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HUBUNGAN

KARAKTERISTIK
PESAWAT TERBANG
DENGAN BANDARA

BAGAN ALIR PERENCANAAN BANDARA (ICAO)

KARAKTERISTIK PESAWAT YANG DIBUTUHKAN


DALAM PERENCANAAN BANDARA
KARAKTERISTIK
PESAWAT

BENTANGAN SAYAP

KODE ANGKA: 1 , 2 , 3, 4

PANJANG PESAWAT
JARAK
RODA
PESAWAT

KLASIFIKASI BANDAR
UDARA

PENDARATAN

JARAK RODA DEPAN DGN RODA


UTAMA
TINGGI MAKSIMUM PESAWAT

KODE HURUF: A, B, C, D, E

KODE REFERNSI AERODROME


KODE ELEMEN 1
Nomor
Kode

Referensi Panjang
Lapangan Aerodrome

KODE ELEMEN 2
Huruf
Kode

Lebar Sayap

Lebar Roda
Utama Terluar

Kurang dari 800m

Hingga 15m tapi tdk


termasuk 15m

Hingga 4,5m tapi


tdk termasuk 4,5m

800m hingga tapi tidak


termasuk 1200m

15m hingga tapi tdk


termasuk 24m

4,5 hingga tapi tdk


termasuk 6m

1200m hingga tapi tidak


termasuk 1800m

24m hingga tapi tdk


termasuk 36m

6m hingga tapi tdk


termasuk 9m

1800m dan lebih

36m hingga tapi tdk


termasuk 52m

9m hingga tapi tdk


termasuk 14m

52m hingga tapi tdk


termasuk 65m

9m hingga tapi tdk


termasuk 14m

65m hingga tapi tdk


termasuk 80m

14m hingga tapi


tdk termasuk 16m

KARAKTERISTIK PESAWAT YANG DIBUTUHKAN


DALAM PERENCANAAN BANDARA
BENTANGAN SAYAP
PANJANG PESAWAT
JARAK RODA PENDARATAN PESAWAT
JARAK RODA DEPAN DGN RODA
UTAMA
TINGGI MAKSIMUM PESAWAT

DIMENSI APRON DAN HANGGAR


LEBAR RUNWAY,
ANTAR KEDUANYA

TAXIWAY

DAN

JARAK

JARI JARI YG DIBUTUHKAN PADA KURVA


PERKERASAN

Definisi Dimensi Pesawat

Panjang pesawat didefinisikan sebagai jarak depan dari


ujung badan pesawat, atau badan utama pesawat ke
ujung belakang bagian ekor yang dikenal sbg empennage.
The length of an aircraft is used to determine the length
of an aircrafts parking area, hangars. In addition for a
commercial service airport, the length of the largest
aircraft to perform at least five departures per day
determines the required amount of aircraft rescue and
firefighting equipment on the airfield

Definisi Dimensi Pesawat

Lebar sayap pesawat (wingspan) didefinisikan sebagai


jarak dari ujung sayap ke ujung sayap pesawat utama
pesawat
The wingspan of an aircraft is used to determine the
width of aircraft parking areas and gate spacing, as well
as determining the width and separations of runways and
taxiways on the airfield.
Tinggi maksimum pesawat biasanya didefinisikan sebagai
jarak dari tanah ke bagain atas dari ekor pesawat
Pada kasus tertentu ditentukan dari jarak tanah ke bagian
hidung pesawat pada saat dibuka

Definisi Dimensi Pesawat

Jarak sumbu roda pesawat (wheel base) didefinisikan


sebagai jarak antara pusat roda pendaratan utama
pesawat dan pusat roda depan bagian hidung pesawat
atau ekor roda pada kasus pesawat dng roda ekor.
Track roda pesawat (wheel track) didefinisikan sebagai
jarak antara roda luar pendaratan utama pesawat

