Anda di halaman 1dari 53

Kuliah ke 2

Pokok bahasan : Konstruksi dan


kharakteristik Generator DC
Sub pokok bahasan
Konstruksi Generator DC
Kharakteristik Generator DC eksitasi luar
Kharakteristik Generator DC Belitan Seri ,
Paralel dan Kompon
Pengendalian Tegangan Generator DC
Penyebab Kegagalan Menghasilkan Tegangan
Pengoperasian Paralel

System
Connectivity

AC Generators
Require a high degree of
engineering and equipment
costs to transfer power onto an
isolated section of the electrical
network.

DC Generators
Do not require a transfer
switch, energy flows
seamlessly into a DC power
system safely.

Expandability

Cannot be connected in parallel Can be easily connected in


without expensive phase
parallel to add capacity without
synchronizing equipment.
special equipment. Polarity is
the only concern.

Energy Quality
and Stability

Any change is RPM


significantly affects power
output quality. Speed control
devices such as governors
need regular service.

Are not affected by engine


speed variations and produce a
constant and stable DC
voltage.

Safety and
Regulation

Are normally 120 volts and


above and require special
certification for safety reasons.
Alternating current can be
deadly and cause serious
injury.

Low voltage DC generators


less than 50 volts require
minimal permitting and
inspection by safety and
regulatory authorities.

Sizing and
Efficiency

Must be sized to power the


greatest combined loads that
may be connected at one time.
Smaller loads may be
connected a majority of the
time, but the larger generator

When charging batteries, can


be sized much smaller to
provide a steady charge
current. Surge currents are
supplied through the battery
bank and act as a buffer.

MESIN LISTRIK DC

Mechanical output

Electrical input
ELECTRICAL
MACHINES
- Motor -

Electrical output

Mechanical input
ELECTRICAL
MACHINES
- Generator -

KONSTRUKSI MESIN LISTRIK DC

KOMPONEN MESIN LISTRIK DC

GAMBAR POTONGAN MESIN DC

KONSTRUKSI STATOR

KONSTRUKSI ARMATURE
(JANGKAR)

KONSTRUKSI COMMUTATOR

BELITAN JANGKAR

SIKAT (BRUSHES)

DC GENERATORS
Armature Reaction

Flux due to field winding alone


Airgap flux density

DC GENERATORS
Armature Reaction

When armature current flows (i.e. terminal is connected to


the load), armature produces MMF
MMF produces results in flux which will disturb field flux

DC GENERATORS
Armature Reaction

Flux at one side of the pole may saturate


Zero flux region shifted
Flux saturation, effective flux per pole decreases

DC GENERATORS
Armature Reaction
Ea

Eao= Vto without load current


With Ia, AR causes
reduction in Ea since flux
per pole decreases
Ea = Vt + IaRa

Ifield

DC GENERATORS
Armature Reaction
Vt = Ea - IaRa

As Ia increases, Ea
reduces due to AR

DC GENERATORS
Armature Reaction
Vt = Ea - IaRa
Ea = Vt + IaRa

Since AR causes a decrease in Ea , the effect of AR can be considered


as a reduction in field current
If(eff) = If(actual) If(AR)

DC GENERATORS
Armature Reaction
The mmf produced by rotor can be neutralized using compensating winding

Armature current flows in


compensating winding will cancel out
mmf produced by armature winding

DC GENERATORS
Compensating winding

Expensive and normally installed in


large machines

KLASIFIKASI GENERATOR DC
Klasifikasi Mesin Listrik DC didasarkan
pada bagaimana hubungan antara
belitan jangkar dan belitan medan.
1. GENERATOR DC EKSITASI TERPISAH
2. GENERATOR DC EKSITASI SENDIRI :
a) GENERATOR DC SHUNT
b) GENERATOR DC SERI
c) GENERATOR DC COMPOUND

GENERATOR DC EKSITASI TERPISAH

DC GENERATORS
Separately excited DC generator
Terminal characteristic
Load characteristic
Vt

Ea
IaRa
Operating point
Ea = IaRa + Vt

Vt = I a R L

It

GENERATOR DC SERI

GENERATOR DC SHUNT

GENERATOR DC COMPOUND

CUMULATIVE COMPOUNDING DAN


DIFFERENTIAL COMPOUNDING

Cumulative Compounding : Medan seri


membantu medan shunt,
Differential Compounding : Medan seri
melawan medan shunt

Short Shunt Compound Generator

Long Shunt Compound Generator

Over, Flat and Under Compound


(i) If series winding turns are so adjusted that with the increase in load current
the terminal voltage increases, it is called over-compounded generator. In
such a case, as the load current increases, the series field m.m.f. increases
and tends to increase the flux and hence the generated voltage. The
increase in generated voltage is greater than the IaRa drop so that instead
of decreasing, the terminal voltage increases .
(ii) If series winding turns are so adjusted that with the increase in load
current, the terminal voltage substantially remains constant, it is called flatcompounded generator. The series winding of such a machine has lesser
number of turns than the one in over-compounded machine and, therefore,
does not increase the flux as much for a given load current. Consequently,
the full-load voltage is nearly equal to the no-load voltage.
(iii) If series field winding has lesser number of turns than for a flat compounded
machine, the terminal voltage falls with increase in load current. Such a
machine is called under-compounded generator.

Soal 1: Hitung Pg

Soal 2: hitung besarnya flux magnit

Soal 3: hitung Pg jika bebannya adalah 60 buah lampu @ 40 W

Soal 4 : Hitung Eg jika voltage drop pada brush adalah 1


V/brush

Soal 5: hitung Eg jika brush voltage drop = 1V/brush

Soal 6: Hitung Eg untuk kondisi tanpa Rdiv dan dengan Rdiv

KURVA MAGNETISASI

Pengukuran kurva jenuh

Kharakteristik Generator DC eksitasi terpisah

Kharakteristik Generator DC Seri

Kharakteristik Generator DC Shunt

Load Characteristic shunt generator

(i) O.C.C.
The O.C.C. of a shunt generator is similar in shape to that of a series
generator as shown in Fig. The line OA represents the shunt field circuit
resistance. When the generator is run at normal speed, it will build up a
voltage OM. At no-load, the terminal voltage of the generator will be
constant (= OM) represented by the horizontal dotted line MC.
(ii) Internal characteristic
When the generator is loaded, flux per pole is reduced due to armature
reaction. Therefore, e.m.f. E generated on load is less than the e.m.f.
generated at no load.As a result, the internal characteristic (E/Ia) drops
down slightly as shown in Fig..
(iii) External characteristic
Curve 2 shows the external characteristic of a shunt generator. It gives the
relation between terminal voltage V and load current IL.
V = E IaRa = E -(IL +Ish)Ra
Therefore, external characteristic curve will lie below the internal
characteristic curve by an amount equal to drop in the armature circuit [i.e.,
(IL +Ish)Ra ] as shown in Fig.

Pengaruh Kecepatan Terhadap


Kharakteristik Generator Shunt

Pengaruh Arus Eksitasi Terhadap EMF

PARALEL OPERATION GENERATOR SERI

BELITAN MEDAN DIHUBUNG SILANG

PARALEL OPERATION GENERATOR SHUNT

PARALEL OPERATION GENERATOR COMPOUND