raster GIS Data

Graphics Grid / Raster


1
2

1
2

Value Attribute Table


Cell Value Real World Entity
1

Lake

Wooded

Built-up

Konstuksi DB
Vector

GIS Data
Vector GIS Data

Vector GIS Polygon Layer

Polygon Attribute Table


Polygon
Numbet
1

Identity Attribute
Lake

Wooded

Built-up

Basis Data Relasional


Basis

Data relasional
menggunakan tabel dua
dimensi yang terdiri atas
baris dan kolom untuk
memberi gambaran sebuah
berkas data.

Basis Data Relasional


MHS
NPM

Nama

Alamat

10296832

Nurhayati

Jakarta

10296126

Astuti

Jakarta

31296500

Budi

Depok

41296525

Prananingrum

Bogor

50096487

Pipit

Bekasi

21196353

Quraish

Bogor

Basis Data Relasional


MKUL
KDMK

MTKULIAH

SKS

KK021

P. Basis Data

KD132

SIM

KU122

Pancasila

Basis Data Relasional


NILAI
NPM

KDMK

MID

FINAL

10296832

KK021

60

75

10296126

KD132

70

90

31296500

KK021

55

40

41296525

KU122

90

80

21196353

KU122

75

75

50095487

KD132

80

10296832

KD132

40

30

Basis Data Relasional


Keuntungan:

Bentuknya sederhana
Mudah melakukan berbagai operasi
data

Basis Data Relasional

Sumber:
Dinar D.A. Putranto,
Pendekatan Basisdata
Berorientasi Obyek
untuk
Manajemen Tata Ruang
Kota,
Disertasi Doktor, ITB,
2000.

Hybrid & Integrated


System
Pengertian

1: Struktur data vektor dan struktur data raster


dapat dipadukan pada suatu sistem, dengan melengkapi
fasilitas konversi vektor ke raster dan raster ke vektor. Selain
itu juga disediakan fungsi-fungsi untuk mengolah masingmasing struktur data

Pengertian

2: Data SIG terdiri dari dua bentuk data: yaitu data


grafis yang menyatakan entitas obyek dan data attribut. Data
grafis yang terdiri dari data koordinat dan data topologi
disimpan di berkas yang terpisah dari data atribut. Data
atribut ditangani oleh database management system.
Penggabungan kedua tipe data dilakukan melalui suatu kode
identifikasi, misal kode identifikasi poligon, garis atau titik. Hal
yang sama juga dapat dilakukan linkage antara grid-cell
modules dengan database management system.

Pengertian

3: Operasional SIG secara keseluruhan yang terdiri


dari SIG software, CAD software, Image Processing software,
GPS software, Open-Source components, DBMS system

Hybrid & Integrated


System

Hybrid & Integrated


System