Anda di halaman 1dari 48

GMO

Genetically Modified Organisms

Protein adalah
bahan kimia super-kompleks
dimana perbedaan muatan
listrik sedikit saja, atau
perubahan pH,
bisa memutar
posisi atom C atau H
sehingga jadilah
bahan yang lain
sama sekali

The Genome Project


|
The Human Genome Project
=
Pemetaan Gene Manusia

Perjalanan Ilmiah
1. To observe

ada chromosome x dan y


ada sifat yang sex-linked
ada protein DNA yang salah urut

2. To describe

urutan abnormal pada rantai X-241....


menyebabkan (misalnya) phenylketonuria

Perjalanan Ilmiah
3. To understand

kejadian phenylketonuria tidak ada pada ras


yang chromosome P-23xx nya lengkap

4. To predict

genetic mapping pada fetus, kehamilan


diteruskan atau abortus

5. To control

merubah DNA agar tercipta mahluk sempurna

Tujuan semula
Kasihan pada pasien penyakit sukar
Hemofilia, Sickle Cell Disease, Multiple Sclerosis,
Leukemia dll
Diabetes 10% populasi = milyaran pasien yang
menderita

Produksi makanan yang kurang


banyak orang Afrika mati kelaparan

Wabah penyakit virus ganas, parasit, vektor yang


sukar diberantas

Memproduksi mahluk baru


sesuai pesanan
Penemuan DNA dan gene
Deskripsi peran masing-masing gene
Genetic engineering
Manipulasi dan intervensi pemotongan
dan penggantian gene dan DNA
Menciptakan mahluk baru

Cloning

Apa salahnya
menciptakan mahluk baru ?

The question
Apakah mahluk ciptaan manusia ini persis
membawa sifat yang kita rencanakan ?
Apakah mahluk ini tidak membawa sifat
yang tidak kita rencanakan ?
Apakah mahluk ini tidak melahirkan sifat
dahsyat akibat interaksinya dengan alam
sekitar / mahluk lain yang sudah ada ?

The answer

We dont know
For Gods sake we dont know
But it is promising financially
91% GMO di dunia buatan Monsanto, USA
Bibitnya tidak dapat disemaikan ulang
Seluruh dunia tergantung pada beli bibit dari
USA dan tergantung planning tanam negara adi
kuasa

Creatures great and small


Thousands of different GM mice have been created, to
"model" human diseases
Sheep, cows, mice, pigs, rabbits and cats cloned
Dumber farm animals less sensitive to stress and pain
making easier for farmers to handle.
GM chickens whose eggs contain medicines,
Spider goats to produce spider's web in their milk,
make body armour.

to

Killer moths created to pass deadly gene to their wild


offspring, which feed on cotton plants.

Murphys law:

If anything can go wrong, it will go wrong

Biopharming : genetic tinkering can turn an ordinarylooking corn field into a potential drug factory, producing
insulin, chemotherapy drugs, and other products cheaper
than it costs to set up factory plant

Ini padi.
Tetapi apakah padi ini
hanya menghasilkan
beras ?
Atau antibiotika dalam
skala raksasa ?

Ini jagung.
Apakah cuma jadi
makanan sapi ?
Atau menghasilkan racun
yang akan membuat
ganas E.coli dalam usus
orang yang memakannya ?

Ke jagung
lain

Ke rumput
& gumma

Ke hewan
pemakan
Gene transfer

Monsanto and Ciba-Geigy produce herbicides


Monsanto and Ciba-Geigy modify genes that make
RR soybeans and Max corn resistant to herbicides
they produced
Those genes could transfer to weeds, making those
weeds resistant to herbicides.
Such resistance has already been observed in Denmark, where
rapeseed, a native European plant used to make vegetable oil,
was genetically altered to resist a pesticide. That resistance
then jumped from the rapeseed plant to neighboring weeds

Genes can destroy native plants permanently

GM genes found in human gut


John Vidal, The Guardian July 17, 2002

British scientific researchers in Newcastle University


have demonstrated that genetically modified DNA
material from crops is finding its way into human gut
bacteria, raising potentially serious health questions.
People's resistance to widely used antibiotics could be
compromised.

GM genes found in human gut


Seven human volunteers had their lower intestine
removed in the past and now use colostomy bags.
After being fed a meal of a burger containing GM
soya and a milkshake, the researchers compared
their stools with 12 people with normal stomachs.
"a relatively large proportion of genetically modified
DNA survived the passage through the small bowel".

GM DNA might be transferred via bacteria to the


intestine
Cultivated bacteria from stools in the colostomy bags
showed in three of the seven samples that it had taken
up the herbicide-resistant gene from the GM food at a
very low level.
Michael Antonio, a senior lecturer in molecular genetics
at King's College Medical School, London, said "To my
knowledge they have demonstrated clearly that you
can get GM plant DNA in the gut bacteria

European scientists are worried about a


bacterium gene in Ciba-Geigy's corn that
conveys resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin.
The gene could be passed to the cattle who
eat the corn then spread to people who eat
the cattle.
Both animals and humans would then
become resistant to ampicillin

Monsanto
Artificial bovine growth hormone (rBGH) 1994 :
the drug increased milk production
but the resultant health problems in cattle outweighed the
benefits from the extra milk produced. Sales drop 55% in 2
years.

