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HIGH RISE BUILDING

INTRODUCTION
The tallness of a building is relative and can not be defined in absolute terms either in
relation to height or the number of stories. It can be defined as a building that,
Has 10 or more stories.
Has a height of 100 ft (30 m ) or more.
A certain height above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access ( according to
building codes). TheInternational Conference on Fire Safety
"any structure where the height can have a serious impact on evacuation

The council on tall buildings, however, defines high-rise as follows,


A tall building is not defined by its height or number of stories. The
important criterion is
whether or not the design is influenced by some aspect of tallness. It
is a building in
which tallness strongly influences planning, design and use. It is a
building whose height
creates different conditions from those that exist in common buildings
of a certain region
or period.
Same
basic principles of structural design apply to high-rise buildings as for any
other type of construction.
From
this ,definition
, systems
we canofsee
a tall building
isdominated
not just by the
However
the structural
highthat
rise buildings
tend to be
need toby
resist
forces.
defined
itslateral
height
alone but by its proportions.
The provisions for lateral force strenght , drift control, dynamic
behaviour , and resistance to overturning overshadow the provisions for
gravity load carrying capacity.

GEOGRAICAL DISTRIBUTION OF
HIGHRISE`

GEOGRAICAL DISTRIBUTION OF
HIGHRISE

Demand for high rise buildings due to,

Scarcity of land in urban areas.


Increasing demand for business and residential space
Economic growth
Technological advancements
Innovations in structural systems
Desire for aesthetics in urban settings
Cultural significance and prestige
Human aspiration to build higher

Economy:
Recent cost comparison studies show that ,
The building superstructure generally accounts for only 10% to 15% of the total building cost
The influence of the choice of structure on the foundations, services and cladding costs is often more
significant. For example, a reduction of 100 mm in the ceiling to floor zone can lead to a 2.5% saving in
cladding cost (equivalent to 0.5% saving in overall building cost).
Therefore, best practice building design requires a synthesis of,
architectural
structural
Services
logistics
constructional issues

ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATION
Base Plan:
Geometry and Form of the building.The parameters are divided
into six basic simple shapes:
a) Rectangle (Square)
b) Ellipse/ Circle
c) Curvilinear
d) Triangle
e) Polygon
f)
Parallelogram.

Service core:
The service core provides the skyscraper with
structural solidity, room for elevators, toilets, and
other amenities and constitutes the main network
for utility, power and data . The different types of
service cores are-Central core, peripheral core,
and multi cores.

Inherently stable plan configurations for


high rise structures

Open forms of bracing are inherently weak in


torsional stiffness and should be avoided.
L, T, and X plan arrangements are the worst in
torsional resistance while C and Z
configurations are only slightly better.

Form:
Aerodynamic and Geometric classification.
Increased wind speeds and forces through climate requires strategies
(both architectural and structural) to improve the efficiency of the building.
The aerodynamic modification is considered as a precautionary and
passive architectural concept to reduce wind impact.
1. Macro modifications: Tapering, Setback and Twisting having basic
effect on shape of the building.
2. Micro modifications: Corner Recession, Corner Roundness, and Corner
Cut. (doesnt affect the form of the building.)
3. Curvilinear form is now one of the most commonly used form for the
buildings of the past decade and the near future.
f) Reducing the wind effect, helps reduce the base shear and moment of
tall buildings.

Future Trend of Architectural Form:


a)
b)

Eg: Daniel Libeskinds Fiera Milano Tower and


Morphosis Phare Tower in La Defense.
The obvious architectural trend is more aerodynamic
and curvilinear shapes and forms.

Confusing the wind Aerodynamic forms help confuse


the wind.
The irregular aerodynamic form helps disperse the wind
and avoids gathering the wind flow.

The vertical components

Carry the vertical gravity loads of a high rise structure , such as columns , core shafts
and bearing walls
Need to be strengthened over the full height of the building due to accumulating
nature of loads from the roof level down to the foundation.
The quantity of structural material therefore necessarily increases as the number of
a high rise building increases.

