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WELCOME

Transformers - Definition
IEC 60076-1
A static piece of apparatus with two or more windings which, by electromagnetic
induction, transforms a system of alternating voltage and current into another
system of voltage and current usually of different values and at the same
frequency for the purpose of transmitting electrical power.
IEEE C57.12.80-2002
A static device consisting of a winding, or two or more coupled windings with or
without a magnetic core for introducing mutual coupling between electrical
circuits.

Generation of Flux & Primary EMF

Phase relation between EMF,Flux


Primary curre

What happens when a second coil is


placed around the core ?

Magnetic Coupling between coils


and secondary EMF

What If a load is connected in


Second coil ?

Generation of Counteracting MMF

What is Leakage flux ?

Equivalent circuit of a ideal


transformer

What is a Step-Up/ Step-down


Transformer

TRANSFORMERS
Types & Applications

Transformers - Application Areas &


Application Areas:
Standards
Power stations (Thermal, Hydro, Nuclear, Wind farms)
Transmission Substations
Factory Substations
Railway Traction Supply
Aluminium Smelters / Arc Furnaces
Application Standards:
CBIP Technical Publication No.275 (1999). Manual on Transformers
(Sections A ~P)
IEC60076-8 (1997) Application guide / IS 10561: 1983
IS10028 (Part I) : 1981 Selection of Transformers

Transformers - Types & Applications


Generator Transformers

: For stepping up the generator voltage to


transmission line voltage. Used in Generating
Stations only.

Unit Auxiliary
Transformers

: UATs are used to feed substation / Power Station


Auxiliaries.

Transmission & Auto


Transformer

: Transformers for bulk supply of power and to


interconnect separate EHV transmission systems.

HVDC Converter
Transformer

: Used for HVDC systems.

Phase Shifting
Transformer

: To control the power flow in an


interconnected network.

Transformers - Types &


Interconnected
Star
: To provide a neutral point for connection to earth
Applications
Earthing Transformers

on a system which would otherwise not have one.

Distribution
Transformers

: To step down the voltages to distribution


Levels

Rectifier Transformers

: Step Down Transformer to feed rectifier.

Arc Furnace Transformers : Step Down Transformer to feed Arc furnace.


Traction Transformers

: For use in Traction applications on


locomotives.

Generator neutral
Earthing Transformers

: Generally used to connect the generator stator


neutral to the earth to limit the short circuit current in
the event of a fault.

Traction transformer for mounting


on Locomotive

11/220 kV, 75 MVA Generator Transformer

220/66 kV, 100 MVA Station


Transformer

Rectifier Transformer

HVDC Transformer

Inside a transformer

Power Transformer - Main Parts


Active Part

: Core
Windings (HV, LV, Regulating, Tertiary)
Tap Changer(s) (On Load / Off Load)
Cleats & Leads

Tank
Accessories

: Radiators

Auxiliaries

: Bushings
Buchholz Relay/Oil Surge Relay
Temperature Indicators
Oil Level Indicators
Pressure Relief Device
Marshalling Box/Control cubicle

Oil Preservation Systems : Conservators (gas sealed, Bellows/membrane


sealed)
Breathers
Thermosiphon Filters

Power Transformer - Active Part


Core
Windings
Leads
Tap Changer

100MVA 220kV Power Transformer


Radiator Bank
Conservator
Oil Level
Indicator
Bushings
Buchholz Relay
Fans
Tank
Marshalling Box
/Control cubicle

Basic Layout

We need:
Current conductor
Magnetic flux conductor
and also
Insulation
Cooling
Protection
Supporting accessories

Basic Layout

Conductors for current and magnetic flux


The current conductor
is wound into a coil
(alt. winding).
The flux conductor ,
the core, provides an
uninterrupted path
for the flux invoked
by the coil.

Basic Layout

Cylinder shaped windings


(coils) concentrically
arranged around a cylinder
shaped core limb
THE CORE TYPE CONCEPT

Basic design concept


Core type
Circular shaped
windings
Shell type
Rectangular
shaped windings

Core

The core, an unbroken path for magnetic


flux

A
V ie w A - A

C o n v e n tio n a l

S te p la p

Interleaved and
45 joints for
low magnetic
resistance

Core

The core, an unbroken path for magnetic


flux
Lamination sheets
cut for the core
limb and step-lap
stacking

Core
The conductor
for the flux
The skeleton for
mechanical rigidity
of the active part

Windings

The winding -- the current carrier


From core and outwards:
Helical winding for few
turns and several strands
in parallel
Disc winding for many
turns and one or few
strands in parallel
Layer type winding for
voltage regulation

Windings

The helical winding


The helical winding can be
built with one or several
threads.
The picture shows a
double threaded winding

Windings

The disc winding


In a disc winding the
conductor moves axially
from disc to disc.
Within the disc the individual turns are arranged
radially.

Windings

The disc winding


6

10 11 12

10

11

12

13

13

Interleaving (right sketch)


improves the voltage
distribution for voltage
transients with steep
fronts, like lightning
surges.