The wheelbase and wheel track of an aircraft determine its


minimum turning radius, which in turn plays a large role in the
design of taxiway turnoffs, intersections, and other areas on an
airfield which require an aircraft to turn.
Wheelbase dan wheel track pada pesawat digunakan utk
menentukan radius minimal berputar, dimana ini mempunyai
peran besar untuk mendesain belokan taxiway, persimpangan,
dan area lainnya di dalam lapangan terbang yang dibutuhkan
untuk pesawat berbalik/berbelok

RADIUS PUTAR PESAWAT

The center of rotation can be easily determined by drawing a line


through the axis of the nose gear at whatever steering angle is
desired. The intersection of this line with a line drawn through the
axes of the two main gears is the center of rotation. Some of the
newer large aircraft have the capability of swiveling the main gear
when making sharp turns. The effect of the swivel is to reduce the
turning radius (Fig. 2-2). Minimum turning radii for some typical
transport aircraft are given in Table 2-3.

Minimum Turning Radius for


Passager Aircraft

Radius Putar Pesawat dapat


dinyatakan dengan rumus berikut :

KONFIGURASI RODA PENDARATAN UTAMA


KONFIGURASI RODA PENDARATAN DIRANCANG
UNTUK MENYERAP GAYA GAYA YANG TIMBUL SELAMA
PROSES PENDARATAN
MENAHAN BEBAN YANG LEBIH KECIL DARI PESAWAT
YANG LEPAS LANDAS MAKSIMUM

KONFIGURASI RODA
PENDARATAN UTAMA

BENTUK BENTUK KONFIGURASI RODA PENDARATAN UTAMA

The landing gear configuration plays a critical role in distributing


the weight of an aircraft on the ground it sits on, and thus in turn
has a significant impact on the design of airfield pavements.
Specifically, the more wheels on a landing gear, the heavier an
aircraft can be and still be supported on a ramp, taxiway, or
runway of a given pavement strength.

Minimum Turning Radius for


Passager Aircraft

KARAKTERISTIK PESAWAT YANG DIBUTUHKAN


DALAM PERENCANAAN BANDARA
BEBAN PESAWAT
KONFIGURASI RODA PENDARATAN UTAMA

PERANCANGAN
TEBAL
PERKERASAN DI BANDARA

LAPISAN

PANJANG RUNWAY LEPAS LANDAS


DAN PENDARATAN SUATU BANDARA

ISTILAH ISTILAH MENYANGKUT BEBAN PESAWAT


BERAT KOSONG OPERASI (OPERATING WEIGHT EMPTY=OWE)
YG DIKENAL JUGA SBG BERAT PALING RINGAN
BERAT SENDIRI PESAWAT+ AWAK PESAWAT PAYLOAD BAHAN
BAKAR
MUATAN
(PAYLOAD):
BEBAN
YANG
DIPERBOLEHKAN
UNTUK
DIANGKUT OLEH PESAWAT SESUAI DENGAN PERSYARATAN ANGKUT
PESAWAT = ZWF - OWE
BERAT BAHAN BAKAR KOSONG (ZERO FUEL WEIGHT=ZFW)
BEBAN MAKSIMUM TERDIRI DARI BERAT OPERASI KOSONG+ BEBAN
PENUMPANG DAN BARANG.
BOLEH DILAKUKAN PENAMBAHAN BERAT TAPI HARUS BERAT BAHAN
BAKAR PESAWAT.
SAYAP PESAWAT BERUPA RONGGA-RONGGA SEPERTI BEJANA
BERHUBUNGAN SEHINGGA SAAT PESAWAT BERBELOK DAN MIRING,
BAHAN BAKAR TIDAK TERKUMPUL KE SATU SISI NAMUN BISA
TERBAGI MERATA

ISTILAH ISTILAH MENYANGKUT BEBAN


PESAWAT

BERAT RAMP MAKSIMUM (MAXIMUM RAMP WEIGHT= MRW)


BEBAN MAKSIMUM PESAWAT UNTUK MELAKUKAN GERAKAN ATAU
BERJALAN DARI PARKIR PESAWAT KE LANDAS PACU.

