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ARTIFICIAL

RESPIRATION

Sudden stoppage of
breathing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
.

Drowning
Electrocution
Anaesthetic accident
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Strangulation and
Accidents
Other condition : poliomyelitis.
Diphtheria etc

Brain irreversible damage lack of o2 for 5min


Methods of artificial respiration:

Mouth- to mouth
breathing method :
Applied quickly without waiting for availability
of any aid
Simple and effective
Applied for all age groups
It expands lungs
Produce adequate ventilation

Procedure

Performed swiftly and alertly


Patient should be in supine position
Clear the airway ( grass, straw)
Extend the neck by placing the hand
under the chin, other hand should
be on fore head
Nostrils should be closed
Resuscitator takes deep breath
exhales air into the patients mouth
Procedure repeated : 12- 16times/

Mouth- to mouth breathing method

MECHANICAL METHODS
1.
2.

TANK RESPIRATORS
VENTILATORS

TANK RESPIRATORS

Made up of iron or steel : various types


Drinker method : commonly used
the patient kept inside the tank by
placing the head outside
Alternative pressure breathing machines
periodic inflation & deflation of lungs

TANK RESPIRATOR

ventilators
Air or oxygen is pumped into the
lungs with pressure intermittently
Inflation occurs when air is
introduced into the lungs
Expiration occurs by elastic recoil
of chest and lungs
Two types ;
1. Volume ventilators
2. Pressure ventilators

VENTILATORS

Cardiopulmonary
resuscitation
Need when heart & respiration stops
ABC resuscitation
A Airway care tilt the neck
B- breathing by artificial respiration
C Cardiac massage carotid pulse is
absent
Sternum should be depressed 4-5cmat
a rate of 80 90times/min
One ventilation to 5 chest
compression

PULMONARY FUNCTION
TESTS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Diagnosis
progress of disease
Severity of disease
Assess the respiratory
status before surgery,
strenuous physical exercise,
flying at high altitude, etc

CLSSIFICATION
VENTILATORY FUNCTION TESTS
TESTS OF DIFFUSION &
TESTS OF ULTIMATE PURPOSE OF
RESPIRATION

VENTILATORY FUNCTION TESTS

To test assessment of the


expansion of lungs & chest
wall
Assessment of restrictive &
obstructive ventilatory
defects

Measurement of various lung


volumes & capacities

Most of the lung functions volumes &


capacities except residual
volumes,functional residual capacity &
total lung capacities spirometry

Spirometry
Simple spirometer : made
of metal
Parts : outer chamber
Floating drum
Inner chamber
kymograph

spirometer

Student spirometer

MEASUREMENT OF DEAD SPACE

Single breath oxygen


technique :
Nitrogen content in the
expired air is used as a
indicator

MEASUREMENT OF DEAD SPACE

MEASUREMENT OF COMPLIANCE

Distensebility of lungs &


chest wall
Reduced restrictive

MEASUREMENT OF AIRWAY
RESISTANCE

Friction of gas molecules


b/w themselves & walls
the airways
Increased in obstructive
disorders

Tests of diffusion
Transfer of gases from the
alveoli to the capillary blood
Depends on ventilation
perfusion balance , capillary
blood volume ,Hb conc of the
blood,etc

Tests of ultimate purpose of


respiration

Oxygen supply to tissues &


removal carbon dioxide from
tissues
Arterial pO2 85- 105mmHg
-NORMAL
Decrease pO2
alveolar
hypoventilation ,diffusion
defect, decreased ventilation

Arterial pCO2 & Ph :


normal 40mmHg-7.4
Determined by the
alveolar ventilation

NON RESPIRATORY FUNCTIONS


1.

2.

3.

DEFENCE MECHANISM :
immunoglobulin A
SECRETION IN BROCHIAL
SECRETION protects respi
infections
PUMONARY ALVEOLAR
MACROPHAGES : phagocytic
cells bacteria & small particles
COUGH REFLEX : laryngeal
,tracheal & bronchial mucous