Concepts in Australian Standard

1684 “Residential Timber
Framed Construction”
What’s in this presentation:
 Overview
 What’s in AS1684
 Design flow chart
 Appreciation of loads
 Responsive measures to loads on buildings
 Choosing framing members to resist loads
 Using span tables (an example)
 Bracing
 Tie Down

AS1684 is the main document used in the housing industry to design
and construct timber floor, wall and roof framing
Most building specifications call it up as a mandatory compliance
AS1684 comes in 4 volumes to suit different users

Part 1 - Design criteria (principally for structural engineers)

Part 2 – Non-cyclonic areas (framing solutions for
non-cyclonic wind areas)

Part 3 – Cyclonic areas (framing solutions for cyclonic wind areas)
Part 4 – Simplified – non-cyclonic areas (oriented towards simple
situations and novice users)

What’s in AS1684
Definitions of framing members
Spanning concepts (e.g. simple spans, continuous spans, rafter spans)
Geometric limits to building sizes handled under the standard
Wind load limits (e.g. cyclonic, non-cyclonic)
Dead load limits (e.g. loads on floor, wall and roof structures)
Details on floor, wall and roof framing systems
Bracing requirements
Fixing and tie-down requirements
The above helps the user choose the right timber member and framing
system using span tables and tables for fixings and bracing

and modify framing layout if required Establish basic frame layout and method of constructing floor. cantilevers and offsets Determine individual member sizes Responsive measures Design bracing system Design tie down and other connection requirements .Process for designing timber framing Appreciation of loads including dead. wall and roof frame including load paths. live and wind loads Design wind classification Consider preliminary location and extent of bracing and tie-down systems.

Loads on Residential Buildings AS1684 deals with three generic types of loads on buildings :  Gravity Dead Loads  Gravity Live Loads  Wind loads More than one type of load can be acting on a building at the same time Span tables in AS1684 make sure appropriate timber members are chosen to resist the loads Click on the picture to see a video .

roof tiles.g.g.Appreciation of Dead Loads Dead Loads are the forces arising from the weight of the building components e.:   A tiled roof with battens. roof framing and ceiling materials DEAD LOAD (structure) These are felt by the structure all of the time but vary according to construction type e. a plasterboard ceiling and insulation is approximately 75 kg/m2 A sheet metal roof with softwood ceiling and insulation is only 20 kg/m2 Dead loads impact during construction and during the serviceable life of the building DEAD LOAD (structure) .

furniture etc.) .Appreciation of Live Loads Live Loads are the forces arising from the weight of people using the building plus moveable equipment and furniture. These loads are felt some of the time by the structure according to usage Live loads impact on the building during construction and during its serviceable life LIVE LOADS (people.

wind loads create the most critical loads on houses Wind loads can create downward pressure on the structure. or suction that lifts upwards As wind speed increases so does wind load – this load is spread over the area of the building exposed to the wind For the purpose of design. these loads are resolved into:   horizontal loads on walls and roofs Vertical uplift or downward loads on ceilings and roofs .Appreciation of Wind Loads In general terms.

Horizontal Wind Loads Cause Racking Forces Racking causes distortion to the shape of the building Bracing requirements specified in AS1684 are used to resist racking forces R a c k in g ( w a lls d e fo r m ) .

Fixings must be strong enough to resist these forces S lid in g ( t e n d e n c y t o s lid e ) .Horizontal Wind Loads Cause Shear Forces Horizontal wind loads can cause a shear action at floor levels.

When it gains access to the interior it can cause an uplift At roof level there is not much dead load to counterbalance uplift – therefore the net uplift/rotation is high so tie down is required Light sheet metal roofs are prone to this problem but the effect is less of an issue for heavy tiled roofs Tie down fixings are important to stop this effect Uplift (connection failure) At the base there is considerably more dead load .net uplift is reduced so the need for tie down is reduced .Vertical Wind Loads Cause Uplift Forces When wind passes over a roof it can cause a suction.

Vertical and Horizontal Wind Loads Cause Rotation Forces Rotation forces are a concern because they can effect entire storeys in strong winds As with uplift forces. tie down fixings are used to resist such forces O v e r t u r n in g ( r o t a t io n ) .

Determining Wind Loads Wind loads can be determined using Australian Standard AS1170. shielding and terrain type . the basic speeds are adjusted for factors such as height. AS4055 This determines which volume of AS1684 is to be used for selecting framing members (cyclonic/non-cyclonic) In using the wind load standards. buildings in protected areas will be subject to less wind load than those on exposed sites To calculate the wind load that the building is likely to feel.2 or a simplified version for housing.

Other Loads Other types of loads that may affect buildings include:   Earthquake loads Snow loads (a heavier than usual live load) Snow loads have been determined as not being critical in the design of domestic structures under AS1684 (specific applications may require special consideration) Similarly. earthquake is also considered not critical .

Responsive Measures to Loads on Buildings There are three basic responses to resisting the previous loads:  Choosing framing members to resist loads  Bracing requirements  Tie down requirements Each is discussed (as follows) .