BERAT MAKSIMUM LEPAS LANDAS (MAXIMUM TAKE OFF


WEIGHT / MTOW)
BEBAN MAKSIMUM PADA AWAL LEPAS LANDAS SESUAI DGN BOBOT
PESAWAT DAN PERSYARATAN KELAYAKAN PENERBANGAN : OWE +
PAYLOAD +BAHAN BAKAR TDK TERMASUK BAHAN BAKAR UNTUK
GERAKAN AWAL

BERAT MAKSIMUM MENDARAT


LANDING WEIGHT / MSLW)

(MAXIMUM

STRUCTURAL

BEBAN MAKSIMAL YG DAPAT DITAHAN STRUKTUR PESAWAT SAAT


MENDARAT

ISTILAH ISTILAH MENYANGKUT BEBAN PESAWAT


BERAT
MAXIMUM
WEIGHT= MLW ):

PENDARATAN

(MAXIMUM

LANDING

BEBAN MAKSIMUM PESAWAT SAAT MEYENTUH PERMUKAAN


LANDASAN
PACU
SESUAI
DENGAN
BOBOT
PESAWAT
DAN
PERSYARATAN KELAYAKAN PENERBANGAN
TABEL BEBAN PESAWAT SAAT PENGOPERASIAN

JENIS-JENIS MESIN PESAWAT

Piston Engine Aircraft


Pesawat yg digerakkan oleh putaran baling-baling dari
mesin piston
Turbo Prop
Pesawat yg digerakkan oleh putaran baling-baling dari
mesin turbin
Turbo jet
Pesawat yg digerakkan oleh tenaga dorong semburan jet
Turbo fan
Pesawat dengan mesin jet yg ditambahkan kipas (fan) di
depan atau dibelakang turbin shg dihasilkan tenaga yg
lebih besar

Turbofan engine

These engine technologies reduce fuel consumption by 25


to 35 percent. These engines, which are variously termed
unducted fan (UDF) engines and ultrahigh bypass ratio
(UHB) turbofan engines, have brought on the emergence of
very light jet aircraft.

The power of an aircraft engine is typically measured in


pounds of forward moving force, or thrust. Table 2-4 lists
a sample of jet engines, and their measurements of thrust
installed on historical and current transport category
aircraft.

Aircraft Engine

Aircraft engine power efficiency is measured in terms of the


thrust-to-weight ratio, defined simply as the pounds of
thrust provided by the engine, divided by the weight of the
engine. Early jet engines were produced with thrust-toweight ratios of approximately 3:1. In the early part of the
twenty-first century, new light but powerful jet engines with
thrust to weight ratios nearing 5:1 have significantly
improved the operating efficiency of air transport aircraft
and have made the emergence of the very light jet market
feasibl

Tipe Mesin Pesawat

Aircraft Engine

One important measure of engine performance efficiency is


that of specific fuel consumption, expressed in terms of
pounds of fuel perhour per pound of thrust. Fuel
consumption of jet aircraft engines tends to be expressed
in pounds rather than in gallons. This is because the
volumetric expansion and contraction of fuel with changes
in temperature can be misleading in the amount of fuel
which is available. Each gallon of jet fuel weighs about 6.7
lb (pound)

Konsumsi bahan bakar dalam galon per-mil


jarak tempuh

As observed in Fig. 2-5, the fuel consumption in gallons peravailable seat


mile decreases with increasing route segment length.
This ratio has become increasingly significant to aircraft operations as the
price of fuel has increased dramatically in the early part of the twenty-first
century.

Fuel Consumption

Air Pressure and Temperature

The performance of all aircraft is affected significantly by


the atmospheric conditions in which they operate. These
conditions are constantly varying, based simply on the daily
heating and cooling of the earth by the sun, and the
associated winds and precipitation that occur.
In general, the performance of aircraft depends primarily
on the density of the air through which it is operating. The
greater the density of the air, the more air molecules flow
over the wings, creating more lift, allowing the aircraft to
fly. As air density decreases, aircraft require larger airspeed
to maintain lift. For airport design, for example, this
translates to longer runway length requirements when air is
less dense. The density of the air is primarily a function of
the air pressure, measured in English units as inches of
mercury (inHg) and in metric units as millibars (mb) or
hectopascals.

