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PENGGUNAAN MIKE 21

Untuk Simulasi Arus dan


Gelombang
Muhammad Imran Haerik

Jenis Grid dalam MIKE 21


Untuk menggambarkan permukaan
dasar dari laut MIKE menggunakan 2
metode yaitu : Grid Teratur dan
Triangular Unstructurred Mesh /
Flaksibel Mash.

Pembuatan Grid Teratur


Mendefiniskan atau menggambarkan area model yang akan
disimulasikan sehingga mencakup wilayah geografis yang semua
data spasial yang relevan.

Menggambarkan Area Model

Menentukan ukuran Grid

Import File Kedalaman laut


dan garis pantai

Tampilan Grid teratur

Fleksibel Mash
Masukkan Kordinat System

Import Boundary untuk


memasukkan data garis
pantai

Untuk Boundary/Garis pantai


pilih X,Y connactifity dan
dalam satu arc

Masukkan data Bathymetri


di manager scatter Data

Buat Boundary untuk batasan


laut,

Atur Jenis Boundary untuk batasan


laut Arc Atribute 2 untuk batasan
darat Arc Atribute 1

Pembentukan Triangular dan


interpolasi
Membuat Trangulasi,

Menginterpolasi kedalaman
bathimetry

High Tides
Export Mash

Hasil Mash menggunakan


Flaksibel Mash

Time seris untuk pasut dan


kec angin
Masuk menu dan pilih Time Seris di
Mike Zero, Pilih Blank Time Seris
untuk memasukkan data yang
diinginkan

Pilih jenis Data yang ingin


dimasukkan dan atur waktu
mulai dan interval waktunya

Masukkan data dikolom sebelah


kiri, maka grafiknya akan
muncul di chart sebelah kanan

Modul Flow Model FM (khusus


untuk flaksibel mash

Input data flaksibel mash dari


hasil export dengan format
.mdf

Atur waktu simulasi. Waktu mulai


dan interval waktunya

Pilih Modul tambahan yang


diinginkan

Pilih Jenis Perhitungan Komputasi


yang dininginkan, disesuaikan
dengan kemampuan komputer

Pilihan untuk koreksi kedalaman


laut

Pilihan untuk pengaturan luapan


dan kekeringan air

Pilihan untuk koreksi kedalaman


laut

Pilihan untuk pengaturan luapan


dan kekeringan air

The Tidal Constituents


Tidal Species

Name

Semidiurnal

n1 = 2

n1

n2

n3

n4

n5

Equilibrium Amplitude*
(m)

Period
(hr)

Principal lunar

M2

0.242334

12.4206

Principal solar

S2

-2

0.112841

12.0000

Lunar elliptic

N2

-1

0.046398

12.6584

Lunisolar

K2

0.030704

11.9673

Diurnal

n1 =1

Lunisolar

K1

0.141565

23.9344

Principal lunar

O1

-1

0.100514

25.8194

Principal solar

P1

-2

0.046843

24.0659

>Q1

-2

0.019256

26.8684

Elliptic lunar
Long Period

n1 = 0

Fortnightly

Mf

0.041742

327.85

Monthly

Mm

-1

0.022026

661.31

Semiannual

Ssa

0.019446

4383.05

Constituent Splitting

Doodson's expansion:399 constituents,


100 are long period, 160 are daily, 115 are twice per day,
and 14 are thrice per day. Most have very small amplitudes.
Sir George Darwin named the largest tides.

How to Obtain Constituents


Fourier (Spectral) Analysis
Harmonic Analysis

Fourier Analysis In the


beginning

1742 dAlembert solved wave equation


1749 Leonhard Euler plucked string
1753 Daniel Bernoulli solutions are

superpositions of harmonics
1807 - Joseph Fourier solved heat equation
Problems lead to modern analysis!

k x
k ct
y ( x, t ) ak sin
cos
L
L
k 1

k x
y ( x, 0) ak sin
L
k 1

Adding Sine Waves

Spectral Theory
Fourier Series
Sum of Sinusoidal Functions

Fourier Analysis
Spectrum Analysis
Harmonic Analysis

Fourier Series
Fourier Series
Eigenfunctions:

n x

L 2 c ( x n) cos

Function:

f ( x) sin ( x) 2 cos ( 2x)

Fourier Coefficients:

N 8

n x

s ( x n) sin

n 1 N
L

1
b ( n)
f ( x) s ( x n) dx
L L

x 0 .1 L
L

1
a0

f ( x) dx
2L L

1
a ( n)
f ( x) c ( x n) dx
L L
L

Reconstruction
FFourier
( x) Expansion:
a 0 ( a ( n) c ( x n) b ( n) s ( x n) )
n

Power Spectrum
2

a ( n)

b( n)

a ( n) b( n)

0
1

Comparison
between
f(x) and F(x)

3
f ( x)
F ( x)
3

Analog Signals
Analog Signals

Continuous in time and frequency


Infinite time and frequency domains
Described by Fourier Transform

Real Signals

Sampled at discrete times


Finite length records
Leads to discrete frequencies on finite
interval
Described by Discrete Fourier Transform