Floor grids define the spacing of the columns in orthogonal directions, which are
influenced by:
The planning grid (normally based on units of 300 mm but more typically multiples
of 0.6, 1.2 or 1.5 m).
The column spacing along thefaades , depending on thefaades material (typically
5.4 to 7.5 m).
The use of the internal space, i.e. for offices or open plan space.
The requirements for building service distribution (from the building core).

FACADES
Faade systems comprise the structural elements that provide
lateral and vertical resistance towindandother action, and the
building envelope elements that provide the weather
resistance and thermal,acoustic andfire resisting properties.
The types of faade system that are used depends on the type
and scale of the building and on local planning requirements
that may affect the buildings appearance in relation to its
neighbours.
FAADE FUNCTIONS
The building faade provides the separation between the
inside and the outside environments but is also required to
provide acceptable light levels and a visual connection with the
outside in the form of views out of the building.
The separating functions include:
Weather tightnessincludingelimination of water
ingressandcontrol of air permeabilityand resistance
towind actions.
Insulation (boththermal and acoustic)
Control ofsolar gainand ultraviolet radiation and the
management of views into the building.

TYPES OF FAADE
A wide variety of faade systems may be used in modern multi-storey buildings,
which are:

Brickwork and stonework (masonry)

Precast concrete panels with various types of finishes

Curtain walling

Insulated render

Metallic
cladding

Large boards consisting of an


aesthetic and weather tight veneer

Tiles and stone veneer


panels

Glass
and steel faade systems

IN RCC HIGHRISE STRUCTURES , it can be


economical to use a framework of beams and girders
supporting a lightweight structural concrete slab.
Trussed joists for long span designs can be
economical , even if the floor systems are deeper than
normal. The mechanical systems can pass through the
open web areas of the joists without any additional floor
depth required below the bottom chord of the trusses.

In residential high-rise buildings , a post tensioned flat slab


design is often used for
1. Spans not exceeding to 25 to 30 feet (7.6 to 9.1
m) with
2. Slab thickness in the range of 6 to 7 inches (150 to
180) or at most 8 inches(205).
The slabs are directly supported by columns, resulting in
minimal structural depth. However ,any mechanical and
electrical
would have
to be suspended
below
Since theservices
floor systems
are typically
repetitive
in the
nature, the structural depth of each
slab.
floor is of major concern.

Saving a few inches per floor, helps reduce the accumulation of the extra feet.
It is Cost effective: for elevators, wall cladding, etc.
Reduces the size and cost of Foundation Systems too.
Spanning members of the floor and roof systems: tie the vertical structure together and
serve as horizontal diaphragms.
The most common floor system for steel framed high rise structures is corrugated metal
decking with lightweight concrete fill.
Provision of space for distribution of power and communication wiring as well as small service
ducts throughout the floor.

STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION
1. LATERAL LOADS

1.
2.
.

.
.

Lateral loads are live loads whose main


component is a horizontal force acting on the
structure.
Typical lateral loads would beearthquake loads
wind loads
Most lateral loads vary in intensity depending
on the building's geographic location,
structural materials, height and shape.
lateral load moves from the top of the
structure to the ground.
A complete and continuous load path is
necessary to safely move the loads from the
top of a structure to the ground.
If a correct path isnt designed to move the
load to the ground, then the loads will find
other means of making it to the ground;
usually in an unfavorable way.

Effect of earthquake shaking

EARTHQUAKE LOADS

Earthquake causes shaking of the ground. So


a building resting on it will experience motion
at its base.
Even though the base of the building moves
with the ground, the roof has a tendency to
stay in its original position.
But since the walls and columns are
connected to it, they drag the roof along with
them.
When the ground moves, even the building is
thrown backwards, and the roof experiences
a force, called inertia force.
Clearly, more mass means higher inertia
force. Therefore, lighter buildings sustain the
earthquake shaking better.
Structures designed for gravity loads, in
general, may not be able to safely sustain
the effects of horizontal earthquake shaking.
Hence, it is necessary to ensure adequacy of
the structures against horizontal earthquake
effects.

2.

OVER TURNING EFFECT

The overturning of a structure refers to the


monolithic rotation of the structure with respect
to an arbitrary point until its total collapses.

