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# Power quality phenomenon

# Reasons of power quality


# Effect of power quality
# Terms and Definitions of power quality

1. Introduction

What is Power Quality ?


Quality of electrical service
Utility, Equipment supplier/Manufacturer,
Consumer
Power Quality problem:
Any power problems manifested in voltage,
current, or frequency deviations which results
in failure or misoperation of customer
equipment
1. Introduction

Reasons for Power Quality


1. New-Generation Load Equipment
Microprocessors for Control
Power Electronic Devices
2. Power System Efficiency
Adjustable-Speed Generator/Motor Drive
Shunt Capacitors
3. Sensitive Utility Customers
process controls
computer power supplies
electronics of all sorts
4. Interconnected Network Issues
1. Introduction

Complicating factors include:


Utility deregulation
utility may not be a single entity and problems may
arise at any level
Distributed generation
- Fuel Cells, Wind power, Photovoltaic power, etc.
complicates distribution feeder protection and control
may create power quality issues if not designed well
Resonance
unexpected resonances may occur, tending to
exacerbate problems

1. Introduction

Causes of Power Quality Problems

Results of a survey on the causes of


power quality problems by Georgia
Power Company
1. Introduction

Causes of Power Quality Problems

1. Introduction

Causes of Power Quality Problems

1. Introduction

Reasons for power quality


problems include:
Switched shunt capacitors
utility power-factor correction
customer power-factor correction

Power system response to faults


reclosing circuit breakers into faults
system disturbances of all sorts
1. Introduction

power = voltage x current


p(t) v(t) i(t)
The problem may have several aspects:
1. What is the quality of the voltage
supplied to the customer by the utility?
2. What is the quality of the current
drawn by the customer?
3. A second customer may see poor
quality voltage caused by the utility or
by the first customer or both
1. Introduction

Power or Voltage Quality?


Power=Voltage*Current
Real Power
Reactive Power

Voltage ?
Current ?
Short Circuit
Lightning
Harmonic Currents
1. Introduction

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Impacts of Disturbances
Economic impacts on utility,
customers, equipment supplier
Equipment damage
Loss of data
Manufacturing disruption
Loss of productivity
1. Introduction

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How to evaluate PQ problems?

1. Introduction

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Terms and Definitions

2. Terms and definitions

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IEEE Power Quality Standards


IEEE SCC-22: Power Quality Standards
Coordinating Committee
IEEE 1159: Monitoring Electric Power Quality
IEEE P1564: Voltage Sag Indices
IEEE 1346:Power System Compatibility with
Process Equipment
IEEE P1100: Power and Grounding Electronic
Equipment (Emerald Book)
IEEE 1433: Power Quality Definitions
IEEE P1453: Voltage flicker
IEEE 519: Harmonic Control in Electrical Power
Systems
2. Terms and definitions

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IEEE Power Quality Standards


IEEE Harmonics Working Group
Single-phase Harmonics Task Force
IEEE P519A Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on
Power Systems
Interharmonics Task Force
Harmonics Modeling and Simulation Task Force
Probabilistic Aspects of Harmonics Task Force

IEEE P446: Emergency and standby power


IEEE P1409: Distribution Custom Power
IEEE P1547: Distributed Resources and Electric
Power Systems Interconnection
2. Terms and definitions

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IEC Power Quality Standards


IEC/TR3 61000-2-1 Electromagnetic Compatibility
Environment
IEC/TR3 61000-3-6 Electromagnetic Compatibility
Limits
IEC 61000-4-7 Electromagnetic Compatibility
Testing and Measurement Techniques
General Guides on Harmonics and Interharmonics
Measurements and Instrumentation
IEC 61642 Industrial a.c. Networks Affected by
Harmonics
Application of Filters and Shunt Capacitors
IEC SC77A Low Frequency EMC Phenomena
2. Terms and definitions

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IEC Power Quality Standards


IEC TC77/WG1 Terminology
IEC SC77A/WG1 Harmonics and Other Low Frequency
Disturbances
IEC SC77A/WG6 Low Frequency Immunity Tests
IEC SC77A/WG2 Voltage Fluctuations and Other Low
Frequency Disturbances
IEC SC77A/WG8 Electromagnetic Interference Related
to the Network Frequency
IEC SC77A/WG9 Power Quality Measurement Methods

2. Terms and definitions

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Categories
1. Transient: impulsive, oscillatory
2. Short Duration Variations: sag, swell,
interruption
3. Long Duration Variations: interruption,
undervoltage, overvoltage
4. Voltage Unbalance
5. Waveform Distortion: harmonics,
interharmonics, DC offset, notching, noise
6. Voltage Fluctuations
7. Frequency Variations
2. Terms and definitions

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Power Systems Electromagnetic Phenomena


(IEEE Std 1159-1995)

2. Terms and definitions

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Power Systems Electromagnetic Phenomena


(IEEE Std 1159-1995)

2. Terms and definitions

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Power Systems Electromagnetic Phenomena as Classified


by the IEC

2. Terms and definitions

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Power Quality Definitions


Power quality is the concept of powering
and grounding sensitive equipment in a
matter that it is suitable for the operation
of that equipment (IEEE 1100).
Ability of an equipment or system to
function satisfactorily in its
electromagnetic environment without
introducing intolerable electromagnetic
disturbance to anything in that
environment (IEC 61000-1-1)
2. Terms and definitions

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Classification of voltage magnitude

2. Terms and definitions

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Classification of voltage magnitude


IEEE 1159-1995

2. Terms and definitions

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Classification of voltage magnitude


IEC EN 50160.

2. Terms and definitions

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