Analog to Discrete

DFT Discrete Fourier


Transform
Sampled Signal:
M
1
f (tn ) A0 [ Ap cos( p t ) B p sin( pt )],
2
p 1
2
p 2 f p
p.

tn nt ,

T
t ,
N

and

2 pn
pt
.
T

DFT Discrete Fourier


Transform
2
Ap
N

y(tn ) cos(
n 1

2
Bp
N

n 1

y (t n ) sin(

2 pn
N
2pn
N

), p 1,K N 1
2

), p 1,2, N 1
2

1
A0
y (t n ),
N n 1
B0 B N 0

AN

y(t
n 1

) cos(n ),

Matlab Implementation
y=[7.6 7.4 8.2 9.2 10.2 11.5 12.4 13.4 13.7 11.8 10.1 ...
9.0 8.9 9.5 10.6 11.4 12.9 12.7 13.9 14.2 13.5 11.4 10.9 8.1];
N=length(y);
% Compute the matrices of trigonometric functions
p=1:N/2+1;
n=1:N;
C=cos(2*pi*n'*(p-1)/N);
S=sin(2*pi*n'*(p-1)/N);
% Compute Fourier Coefficients
A=2/N*y*C;
B=2/N*y*S;
A(N/2+1)=A(N/2+1)/2;
% Reconstruct Signal - pmax is number of frequencies used in increasing
order
pmax=13;
ynew=A(1)/2+C(:,2:pmax)*A(2:pmax)'+S(:,2:pmax)*B(2:pmax)';
% Plot Data
plot(y,'o')
% Plot reconstruction over data
hold on
plot(ynew,'r')
hold off

DFT Example

Monthly mean surface temperature (oC) on the west coast of


Canada January 1982-December 1983 (Emery and
Thompson)

Fourier Coefficients

Periodogram Power
Spectrum

Reconstruction

Reconstruction with 3
Frequencies

Harmonic Analysis
Consider a set of data consisting of
N values at equally spaced times,
We seek the best approximation
using M given frequencies.
The unknown parameters in this
case are the As and Bs.
M

y (t ) A0 [ Ak cos(2 f k t ) Bk sin(2 f k t )]
k 1

Linear Regression
Minimize
N

n 1

k 1

e 2 [ y (tn ) ( A0 [ Ak cos(2 f k tn ) Bk sin(2 f k t n )])]

Normal Equations
N
M
e 2
n
n
n
0
2 [ y (tn ) ( A0 [ Ak cos(2 f k ) Bk sin(2 f k )])]( cos(2 f q )), q 1, K , M
Aq
N
N
N
n 1
k 1

N
M
e 2
n
n
n
0
2 [ y (tn ) ( A0 [ Ak cos(2 f k ) Bk sin(2 f k )])]( sin(2 f q )), k 1, K , M
Bq
N
N
N
n 1
k 1

System of Equations DZ=Y


y
A

Y Cy , Z ,
B
Sy

CC

CS

SS

qk

cos(2

f
t
)
cos(2

f
t
)

k n
q n
n 1

qk

sin(2

f
t
)
cos(2

f
t
)

k n
q n
n

qk

y (t1 )

y M
y (t )
N

sin(2

f
t
)
sin(2

f
t
)
.

k n
q n
n 1

D c
s

cT
sT

CC CS
CS SS

n 1

n 1

cq Cqn , sq Sqn
Sqn sin(2 f k tn ), q 1,K , M , n 1,K , N

Cqn cos(2 f k tn ), q 1,K , M , n 1,K , N

Matlab Implementation
DZ=Y
y=[7.6 7.4 8.2 9.2 10.2 11.5 12.4 13.4 13.7 11.8 10.1 ...
9.0 8.9 9.5 10.6 11.4 12.9 12.7 13.9 14.2 13.5 11.4 10.9 8.1];
N=length(y);
% Number of Harmonics Desired and frequency dt
M=2; f=1/12*(1:M); T=24; alpha=f*T;
% Compute the matrices of trigonometric functions
n=1:N;
C=cos(2*pi*alpha'*n/N); S=sin(2*pi*alpha'*n/N);
c_row=ones(1,N)*C';
s_row=ones(1,N)*S';
D(1,1)=N;
D(1,2:M+1)=c_row;
D(1,M+2:2*M+1)=s_row;
D(2:M+1,1)=c_row';
D(M+2:2*M+1,1)=s_row';
D(2:M+1,2:M+1)=C*C';
D(M+2:2*M+1,2:M+1)=S*C';
D(2:M+1,M+2:2*M+1)=C*S';
D(M+2:2*M+1,M+2:2*M+1)=S*S';
yy(1,1)=sum(y);
yy(2:M+1)=y*C';
yy(M+2:2*M+1)=y*S';
z=D^(-1)*yy';