When the overturning moment of a structure with


respect to the pivoting point is greater than the
anti-overturning moment, the structure is likely
to overturn, resulting in serious consequences
and causes huge loss of life and property.

Any lateral load at a distance above grade


generate an overturning moment at the base of a
structure.

For equilibrium the overturning moment must be


counter balanced by an external restoring
moment and an internal resisting moment
provided by forces developed in column
members and shear walls.

Shape and form can increase or decrease the effects


of wind pressure on a building. For example,
aerodynamically shaped buildings, such as rounded
or curved forms, generally result in lower wind
resistance than rectangular buildings with flat
surface.

Overturning: light buildings,


such as wood framed
structures, require careful
detailing to prevent the effects
of overturning. While heavy
buildings can more easily
resist overturning from wind
pressure, they are susceptible
to the large internal force they
generate during an
earthquake.
The overturning force
produced by wind pressure can
be amplified by an increase in
either wind velocity or
exposed building surfaces.

Wind Can be thought of


against a building like the
way an airplane wing
behaves
As air moves over the
curved surface of the wing,
the molecules separate and
then rejoin.

Larger the exposed surface of rectangular


form are the greater the effect of the wind
pressure on the overall building shear and the
overturning moment developed at the
buildings base.
In any turbulent airflow, positive wind
pressure are recorded as long as the air is
in contact with the buildings surface.
When the building face is too sharply
convex or the airflow is too rapid, the air
mass will leave the surface of the
building and create dead air zones of
negative pressure.
Vortices are the circular air currents
generated by turbulent winds in these
low-pressure areas.

Tall, slender buildings with a high aspect


ratio experience larger horizontal
deflections at their tops and are more
susceptible to overturning moments.
Short term gust velocities can also
produce dynamic wind pressures that
create additional displacement for tall,
slender buildings, this gust action may
dominate and produce a dynamic
movement called gust buffeting, which
results in oscillation of the slender
structure.
Building forms that taper expose less
surface area to the wind as they rise,
which helps counteract the increasing
wind velocities and pressures experienced
higher up.

3. LATERAL FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM


lateral force resistance in the vertical planes
of a building may be provided by braced
frames, moment frames, or shear walls, used
singly or in combination. These vertical
resisting mechanisms, however, are not
equivalent in terms of stiffness and
efficiency.
There are 3 basic mechanisms commonly
used:

Braced frames

Braced frames have high strength


and stiffness and are more effective
than moment frames.
Braced frames use less material and
employ simpler connections than
moment frames.
Lower floor to floor heights are
possible with braced frames than
with moment frames.
Braced frames can become an
important visual component of a
buildings design. On the other
hand, braced frame can interfere
with access between adjacent

Lateral bracings

Bracing is a very effective global


upgrading strategy to enhance the
global stiffness and strength of steel
and composite frames [1]. It can
increase the energy absorption of
structures and/or decrease the
demand imposed by earthquake loads.
Structures with augmented energy
dissipation may safely resist forces and
deformations caused by strong ground
motions.

These are the best as they provide


resistance towards the lateral loads of
earthquake and are light weight hence
reducing the total mass of the building.

Moment frames

Moment frames offer the most flexibility for


visual and physical access between adjacent
spaces.
Moment frames have good ductility if their
connections are properly detailed.
Moment frames are less efficient than braced
frames and shear walls.
Moment frames require more material and
labor to assemble than braced frames.
Large deflections during an earthquake can
damage non structural element of a building.

Shear wall

Reinforced concrete or masonry walls are


effective in absorbing energy if firmly tied
to floor and roof diaphragms.
Shear walls must be well proportioned to
avoid excessive lateral deflection and
high shear stresses.