Choosing Framing Members to Resist Loads As a general rule it is necessary to increase the timber member size when:    Click to see a video Load increases (a function of dead. live.g. cantilevers and offsets) It is possible to decrease timber member size when:  Sharing loads across many members  Using members with higher stress grades AS1684 puts the above factors into practice using span tables to select the right size members Indirect Load path due to cantilever . wind loads) Span increases (a function of load paths across openings) Indirect load paths occur (e.

extra 4.g. a 4.g.0m .this is taken into account when selecting members from span tables Single span elements only run between two points e.0m 4.0m 4.0m distance but then go onto one or more extra spans e.they span the same 4.0m span means a 4.Spanning Situations Before using span tables in AS1684 it is important to understand the difference between single and continuous span elements .0m spans 4.0m beam is used Continuous span elements are longer .

forces some of the second span in the opposite direction e.0m .0m Applied load 4.0m Assisting upward curvature 4. as shown by the upward effect below This means the continuous span element doesn’t need to be quite as big as the single span element Applied load 4. the continuous span element has an advantage over the single span element – a load on one span.g.From a structural point of view.

Load Bearing Versus Non-Load Bearing Walls Another issue influencing the use of span tables in AS1684 is the difference between the terms “Load bearing” and “Non-load bearing” walls   Load bearing refers to a wall that supports roof or floor loads. or both Non-load bearing refers to walls that don’t support the above loads but may support ceiling loads and be used as bracing walls Click above to see a video .

rafters for a cathedral roof Step 1: Determine the wind classification to factor in wind loads – for the example assume noncyclonic winds (N1 or N2) Step 2: Determine dead/live loads on rafters – for the example assume loads are as for a tiled roof with battens e.Using AS1684 Span Tables to Choose Member Sizes – an example Ridge beam Ra fte rs pa n g an erh Ov Scenario . 60kgs/m2 Step 3: Determine the rafter span – for the example assume a 2100mm single rafter span Rafter Spacings Step 4: Determine the rafter overhang which creates a cantilever span adding extra load – for the example assume a 500mm overhang Step 5: Determine the rafter spacing as this determines how much roof loads are shared between rafters – for the example assume a 600mm spacing .g.

Step 6 Look up Volume 2 of AS1684 (i. softwood/hardwood – in this example assume MGP10 seasoned softwood Step 8 Determine which column in the table to select using the previous “rafter spacing” and “single span” assumptions Step 9 Go down the column until reaching the assumed rafter span and overhang – 2100 and 500mm Step 10 Check the spans work with the assumed roof load of 60kgs/m2 Step 11 Read off the rafter size – 90x45mm .e. non-cyclonic winds N1 & N2) and go to the rafter span tables Step 7 Choose a table reflecting your preferred stress grade plus needs such as seasoned/unseasoned.

wall and roof frames. loads are transferred to transverse walls (braced accordingly).A Snapshot of What Bracing does After choosing member sizes to make up floor. bracing is required to stabilises the three dimensional structure. Bracing for each of these elements is linked so forces can be transferred down the structure to the ground Wind loads on the roof are resisted by roof bracing and are transferred to the ceiling which provides horizontal resistance c ra B e Wind loads on the walls are resisted by the walls themselves and of note. Loads are also transferred to the ceiling and/or floor structure Wind forces in the ceiling are 'transferred to the floor via bracing in the transverse walls .

Types of Bracing There are three generic types of bracing:   Gable end bracing Sheet bracing .typically strap metal or solid timber lengths One directional bracing – typically metal angle or timber lengths Some types of bracing provide more resistance to racking forces than others. Cross or sheet bracing  Cross or sheet bracing Subfloor cross-bracing.typically plywood. cantilevered stumps or bracing wall Wind Examples of Bracing Click on the picture to see a video . hardboard or other sheet products Cross bracing .

Bracing Addresses the Problem of Plane Distortion Roof. wall and floor planes try to distort as a result of wind and other forces – causing rectangular shapes to become parallelograms .

act to stop distortion – the diagrams show this using strap cross bracing which works in tension If the braces are only fixed at the ends. .The various types of bracing mentioned earlier. the mid regions can still move sideways If the bracing is fixed to every element it crosses (as shown in the lower figure) the forces arising can be transferred to the supporting structure and the whole assembly can be kept square.

Typical Bracing Procedure Determine the wind classification (detailed calculations are required for the calculation of wind pressure on the building) Determine the area of elevation affected (detailed calculations also required for the calculation of racking forces) Design the bracing system (choose the type of bracing and sufficient units to match racking forces) Check for even distribution and spacing of bracing Check the consistency of bracing connections between roof/ceiling/wall/floor/subfloor .

uplift and horizontal forces Generic types of fixing include:  Nails  Straps  Bolts  Screws  Coach screws  Framing anchors  Steel washers may assist the above .Fixing and Tie Down All fixings at joints must be able to resist gravity.

spans and loading scenarios Wind speed is a particularly important in dictating fixing and tie down requirements Rules and selection tables are in AS1684 Click on the picture to see a video .Fixing and Tie Down Requirements The size and spacing of connectors varies to suit different joints.

Common Fixing and Tie Down Scenarios Common joints requiring specific attention to tie down include:  Battens to rafters (or trusses)  Rafters (or trusses) to top plates  Top plates to studs  Studs to bottom plates  Bottom plates to floor structures .

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