EFFECT OF
SHIELDING/INTERLEAVING ON
IMPULSE VOLTAGE
DISTRIBUTION

ROLE OF
CAPACITANCE
IN IMPULSE
VOLTAGE
DISTRIBUTIO
N

Windings
Disc winding concepts

Conventional

Shield wire

Interleaved

4 3 2 1

3 2 S 1

6 2 5 1

5 6 7 8

4 5 S 6

3 7 4 8

8 7

Windings

The disc winding


Centre entry for high
voltage terminal is
advantageous when it
comes to control of
dielectric stress.

Windings

The winding conductor


A single strand in its own
paper covering
alt.
The continuously transposed cable

Insulation
Insulation is based on an
aggregate of:
Cellulose, here a fibre of pine

Mineral oil, similar to diesel


oil

Insulation
Oil is the primary
insulation medium
Barriers split a long oil
path into a number of
short sections to
eliminate the risk for
random voltage
breakdowns

Insulation

Barrier structure between


two windings

Insulation
Against yoke the
barrier system
must be arranged
to permit
unobstructed oil
flow in and out to
the winding.

Cooling

Accessories & Auxiliaries

On load Tap Changer


Used for On Load Voltage
regulation
Can be mounted inside
tank / Outside Tank
Selection of OLTC depends
on
Position of Tap Connection
Voltage & Current
requirement
Connections of tap winding
No. of taps
Method of tap changing eg.
Linear, reversing , Coarse
fine

Available in 1& 3 pole

Bushings
Bushings
Oil-Oil
Oil-Air
Oil-Gas
Oil-Air
Oil Communicating Type
Normally Used Up to 52 kV

OIP Condenser Bushing


52 to 800 kV

Radiators
Radiators are used to
increase the cooling surface
area.
Due to transformer losses Oil
gets heated up. Hot oil rises
to
top & flows to radiator .
In radiator while flowing
down, oil dissipates heat to
cooling medium.
Cold oil again enters
transformer at bottom of
radiator.

Oil / Winding Temperature Indicator


Range
0-120 deg
0-150 deg
30-150 deg

Temperature
measurement based on
thermal imaging
Up to 4 independent
control switches
Facility for remote
indication with repeater

Buchholz Relay
Gas Operated Relay
Double element
relay
- One for Minor fault
- One for Major fault

Buchholz Relay

Alarm element Operates When a specified volume of


gas gets collected in Chamber during
Broken down core bolt insulation
Shorted Laminations
Bad Contacts
Overheating of winding parts
Trip element Operates by Oil surge in the event of
serious fault
Earth fault
Short Circuit between Winding Phases or within
Windings
Puncture of Bushing

Pressure Relief Device( PRD)


Works as a Pressure
releasing valve
Equipped with
Alarm/ trip contact
Operating Pressure
8 Psi

Magnetic Oil Level Gauge

Dielectrics

Dielectric stress
Elaborate barrier arrangements
are vital for reliable and safe
insulation systems

Dielectric
Barrier system prevents
random voltage breakdown
Cleanliness to avoid ongoing
tracking in material

Tools for Mapping field


Accurate mapping of
dielectric stress in each
part of the transformer
Detailed knowledge
about leakage flux for
correct force pattern

Dielectric stress
Insulation philosophy on barriers
Detailed mapping of voltages and voltage
distribution within the insulation media
Knowledge on characteristics for insulation media,
solid and fluid (cellulose and mineral oil)
Cleanliness in production
Tight manufacturing control
Extensive development work

Short Circuits

Short Circuit
Integrity
A key for reliable
operation

Network disturbances must not give


rise to consequential damages

Short circuit current


gives rise to:

- Mechanical force

- Temperature rise

Flux and current interact


and give rise to
mechanical forces
dF = Ids x B

Critical temperature rise


Loss development
proportional to the square of
the current
A tenfold increase means a
hundredfold increase in loss
development
Only a limited time can be
permitted with such high
current

Electromagnetic forces tend


to increase the volume of
high flux.

Inner winding towards


reduced radius

Outer winding towards


increased radius
Winding height
reduction

Radial forces failure modes:


- Buckling of inner winding
- Diameter increase of outer winding
- Spiralling of end turns in helical winding

Inner winding:
Radial forces inwards
compressive
stress

In n e r
w in d in g

O u te r
w in d in g

Outer winding:
Radial forces
outwards
tensile stress

Buckling
Characteristic failure mode
for inner winding

Collapse of a cylinder
shaped winding from
evenly distributed
external force

Buckling of an inner winding

Buckling of an inner winding


photo from winding top end

Buckling withstand
depends on:
- Strand width
- Yield stress of
conductor material

Outward radial forces


tend to increase the
winding diameter
The permanent increase
must be negligible

Cold-working
enhances the short
circuit withstand
d

sig m a 0 2

Inner winding

Outer winding

Spiralling
A tangential shift of
end turns in helical
type windings

Alternative view of
spiralling

Spiralling
End turn damaged by
tangential force

Spiralling
End turn damaged by
tangential force

Short circuit
performance
Self supporting windings
Detailed mapping of forces
and force distribution
Knowledge about material
characteristics
Tight manufacturing control

Accurate calculation of leakage


flux and flux
distribution is the
base for short
circuit evaluation

PTPT Winding Shop

PTPT Assembly Shop

PTPT Test bay