LATERAL FORCE
1. WIND FORCE
. Wind loads from the forces exerted by the kinetic energy
of a moving mass of air, which can produce a
combination Of direct pressure, negative pressure or
suction, and drag force on buildings and other obstacles
in its path.
. Wind Forces are typically assumed to be applied normal,
or perpendicular, or the affected surface of a building.
Wind is a moving mass of air. Buildings and other
structures represent obstacles that deflect or impede
the wind converting the kinetic energy of pressure.
The primary effect of wind on buildings are lateral
forces it places on the entire structure and, in
particular, on the exterior cladding.
The net effect is a combination of direct pressure,
negative pressure or suction, and drag forces. Wind
pressure can also cause a building structure to slide as
well as overturn.

2. VOLUME CHANGE BECAUSE OF THERMAL EXPANSION


CONTRACTION
AND
All building
materials change in volume in response to changes in temperature or

moisture. Changes in volume, elastic deformations due to loads, creep and other
factors result in movement. Restraint of these movements may cause stresses
within building elements that result in cracks.
To avoid cracks, masonry elements should be designed to minimize movement or
accommodate differential movement between materials and assemblies. A
system of movement joints can reduce the potential for cracks and the problems
they cause.
Movement joints can be designed by estimating the magnitude of the different
Movements
construction
movementsof
that
occur in masonrymaterials
and other building materials.

Most buildings do not allow exact prediction of


building element movements.
Volume changes are dependent on material
properties and are highly variable.
The age of the material and temperature at
installation also influence expected movement.
When mean values of material properties are
used in design, the actual movement may be
underestimated or overestimated.
All building materials expand and contract
with variations in temperature. For
unrestrained conditions, these movements are
theoretically reversible.

3. MOISTURE PROBLEMS IN HIGHRISE BUILDING


The types of problems attributed to moisture experienced in
high-rise buildings include:
condensation on windows
wetting and staining of interior and exterior finishes
mildew and mold On interior and exterior finishes
wetting of walls beneath windows
water entry or wetness at the junction of wall and floor slab
mildew and mold on gypsum sheathing or interior cladding
deterioration or delamination of orpsum sheathing
efflorescence (white deposits) on exterior masonry
spalling of exterior masonry
corrosion Of masonry ties and shelf angles
corrosion of precast panel anchors
dislocation and bulging of masonry components
deterioration of mortar joints
discoloration and corrosion of exterior metal cladding
corrosion of sheathing
corrosion of metal roof decks and
corrosion of steel structural members
corrosion of metal studs
deterioration or delamination Of exterior and interior
coatings

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM OF LOAD BEARING


1. LOAD BEARING

Load bearing wall structure:is one of the


earliest forms of construction. Raising the house,
wall over wall and floor over floor, has been the
most common method all over the world.
In this system, the load is supported and
transferred to the foundation through the masonry
walls and there are no concrete structural
elements, like columns or beams to support the
load.
Therefore, the walls must be strong enough for the
purpose and are usually 9 inches or more in
thickness.

Load bearing walls with


R.C.C columns

2.
a)
b)
c)

FRAMED STRUCTURES
A framed structure is a network of beams and columns joined up to form the skeleton framework of the
building.
Concrete framed structures are very common.
The skeleton of a concrete framed structure consists of:
a) Horizontal Members Beams
b) Vertical Members Columns
c) Flat planes of concrete on which humans walk on Slabs.
d) Element that takes all load of the superstructure and distributes it to the Earth Foundation.

Other important components are:


a) Shear Walls
i.
Are essentially large columns, easily measured
400mm thick by 3m long, giving them an
appearance of walls and not columns.
ii.
Function take care of horizontal forces on
buildings, like Earthquake and Wind loads. They
also take care of vertical loads, like gravity.
iii. They only work for horizontal loads in one
direction the axis of the long dimension of the
wall.
b) Elevator Shafts
i.
Are vertical boxes in which the elevators move up
and down.
ii.
They are good structural elements, helping absorb
horizontal and vertical loads.

Advantages of Frame
Structures

One of the best advantages of frame


structures is their ease in construction.
it is very east to teach the labor at the
construction site.
Frame structures can be constructed
rapidly.
Economy is also very important factor
in the design of building systems.
Frame structures have economical
designs.

Disadvantages of Frames:

In frames structures, span lengths are


usually restricted to 40 ft when normal
reinforced concrete. Other wise spans
greater than that, can cause lateral
deflections.