Harmonic Analysis Example

Frequencies 0.0183 cpmo, 0.167 cpmo

Reconstruction

Example 2
data = DLMREAD('tidedat1.txt');
N=length(data);
t=data(1:N,1);
% time
r=data(1:N,2);
% height
ymean=mean(r);
% calculate average
ynorm=r-ymean;
% subtract out average
y=ynorm';
% height'
dt=t(2)-t(1);
T=t(N);
% Number of Harmonics Desired and frequency dt
M=8;
TideNames=['M2','N2','K1','S2','O1','P1','K2','Q1'];
TidePeriods=[12.42 12.66 23.93 12 25.82 24.07
11.97 26.87];
f=1./TidePeriods;

Data

Harmonic Amplitudes

Power Spectrum
Frequency

Periodogram - Period

Names =['M2', 'N2', 'K1', 'S2', 'O1', 'P1', 'K2', 'Q1'];


Periods=[12.42 12.66 23.93 12 25.82 24.07 11.97 26.87];

Current Analysis
Horizontal Currents are two dimensional
One performs the harmonic analysis on
vectors
The results for each constituent are
combined and reported using ellipse
parameters

u A cos t A 'sin t
v B cos t B 'sin t

F. Bingham, 2005

C. Canady, 2005

General Conic

u A cos t A 'sin t
v B cos t B 'sin t
u U cos(t )
v V cos(t )
u 2
v 2
u v
( ) ( ) ( )( ) f
U
V
U V

2 cos( )

f sin 2 ( ).

Coordinate Transformation
u p cos q sin

v p sin q cos .
2UV cos( )
tan(2 )
,
2
2
U V
2

p q
2 1,
2
a
b
2
(
UV
sin(

))
a2 2
V cos 2 U 2 sin 2 2UV cos sin cos( )
2
(
UV
sin(

))
b2 2 2
.
2
2
V sin U cos 2UV cos sin cos( )

Goals
Maximum Current Velocity Semi-major

axis
Eccentricity Ratio of semi-minor axis to
semimajor axis
Inclination Angle semi-major axis makes
to East
Phase Angle Time of maximum velocity
with respect to Greenwich time

Ellipses and Phasors


Any ellipse centered at the origin can be found
from the sum of two counter rotating phasors.

x a cos t , y b sin t.
x r1 cos(t ) r2 cos(t ),
y r1 sin(t ) r2 sin( t ).

Rotated Ellipse
u cos
v
sin

sin x
a cos cos t b sin sin t

cos y
a sin cos t b cos sin t

a b
ab

cos(

t
)

cos(

t
)

u
r1 cos( t ) r2 cos( t )

2
2
.

v a b
a b

r1 sin( t ) r2 sin( t )

sin( t )
sin( t )
2

Changing the Initial Phasors


u r1 cos(t 1 ) r2 cos(t 2 )
v r1 sin(t 1 ) r2 sin(t 2 ).

u (r1 cos( 1 ) r2 cos( 2 )) cos t ( r1 sin( 1 ) r2 sin( 2 )) sin t ,


v (r1 sin( 1 ) r2 sin( 2 )) cos t ( r1 cos( 1 ) r2 cos( 2 )) sin t.

u A cos t A 'sin t

v B cos t B 'sin t

Relation to Current Ellipses


u U cos(t )
v V cos(t )
A U cos r1 cos( 1 ) r2 cos( 2 ),
A ' U sin r1 sin( 1 ) r2 sin( 2 ),
B V cos r1 sin( 1 ) r2 sin( 2 ),
B ' V sin r1 cos( 1 ) r2 cos( 2 ).

Rotated Ellipse
1
r ( A B ') 2 ( B A ') 2 ,
4
1
r2 2 ( A B ') 2 ( A ' B ) 2 .
4

B A'
tan p
,
A B'
A ' B
tan m
.
A B'

2
1

p 1
tan( p m )

m 2

tan p tan m
1 tan p tan m

2UV cos( )
U 2 V 2

p m
1
INC
(1 2 )
2
2
p m 1 2 .

1
PHA ( p m )
2

tmax p tmax m

Summary
History of Tides
Fourier Analysis DFT
Harmonic Analysis Wave Heights
Harmonic Analysis Currents
Ellipse Parameters

Bibliography
W.J. Emery and R.E. Thompson, Data Analysis Methods in Physical

Oceanography, 2001.
G. Godin, The Analysis of Tides, 1972.
R. H. Stewart, Introduction to Physical Oceanography, 1997, Open
Source Textbook
R. L. Herman, Fourier and Complex Analysis, Course Notes, 2005.
W.H. Munk and D.E. Cartwright, Tidal Spectroscopy and Prediction,
Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A 259, 533-581.
R. Paulowicz, B. Beardsley, and S. Lentz, Classical Tidal Harmonic
Analysis Including Error Estimates in MATLAB Using T_TIDE ,
Computers and Geosciences, 2002.
Sir William Thomson, The Tides, 1882.
Z. Xu, Ellipse Parameters Conversion and Vertical Velocity Profiles
for Tidal Currents, 2000.

Epicycloid

ab
x(t ) (a b) cos t b cos(
t)
b
ab
y (t ) (a b) sin t b sin(
t)
b