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SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

Republic Act No. 9003

Republic Act No. 9003 or the Ecological


Solid Waste Management Act provides
the legal framework for the countrys
systematic, comprehensive and ecological
solid waste management program that shall
ensure protection of public health and the
environment.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

Republic Act No. 9003

It underscores, among other things, the need


to create the necessary institutional
mechanisms and incentives, as well as
imposes penalties for acts in violation of any
of its provisions.
The implementing rules and regulations of
R.A. No. 9003 are contained in DENR
Administrative Order No. 2001-34.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

What are the salient features of


R.A. No. 9003?
a. Creation of the National Solid Waste
Management Commission (NSWMC), the
National Ecology Center (NEC) and the
Solid Waste Management Board in every
province, city and municipality in the
country.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

What are the salient features of


R.A. No. 9003?
b. Formulation of the National Solid Waste
Management Framework; 10-year solid
management plans by local government
units consistent with the National Solid
Waste Management Framework;

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

What are the salient features of


R.A. No. 9003?
c. Mandatory segregation of solid waste to be
conducted primarily at the source such as
household, institutional, industrial,
commercial and agricultural sources;

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

What are the salient features of


R.A. No. 9003?
d. Setting of minimum requirements to ensure
systematic collection and transport of
wastes and the proper protection of the
health of garbage collectors;

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

What are the salient features of


R.A. No. 9003?
e. Establishment of reclamation programs and
buy-back centers for recyclable and toxic
materials;
f. Promotion of eco-labeling in local products
and services;
g. Prohibition on non-environmentally
acceptable products and packaging;

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

What are the salient features of


R.A. No. 9003?
h. Establishment of Materials Recovery Facility
in every barangay or cluster of barangays;
Prohibition against the use of open dumps;
j. Setting of guidelines/criteria for the
establishment of controlled dumps and
sanitary landfills;

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

What are the salient features of


R.A. No. 9003?
k. Provision of rewards, incentives both fiscal
and non-fiscal, financial assistance, grants
and the like to encourage LGUs and the
general public to undertake effective solid
waste management; and
l. Promotion of research on solid waste
management and environmental education
in the formal and non-formal sectors.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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SOLID WASTE SOURCES

Municipal Waste Sources


Industrial Waste Sources
Agricultural Waste Sources
Mineral Extraction Sources

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Sources And
Characteristics of
Municipal Solid Waste

Compare the 1994 solid waste stream with that of


1960.
Source: http://civil.engr.siu.edu/301I_Ray/

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Composition of Municipal
Solid Waste in 1990
Others
17%

Plastics
10%
Metals
8%
Glass
7%

Yard
19%
Food
8%

Paper
31%

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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TYPES OF MUNICIPAL
SOLID WASTE

Paper wastes
Yard wastes
Glass wastes
Metal wastes
Plastic wastes
Food wastes
Other
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL
SOLID WASTE

Similar to municipal solid wastes, plus


Varied specialized wastes

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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GENERATION RATE

Municipal solid waste

4 lb./person-day

ndustrial solid waste

5 lb./person-day

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Municipal Solid Waste


Disposal in the US from 1960
to 2000

Source: http://civil.engr.siu.edu/301I_Ray/
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Industrial Solid Waste

Source: http://civil.engr.siu.edu/301I_Ray/
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Source: http://civil.engr.siu.edu/301I_Ray/
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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RECYCLING

The recovery and reuse of products


that would otherwise be thrown away.
Recycling reduces landfilling

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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RECYCLING

Preliminary steps to create recycling


program
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

Accurate analysis of sources and content of the


solid waste stream.
Evaluation of existing recycling programs, which
must be integrated into new or expanded efforts.
Identification of public attitudes.
Finding markets for the potential recycled
materials.
Choosing the best options.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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RECYCLING

Drop-off Centers

Residents must separate and collect their


recyclables and then take them to a
collection location. This form of recycling
results in lower participation than curbside
collection.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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RECYCLING

Curbside Collection

Curbside collection frequently involves


special container.
Residents must separate their recyclables
and place them at curbside on collection day.
These may be color-coded for different
materials, or all materials may be placed in a
single recycle container, separated by
bagging.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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RECYCLING