FOUNDATION TYPES

Raft foundation: one of the most common foundation. It is known for its load
distributing capability. With the usage of this type of foundation the
enormous load of the building gets distributed & helps the building stay
upright and sturdy. Loads are transferred by raft into the ground.
Pile foundation: used for high rise construction. load
of building is distributed to the ground with the help
of piles. Transfer the loads into the ground with an
Adequate factor of safety.
Combined raft-pile: is the hybrid of 2 foundation. It
Consists of both the pile and raft foundation. Useful
in marshy sandy soil that has low bearing capacity.

MATERIALS
Reinforced cement concrete(RCC) is
acomposite
materialin
whichconcrete's relatively lowtensile
strengthandductilityare counteracted
by the inclusion of reinforcement having
higher tensile strength and/or ductility.
Reinforcing schemes are generally
designed to resisttensilestressesin
particular regions of the concrete that
might
cause
unacceptablecrackingand/or structural
failure.
Modern reinforced concrete can contain
varied reinforcing materials made of
steel, polymers or alternate composite
material in conjunction with rebar.
Many different types of structures and
components of structures can be built
using
reinforced
concrete
includingslabs,walls,beams,columns,f
oundations,framesand more.

HISTORY

Franois Coignetwas a Frenchindustrialistof the nineteenth century, a


pioneer in the development of structural, prefabricated and reinforced
concrete. Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete as a
technique for constructing building structures.
In 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four
story house at 72 rue Charles Michels in the suburbs of Paris.
Coignet's descriptions of reinforcing concrete suggests that he did not do it
for means of adding strength to the concrete but for keeping walls in
monolithic construction from overturning.

72 rue Charles Michels


building in the suburbs of

Paris.

MATERIALS

Concrete is a mixture of coarse (stone or brick chips) and fine (generally


sand or crushed stone) aggregates with a paste of binder material
(usuallyPortland cement) and water.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

CLASSIFICATION OF TALL BUILDING STRUCTURAL


SYSTEMS
INTERIOR STRUCTURES :By
clustering steel columns and beams
in the core, engineers create a stiff
backbone that can resist
tremendous wind forces. The inner
core is used as an elevator shaft
and the design allows lots of open
space on each floor

Can be classified based on the


structural material used such as
concrete or steel
Structural systems of tall
buildings can also be divided into
two broad categories:

1)INTERIOR STRUCTURES
2)EXTERIOR STRUCURES

EXTERIOR
STRUCTURES In
newer skyscrapers,
like the Sears Tower
in Chicago,
engineers moved
the columns and
beams from the core
to the perimeter,
creating a hollow,
rigid tube as strong
as the core design,
but weighing much,
much less.
This classification is based on the distribution of
the components of the primary lateral loadresisting system over the building.
any interior structure is likely to have some minor
components of the lateral load-resisting system at
the building perimeter, and visa versa.

INTERIOR STRUCTURAL SYSTEM


1)RIGID FRAME

A rigid frame in structural engineering is the load- resisting


skeleton constructed with straight or curved members
interconnected by mostly rigid connections which resist
movements induced at the joints of members.
Rigid frame structures provide more stability.
Its members can take bending moment, shear, and axial loads.
Consist of columns and girders
joined by moment resistant
connections.
Can build up to 20 to 25 floors

2)SHEAR WALL STRUCTURE

ashear wallis astructural


systemcomposed of braced panels
(also known as shear panels) to
counter the effects oflateral
loadacting on a structure.
Windandseismicloads are the most
common loads that shear walls are
designed to carry.
A structure of shear walls in the
center of a large building often
encasing anelevator shaftor stairwell
form ashear core.
Can build up to 35 Floors building
Shear walls resist in-plane loads that
are applied along its height. The
applied load is generally transferred
to the wall by adiaphragmor
collector ordragmember. They are
Sheer core
built inwood,concrete,
and CMU
(masonry).