Flavr Savr tomato is genetically engineered to taste like a


homegrown tomato yet be sturdy enough to ship across
country.
Bollgard, genetically engineered cotton, produce a natural
pesticide to three insects that eat cotton.
Bollgard failed to perform as expected during a heavy
bollworm infestation. Monsanto began telling farmers that
spraying might be necessary to save their crops.

Monsanto, Abbott dll


In theory, Bollgard cotton works because it has been
genetically engineered to contain genes from the
bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which is harmless
to humans but in high enough doses kills insects.
The long-term implications are frightening. Bt, a natural
substance. Making this natural pesticide an integral part
of cotton and soybeans and corn, will hasten the
evolution of Bt-resistant insects.
Abbott Laboratories marketed DiPel insecticide, a blend
of five or more toxins as the solution for growers who
planted Monsanto's Bollgard.

Monsanto, Ciba-Geigy
Ciba-Geigy has similar plans for Maximizer, a corn
hybrid loaded with three altered genes. Like
Monsanto's cotton, Ciba-Geigy's corn contains a Bt
gene that makes the corn toxic to pests, in this case
the corn-borer larvae.
Like Roundup Ready, Maximizer is also built to resist
one of Ciba- Geigy's herbicides, glufosinate

Bagaimana jika gene ini masuk


ke sel manusia dan masuk ke
DNA nya ?
Pada orang sakit berat dengan terapi
recombinant products ?
Pada bayi dan anak tumbuh kembang
dengan diet susu atau
makanan tambahan Genetic Modified ?

10 processed foods that will soon contain


Roundup Ready soybeans and Maximizer corn

Coca-Cola,
Fritos corn chips,
Kraft salad dressings,
Similac infant formula
McDonald's french fries.

Mutasi yang sejauh ini kita kenal


Cystic fibrosis
80% memiliki orang tua sehat

Hemofilia
30% memiliki orang tua sehat
1 - 8 / 10,000 penduduk

Multiple Sclerosis ?
Schizophrenia ?

Beranikah negara kita menolak GMO / GMF ?

sheep milk
contains medicine

Cloning
|
penggandaan mahluk hidup
tanpa reproduksi seksual

Apakah ini bisa berhasil ?

Pigs farming for organs (xeno-transplant)

Skenario B
Bagaimana jika hewan clone mati kena
penyakit baru ?
Bagaimana jika hewan clone menyebarkan
penyakit baru ?
Bagaimana jika rekayasa genetika membuat
perang kuman dan virus baru ?

Kronologi wabah besar di dunia

1600-1700 : wabah pes, jutaan mati


1950 : wabah polio dan flu, ribuan mati
1985 - : wabah HIV, jutaan mati
1995 - : wabah CJE, puluhan mati
1998 - : Ebola, meningitis dll
2002 - SARS, ratusan mati

Recombinant technology
E coli dibuat agar memproduksi
erythropoeitin, insulin, growth hormones
Adenovirus dimuati gene agar merubah selsel mucosa pasien cystic fibrosis berhenti
hipersekresi
Rotavirus dimuati gene agar merubah sel
mucosa usus berhenti jadi colitis ulcerosa

Adults and children estimated to be living


with HIV/AIDS as of end 1998
Eastern Europe
Western Europe & Central Asia

270 000
500
000
East Asia & Pacific
890 000
North Africa
560 000
Caribbean
& Middle East South
Asia
330 000
210 000 & South-East
6.7 million

North America

Latin America

1.4
million

99000-E-1 15 December 1998

sub-Saharan
Africa

22.5
million

Australia
& New
Zealand

12 000

Total: 33.4 million


2001: 36.1 million

Proportional increase in country


HIV prevalence rates between 1994 and 1997

Over 100% (27)


10% to 100%
0.01% to 10%
No growth
No 1997 data

(47)
(18)
(44)
(36)

98036-E-15 15 July 1998

Apakah HIV bukan strain virus


rekayasa kita yang keluar jalur ?
Experimental biology
gone beserk ?

Are we all doomed?


Can our planet survive?
Nuclear terrorism
Engineered viruses
Rogue machines ?
Technology is throwing up all kinds of new
apocalyptic threats.
Astronomer Royal, Sir Martin Rees, 30 April 2003

Apakah SARS bukan


strain virus rekayasa kita
yang keluar jalur ?

The answer
We dont know

Dan (Syuaib) berkata :


Hai kaumku, cukupkanlah sukatan dan
timbangan dengan adil
dan janganlah kamu kurangi
sedikitpun
hak-hak manusia,
dan janganlah
kamu
berbuat
bencana di muka bumi
sebagai
orang-orang perusak.
(Surat Huud : 85)