Air Pressure and Temperature


Air density is affected by air pressure and air temperature.
As air pressure decreases, there are less air molecules per
unit volume and thus air density decreases. As air
temperature increases, the velocity and thus spacing
between air molecules increases, thus reducing air density.
Kerapatan udara mempengaruhi tekanan udara dan suhu
udara. Ketika tekanan udara berkurang, maka jumlah
molekul udara berkurang per unit volume dan oleh karena
itu kerapatan udara juga berkurang. Ketika suhu udara
naik, kecepatan dan demikian juga jarak antara molekul
udaranya turut meningkat, demikian sehingga mengurangi
kerapatan udara.

In the standard atmosphere it is assumed that from sea


level to an altitude of about 36,000 ft, known as the
troposphere, the temperature decreases linearly. Above

Air Pressure and Temperature

In the standard atmosphere it is assumed that from sea


level to an altitude of about 36,000 ft, known as the
troposphere, the temperature decreases linearly. Above
36,000 to about 65,000 ft, known as the stratosphere, the
temperature remains constant; and above 65,000 ft, the
temperature rises. Many conventional jet aircraft fly as high
as 41,000 ft. The supersonic transports flew at altitudes on
the order of 60,000 ft or more.
In the troposphere the standard atmosphere is defined as
follows:

Air Pressure and Temperature


In the troposphere the standard atmosphere is defined as follows:
1. The temperature at sea level is 59F or 15C. This is known as the
standard temperature at sea level.
2. The pressure at sea level is 29.92126 inHg or 1015 mb. This is known
as the standard pressure at sea level.
3. The temperature gradient from sea level to the altitude at
which the temperature becomes 69.7F is 3.566F per thousand feet.
That is, for every increase in altitude of 1000 ft, the temperature
decreases by approximately 3.5F or 2C.

Air Pressure and Temperature


Both standard pressure and standard temperature decrease
with increasing altitude above sea level. The following relation
establishes the standard pressure in the troposphere up to a
temperature of 69.7F.

Air Pressure and Temperature


In the above formula, the temperature is expressed in absolute or
Rankine units. Absolute zero is equal to 459.7F, 0F is equal to
459.7R, and 59F is equal to 518.7R.
Using these criteria, the standard temperature at an altitude of 5000
ft is 41.2F, and the standard pressure is 24.90 inHg. Table 2-7
contains a partial listing of standard temperatures and pressures. It
is common to refer to standard conditions or standard day.

Pada rumus diatas, temperatur dinyatakan dalam absolut


atau unit-unit Rankine. Absolut nol sama dengan - 459.7F,
0F sama dengan 459.7R, and 59F sama dengan 518.7R.
Menggunakan kriteria ini, temperatur standar pada ketinggian
5000 kaku adalah 41.2F, dan standar tekanan adalah 24.90
inHg (inci raksa/mekuri)

Air Pressure and Temperature

Air Pressure and Temperature

A standard condition is one in which the actual temperature


and pressure correspond to the standard temperature and
pressure at a particular altitude. When reference is made to
the temperature being above standard it means that the
temperature is higher than the standard temperature.
As aircraft takeoff performance data is typically related to
the local barometric pressure and ambient air temperature,
which in turn affects the density of the air, a defined value
known as density altitude is often used to estimate the
density of the air at any given time. Density altitude is a
function of the effect of barometric pressure on air density,
defined through the measurement known as pressure
altitude, and the ambient temperature.

Air Pressure and Temperature

Assuming that at a standard day at sea level, where the


elevation above sea level is effectively 0, the density
altitude on a standard day would also be 0. If the
barometric pressure was less than the standard pressure of
29.92 inHg, the pressure altitude would be greater than 0.
Conversely (sebaliknya), if the barometric pressure was
greater than standard pressure, the pressure altitude would
be less than 0. This relates to the fact that, when the
atmospheric pressure drops, the air becomes less dense
(kurang padat), requiring a longer run on the ground to
obtain the same amount of lift as on a day when the
pressure is high.
Thus a reduction in atmospheric pressure at an airport has
the same effect on its air density as if the airport had been
moved to a higher elevation.