Sheer walls

3)OUTRIGGER STRUCTURES

The core may be centrally located with


outriggers extending on both sides or in some
cases it may be located on one side of the
building with outriggers extending to the
building columns on the other side
The outriggers are generally in the form of
trusses (1 or 2 story deep) in steel structures,
or walls in concrete structures, that effectively
act as stiff headers inducing a tensioncompression couple in the outer columns
Belt trusses are often provided to distribute
these tensile and compressive forces to a
large number of exterior frame columns.
An build upto 150 floors Shangai World
financial centre

EXTERIOR STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

1)Tube system

building can be designed to resist lateral loads


by designing it as a hollow cantilever
perpendicular to the ground
the exterior consists of closely spaced
columns that are tied together with deep
spandrel beams through moment connections.
This assembly of columns and beams forms a
rigid frame that amounts to a dense and
strong structural wall along the exterior of the
building.
The different tubular systems are1)Framed tube 2)Braced tube 3)Bundled
tube4)Tube in tube

2)Diagrid systems

Thediagrid(aportmanteauofdiagonal grid) is a
framework of diagonally intersecting metal, concrete or
wooden beams that is used in the construction of
buildings and roofs.
It requires lessstructural steelthan a conventionalsteel
frame.
Early designs of tall buildings recognized the
effectiveness of diagonal bracing members in resisting
lateral forces.
Most of the structural systems deployed for early tall
buildings were steel frames with diagonal bracings of
various configurations such as X, K, and chevron.
aesthetic potential of them was not appreciated since
they were considered obstructive for viewing the
outdoors.

3)Space truss

Space truss structures are modified


braced tubes with diagonals
connecting the exterior to interior. In
a typical braced tube structure, all
the diagonals, which connect the
chord members vertical corner
columns in general, are located on
the plane parallel to the facades.
However, in space trusses, some
diagonals penetrate the interior of
the building.

4)Exo skeleton structure

In exoskeleton structures, lateral loadresisting systems are placed outside the


building lines away from their facades.
Due to the systems compositional
characteristics, it acts as a primary
building identifier one of the major
roles of building facades in general
cases.
Fire proofing of the system is not a
serious issue due to its location outside
the building line. Bank of China, Hong
Kon Hotel de las Atres

5)Super frame structures

Superframe structures can create ultra high-rise


buildings upto 160 floors.
Superframes or Megaframes assume the form of a
portal which is provided on the exterior of a building.
The frames resist all wind forces as an exterior
tubular structure. The portal frame of the Superframe
is composed of vertical legs in each corner of the
building which are linked by horizontal elements at
about every 12 to 14 floors.
Since the vertical elements are concentrated in the
corner areas of the building, maximum efficiency is
obtained for
resisting wind forces.

R.C.C. BUILT WITH SHEAR WALLS


1. TYPES OF FLOOR
SYSTEM
One way slab

Main reinforcement is provided in


only one direction for one way
slabs.
If a slab is supported on all the
four sides but the ratio of longer
span (l) to shorten span (b) is
greater than 1.5, then the slab
will be considered as one way
slab.

Two way slab

Two way slabs are the slabs that are


supported on four sides andthe
ratio of longer span (l) to shorter
span (b) is less than 1.5.
In two way slabs, load will be
carried in both the directions. So,
main reinforcement is provided in
both direction for two way slabs.

2. SHEAR WALL

Shear walls are specially designed structural walls


incorporated in buildings to resist lateral forces that are
produced in the plane of the wall due to wind, earthquake and
other forces.
They are used in tall buildings to avoid collapse of the
building under seismic forces. Shear walls are generally made
of concrete or masonary.

Introduction of shear wall

Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings


often have vertical plate-like RC
walls called Shear Walls in
addition to slabs, beams and
columns.
These walls generally start at
foundation level and are
continuous throughout the
building height.
Their thickness can be as low as
150mm, or as high as 400mm in
high rise buildings.
Shear walls are usually provided
along both length and width of
buildings.
Shear walls are like vertically-

Classification of shear walls


1.Simple rectangular types and flanged
walls
2.Coupled shear walls
3.Rigid frame shear wall
4.Framed walls with infilled frames
5.Column supported shear wall
6.Core type shear wall

