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Refrigeratio

n Cycle

Guide :
Prof. Arun Atre

Ar. Sanjita maindargikar


no. 8
Ar. Shridhar Potnis
no. 9
M Arch First Year
2015-16

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Contents
Introduction to Refrigeration Cycle
Components of Refrigeration Cycle
Refrigeration Cycle in Refrigerator
Sector
Types of Refrigeration in HVAC system
Assessment of Refrigeration cycle
Energy Efficiency in Refrigeration
Cycle

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

What is refrigeration ?
Refrigerationis aprocessof moving heat from one
location to another in controlled conditions. The work
of heat transport is traditionally driven by mechanical
work, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism,
electricity,
laser, or other
means.
Why
refrigeration
?
We need refrigeration for
many parts of our life.
Almost everything in
space is in freezed
condition. It is only heat
that changes the status
of objects.
We can preserve things
which we may require
after a long time or
specific period.

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

What is refrigeration cycle ?


If we are
interested in
learning how a
refrigeration
system works,
it is helpful to
understand
from the Ph
(Pressure
Enthalpy)
chart
perspective. It
makes our life
easier.
This is how
the

There are five basic components of a refrigeration


system, these are: 1. Evaporator .
2.Compressor
3. Condenser
4. Expansion Valve
5. Refrigerant;
to conduct the heat from the product In order for the
refrigeration cycle to operate successfully each
component must be present within the refrigeration
system.

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

Components of refrigeration:

The purpose of the evaporator is to


remove unwanted heat from the product,
via the liquid refrigerant.
The liquid refrigerant contained within the
evaporator is boiling at a low-pressure.
The level of this pressure is determined
by two factors: The rate at which the heat is absorbed
from the product to the liquid refrigerant
in the evaporator
The rate at which the low-pressure
vapor is removed from the evaporator by
the compressor to enable the transfer of
heat, the temperature of the liquid
refrigerant must be lower than the
temperature of the product being cooled.
Once transferred, the liquid refrigerant is Figure showing evaporator
and condencer
drawn from the evaporator by the
compressor via the suction line. When
leaving the evaporator coil the liquid
refrigerant is in vapor form

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F


Y M Arch

The Evaporator :

The purpose of the compressor is to


draw the low-temperature, lowpressure vapour from the evaporator
via the suction line. Once drawn, the
vapour is compressed. When vapour
is compressed it rises in temperature.
Therefore, the compressor transforms
the vapour from a low-temperature
vapour to a high-temperature vapour,
in turn increasing the pressure. The
vapour is then released from the
compressor
in touse
thechemicals
discharge that
line.
Air conditioners
easily convert from a gas to a liquid
and back again. This chemical is used
to transfer heat from the air inside of
a home to the outside air. The
machine has three main parts. They
are a compressor, a condenser and
anevaporator.Apr 22, 2002

Principle member of
refrigeration system

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

The Compressor :

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

Evaporatoris an
important component
together with other
major components in a
refrigeration system such
as compressor,
condenser and expansion
device. The reason for
refrigeration is to remove
heat from air, water or
other substance. It is
here that the liquid
refrigerant is expanded
and evaporated

The purpose of the condenser is to


extract heat from the refrigerant to
the outside air. The condenser is
usually installed on the reinforced
roof of the building, which enables
the transfer of heat. Fans mounted
above the condenser unit are used to
draw air through the condenser coils.
The temperature of the high-pressure
vapour determines the temperature
at which the condensation begins. As
heat has to flow from the condenser
to the air, the condensation
temperature must be higher than that
of the air; usually between - 12C and
-1C. The high-pressure vapour within
the condenser is then cooled to the
point where it becomes a liquid
refrigerant once more, whilst
retaining some heat. The liquid
refrigerant then flows from the

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

The Condenser:

Within the refrigeration


system, the expansion valve
is located at the end of the
liquid line, before the
evaporator. The high-pressure
liquid reaches the expansion
valve, having come from the
condenser. The valve then
reduces the pressure of the
refrigerant as it passes
through the orifice, which is
located inside the valve. On
reducing the pressure, the
temperature of the refrigerant
also decreases to a level
below the surrounding air.
This low-pressure, lowtemperature liquid is then
pumped in to the evaporator.

Components
of valve

Schematic valve

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

The Expansion Valve

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F Y M Arch

The main principle is the


same as any other
refrigeration cycle.
Compressor
Condenser coil
Evaporator
Fan
The only difference that it
dont have return air
system.
It differs in this aspect if
compared to domestic
refrigerator. The
refrigerent used in these
systems is
R-22( CHCIF 2)
Boiling point -40.8C,
Critical temperature 96C
And R- 22 also.

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F


Y M Arch

Window air conditioner

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F


Y M Arch

Domestic refrigerator

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F


Y M Arch

Modern refrigerators
usually use a refrigerant
calledHFC-134a (1,1,1,2
Tetrafluoroethane),
which does not deplete
theozonelayer, instead of
Freon. A R-134a is now
becoming very uncommon
in Europe. Newer
refrigerants are being used
instead.

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F


Y M Arch

Before e 50 years, the use of refrigerator was


not common. Even window air conditioner were
not much in use. It was a luxury for most of
them.
As a result of may be global warming, may be,
people are turning to artificial means for
temperature control.
It is now becoming mandatory for people,
particularly in hot and dry climate. And may for
comfort also it is necessasity of people. Now
we should look forward for the refrigerant
which may not harm our planets Ecllogy

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F


Y M Arch

Conclussion

Types of Refrigeration

Refrigeration systems

Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR):


uses mechanical energy

Vapour Absorption Refrigeration (VAR): uses


thermal energy

Types of Refrigeration
Vapour Compression Refrigeration

Highly compressed fluids tend to get colder when


allowed to expand

If pressure high enough


Compressed air hotter than source of cooling
Expanded gas cooler than desired cold
temperature

Two advantages

Lot of heat can be removed (lot of thermal energy to


change liquid to vapour)

Heat transfer rate remains high (temperature of


working fluid much lower than what is being cooled)

Vapour Compression Refrigeration

Refrigeration cycle
3

Condenser

High
Pressure
Side

4
Expansion
Device

Compressor

1
Evaporator

Low
Pressure
Side

Vapour Compression Refrigeration


Type of refrigerant

Refrigerant determined by the required cooling


temperature

Chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFCs) or freons: R-11, R12, R-21, R-22 and R-502

Choice of compressor, design of condenser, evaporator


determined by

Refrigerant

Required cooling

Load

Ease of maintenance

Physical space requirements

Availability of utilities (water, power)

Vapour Absorption Refrigeration

Condenser

Generator
Hot
Side

Evaporator
Cold
Side

Absorber

Assessment of Refrigeration

Energy Efficiency Opportunities


1. Optimize process heat exchange
2. Maintain heat exchanger surfaces
3. Multi-staging systems
4. Matching capacity to system load
5. Capacity control of compressors
6. Multi-level refrigeration for plant needs
7. Chilled water storage
8. System design features

Ar. Shridhar Potnis F Y March 2015-16 Ar. Sanjita Maindargikar F


Y M Arch

Thanks