Voluntary VS Mandatory Recycling

Voluntary programs will reduce the amount of


waste going to landfills, but not to the extent that
mandatory programs will.
Yard wastes -- 15% of total municipal solid waste.
Many states are prohibiting yard wastes from
landfills. Carbondale collects yard wastes
separately. Residents pay $0.75 per bag for
collection. After collection, grass and leaves are
composted. Limbs are ground for bedding material.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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COMPOSTING

The controlled aerobic partial


degradation of organic wastes.
It has the potential to greatly reduce
the yard waste problem.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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COLLECTION

Collection services
Collection vehicles vary from the trash
compactors used in many residential
areas, to larger trucks that collect and haul
only one large container from apartment
complexes or commercial establishments,
to vehicles fitted with multiple containers
for various recyclable items.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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COLLECTION

Routing there are many factors to


consider: avoiding rush hours traffic;
not travelling through the same area
twice, beginning and ending routes
near major streets; travelling downhill,
not uphill, during collection; and
minimizing left turns across traffic.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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SOLID WASTE
PROCESSING

Sorting can be done at the point of


generation, at a transfer station prior to
shipment to a landfill, or at the landfill.
Compaction to reduce the volume of the
collected wastes
Shredding reduce the size of the material to
be landfilled but not necessarily the volume.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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LANDFILLING

Landfilling is the placement of wastes


into the land under controlled
conditions to minimize their migration
or effect on the surrounding
environment.
Dumping is putting wastes onto or
into the ground illegally or legally in an
unregulated manner.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Landfill Regulations
1.

2.

3.

Prohibit the placement of a landfill facility


near an airport because of dangers from
scavenging birds.
Require the landfill to be located outside the
100-year floodplain, or that the design
protect against the washout of solid waste
during a major or catastrophic flood.
Prohibit the placement of a new landfill or
expansion of an existing landfill into or on a
wetland.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Landfill Regulations
4.

5.

6.

7.

Prohibit the placement of a landfill within 200


feet of an earthquake of an earthquake fault.
Prohibit the placement of a landfill in an area
with high probability of a strong earthquake.
Prohibit the placement of a landfill in an area
with unstable soil.
Require landfills that cannot meet the airport,
flood plain, or unstable-area requirements
above to close within 5 years. The state may
grant a maximum of a 2 year extension.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Operational
Requirements
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

Exclude hazardous waste.


Provide at least 6 inches of soil cover daily
over newly placed waste.
Control disease vectors such as rodents and
insects.
Monitor methane concentrations in the landfill
and associated buildings. (Methane is
explosive when combined with oxygen in air).
Eliminate most open burning.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Operational
Requirements
Control public access.
7. Construct run-on and run-off controls
for water.
8. Meet water quality discharge
requirements for surface water.
9. Prohibit all liquid wastes except small
quantities of household liquid wastes.
10.Maintain records indicating compliance.
6.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Landfill Types

Trench Method In
this approach, a long
trench is initially dug
to a depth and width
sufficient to contain
the anticipated
volume of wastes for
some period,
typically moths or
years.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Landfill Types

Ravine or
Depression Method
This approach,
which utilizes natural
contours of the land,
can also make good
use of abandoned
surface mines and
quarries.

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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Landfill Types

Bale Disposal
Rather than disposing
of loose solid waste
from collection or
transport vehicles,
some landfills accept
baled waste, which is
much more dense.
http://www.pro.corbis.com

Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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INCINERATION

Incineration is the controlled combustion of


materials.

Older incinerators had poor combustion and no air


pollution controls. These incinerators caused a great
deal of pollution. The newer Clean Air Act
requirements have resulted in these older
incinerators being either closed or improved to meet
the standards.
Newer incinerators have much better combustion
and have air pollution controls.

The result is a drastic reduction in the amount of material


landfilled.
The ash and air pollution control sludges must still be landfilled.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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INCINERATION

Most newer incinerators and many older


ones used the heat from the incineration
process to produce electric power.
The northeast US incinerates over 50% of
their solid wastes. Most other regions
incinerate about 5 to 10%.
Because we are rapidly running out of land
to use for landfilling, incineration will
become much more desirable in the future.
Engr. Yvonne Ligaya F. Musico

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