1.Simple rectangular : Barbell type of shear wall is formed when a wall is provided
between two columns. The columns are then called boundary elements. These shear
walls are subjected to bending and shear by the action of inplane vertical loads and
longitudinal
shear. wall: If two structural walls are joined together by relatively short
2.Coupled shear
spandrel beams, the stiffness of the resultant wall increases, in addition the structure
can dissipate most of the energy by yielding the coupling beams with no structural
damagesframe
to the with
main shear
walls. wall:- The deflection of the frame is in shear mode and the
3.Rigid
wall is in bending mode. - The interaction reduces maximum moment but increases
maximum shear in the shear walls - This increases the tendency of shear failure in the
shear walls and this factor should be allowed for in the design.
4.Framed wall, shear wall, infilled shear wall: Framed walls are cast monolithically
Infilled walls are constructed by casing frames first and infilling it with masonary or
concrete blocks.

Core type shear wall: In some buildings elevators and other service
areas can be grouped in a core which serves to withstand lateral loads.
Unsymmetry produces twisting and if twisting is not present, these walls
act as simple shear walls. Cores with designed lintels at regular intervals
as in elevator, shafts have good resistance against torsion.

Classification based on behaviour:


1.Shear shear walls
deflection and the strength are contolled by shear. They are usually
low-rise shear walls
2.Ordinary- moment shear walls
deflection and strength are contolled by flexure. They are usually
high rise shear walls used to resist high winds and cyclones
3.Ductile moment shear walls:
special walls meant for seismic regions and which have good energy
dissipation characteristic under reversed cyclic loads.

Function of shear wall

Shear walls must provide the necessary


lateral strength to resist horizontal
earthquake forces.

When shear walls are strong enough,


they will transfer these horizontal forces
to the next element in the load path
below them.

These other components in the load


path may be other shear walls, floors,
foundation walls, slabs or footings.

Shear walls also provide lateral stiffness


to prevent the roof or floor above from
excessive sidesway.

When shear walls are stiff enough, they


will prevent floor and roof framing
members from moving off their
supports.

Also, buildings that are sufficiently stiff


will usually suffer less nonstructural
damage.

Architectural aspects of shear


walls

Shear walls provide large strength and


stiffness to buildings in the direction of
their orientation, which significantly
reduces lateral sway of the building and
thereby reduces damage to structure and
its contents.

Since shear walls carry large horizontal


earthquake forces, the overturning effects
on them are large.

Door or window openings can be provided


in shear walls, but their size must be small
to ensure least interruption to force flow
through walls.

Shear walls in buildings must be


symmetrically located in plan to reduce illeffects of twist in buildings (Figure 2). They
could be placed symmetrically along one
or both directions in plan.

Shear walls are more effective when


located along exterior perimeter of the

STEEL STRUCTURAL SYSTEM


EXAMPLES OF STEEL STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

1. MOMENT RESISTING FRAME


Moment-resisting framesare rectilinear assemblages of beams and columns,
with the beams rigidly connected to the columns. Resistance to lateral forces
is provided primarily byrigid frameaction-that is, by the development
ofbending momentandshear forcein the frame members and joints.
By virtue of the rigid beam-column connections, a moment frame cannot
displace laterally without bending the beams or columns depending on the
geometry of the connection. The bending rigidity and strength of the frame
members is therefore the primary source of lateral stiffness and strength for
the entire frame.
Moment resisting frames require special reinforcement detailing. The
minimum sixe of column should be 230mm wide by 400 deep and such small
members might even be too small for a building over two storey high
depending on the seismic zone. Since small structural members are not
recommended.
The distance between the column centrelines should typically range from 5m
to 8m. Basic principal is that the cross section of beam should be less as
compared to column.

1. Columns are placed at very close


centres. This leads to many strong
and weak columns.
2. There are no moment resisting
frames. No single frame is regular in
sense of having two or more columns
of same dimensions. Most frames
have
columns
with
different
orientation with respect to the beam.
3. Due to the absence of any strong and
stiffer frames to resist the lateral
loads all columns will participate in
resisting lateral loads. This means all
should be provided with ductile

1. To resist Y-direction loads by


four single bay frames. Each
frame
has
columns
approximately 600mm deep by
230mm wide. The beam about
500mm deep. Bay length of
5500mm.
2. In x-direction a central moment
resisting frame is provided.
Three bay of 5500mm average
span.
3. Now, only 12 columns require
ductile detailing. All the other

Here plastic hinges form at the ends


of beams. If a beam ends form
plastic hinge the beam can still carry
its gravity load easily.
With lot of hinges forming, the
damage sustained by each is small.

A perimeter moment resisting frame


on a wellington building. Two frames,
two bays long, resist lateral load in
each orthogonal directions.
The columns are made stronger than
the
beam
by
using
more
reinforcement steel and that too of
higher grade.
Plastic hinges will therefore form at
beam ends.

2.

BRACED FRAMES

Basic types of braced frame:


1.
2.
3.

Tension-only based frames.


Tension and compression
based frames.
Eccentrically braced frames.

Braced frame configuration:

Axial forces is member of


braced frame.

TENSION-ONLY BRACED FRAME. TENSION AND COMPRESSION


BRACED FRAME.

ECCENTRICALLY BRACED
FRAME.

CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM
COMPOSITE SYSTEM
The term Composite construction refers to a structural system with members
composed of more than one material and they are rigidly connected to each
other such that no relative movement can occur. Composite system called
composite floor system, first developed for bridge construction.

Some of the advantages of composite systems are mentioned below:

High bearing capacity


Effective utilization of materials
Absorbs energy released due to seismic forces
Fast rate of construction
Less cost of formwork
Possible to construct large span structure which gives
large column free area
Low weight of structure and low cost of foundation
Good quality control
Higher stiffness gives less deflection

The disadvantages of composite construction are as follows:


Required of skilled labour
Extensive care required during design and construction

Composite
Floors
Composite floors have steel beams bonded with concrete slab in such a way
that both of them act as a unit in resisting the total loads. The sizes of steel
beams are significantly smaller in composite floors, because the slab acts as an
integral part of the beam in compression.
The composite floors require less steel tonnage in the structure and also result
in reduction of total floor depth. These advantages are achieved by utilising the
compressive strength of concrete by keeping all or nearly all of the concrete in
compression and at the same time utilises a large percentage of the steel in
tension.

Basically structural
systems for any
construction material
i.e. concrete, steel and
composite are classified
as follows:
Gravity load
resisting systems
Lateral load
resisting systems
Gravity load resisting
systems in composite
construction are:
Composite
beam/girder
Composite column
Composite shear wall
Composite truss
Lateral load resisting
systems for
composite
construction are:
Shear wall systems
Shear wall- frame
interacting systems
Tube systems

PROFILE SHEET DECKING


In the last three decades, a new form of composite floor construction,
consisting of profiled and formed steel decking with a concrete topping has
become popular for office and apartment buildings.
The structural behaviour is the same as that of reinforced concrete slab with
steel sheeting acting as centring until concrete hardens and as the tension
reinforcement after concrete hardens. It is popular where the loads are not
very heavy.

The advantages of steel-decking floors are given below:


(i) They do not need form work
(ii) The lightweight concrete is used resulting in reduced dead weight
(iii) The decking distributes shrinkage strains, thus prevents serious cracking
(iv) The decking stabilises the beam against lateral buckling, until the concrete
hardens
(v) The cells in decking are convenient for locating services.

PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION

Precast concrete floors offer speedy


erection and require only minimal
formwork.
Lightweight aggregates are generally
used in the concrete, making the
elements light and easy to handle.
It is necessary to use cast in place
mortar topping of 25 to 50 mm before
installing other floor coverings.
Larger capacity handling machines are
required for this type of construction
when compared with those required
for profiled decking.
Usually prestressing of the precast
element is required.

THANK YOU
GROUP MEMBERS

SHWETA HERLE
JANNETT
CHIRAG JAIN
RUPESH GHOSH
SIDDHESH GHAG
ANANYA
GAGANDEEP JADHAV
SARVESH GAMBIR
RAJVI
AARTI
RUSHIKESH
SHREYA
TEJAL
HARSHITA