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Anatomy

Tracheobronchial Tree
and
Bronchopulmonary
Segments With Summary Of
Histology

Presented by
Jega Subramaniam Student
Guided by
Dr Venugopal, Dr Manah Chandra,
Dr Gargi Sonni & Dr Ravindra

Anatomy of Respiratory System


Intr
o

Upper respiratory tract


Nose, nasal cavity, and
paranasal sinuses
Pharynx and larynx

Lower respiratory tract


Trachea
Bronchi and
bronchioles

Intr
o

Organization of Respiratory
System
Conducting portion
Nose
nasal cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
primary bronchi to the
terminal bronchioles

Respiratory Portion
respiratory
bronchioles
alveolar ducts
alveoli

Anatomical
Dead Space

Passage of air from trachea


Trachea
Right and Left Principal Bronchus ( Primary Bronchus )

Intr
o

Lobar Bronchi(Secondary Bronchus)


Segmental Bronchi(Tertiary
Bronchus)
Terminal Bronchioles(25000 in no.)
Alveolar
ducts
Respiratory
Bronchioles

ACINUS
Alveolar sacs
Alveoli

Tracheobronchial Tree
Its a Invasion of Primary Bronchus into hilum of the lungs
and their branching structure of airways supplying air to the
lungs.

Trachea divides into Right and Left Principle Bronchus


Each Principle Bronchus divides into Lobar Bronchus

Each Lobar bronchus devides into Segmental Bronchus


Segmental Bronchus devide the Lobes of the Lungs into
smaller segments = Bronchopulmanory Segment
Trachea Principle Bronchus Lobar Bronchus- Segmental
Bronchus

Degrade Overlaping Cartigilanous


C-shaped rings of cartilage

Principle Bronchus = Primary Bronchi


Divides from trachea into Right and Left Princple Bronchus
Enter the both lungs at the hilum of the lungs
Right = 2-3 cm long and wider then Left, more vertical
Left = 5 cm and narrower
Lined by Pseudostratified Ciliated columnar epithelium (Infact
it , Lines all Bronchus From Principle until Segmental Bronchus ,
buts it shortens in size as they move towards periphery . Thus most
of the segmental bronchus will be lined by Simple Cuboidal Ep.)
Supported by C-shaped cartilage
Further devides into Lobar bronchus

Lobar Bronchus = Secondary Bronchi


Divides from Principle Bronchus
Enter into Each lobe of the both Lungs
Left Lung ; Superior Lobar Bronchus
; Inferior Lobar Bronchus
Right Lung ; Superior Lobar Bronchus
; Middle Lobar Bronchus
; Inferior Lobar Bronchus

Segemental Bronchus = Tertiary


Bronchus

Right lung = 10 Segmental Bronchus


Superior Lobar Bronchus gives off ; Apical
Posterior
Anterior

Segmental
Bronchus

Middle lobar Bronchus gives off : Lateral


Medial

AUNTY
PINKY
AND
LINKY
MARRIE
D

Segmental
Bronchus
Inferior Lobar
Bronchus gives off : Med to LatSUNDAY

Superior
Medial
Anterior
Posterior
Lateral

Basal
Segmental
Bronchus

MORNIN
G
AT
PULAU
LANGKA
WI

Segmental Bronchus

Left lung = 10 Segmental


Bronchus
Superior Lobar Bronchus gives off ; Apical
Posterior
Anterior

Cranial
Branch

Its =
middle
Lobar
Bronchus of
Right Lung

Superior Lingular Caudal /


Inferior Lingular Lingular

Branch
Inferior Lobar Bronchus
gives off :

Superior
Medial
Anterior
Posterior
Lateral

Basal
Segmental
Bronchus

AUNTY
PINKY
AND
LINKY
MARRIE
D

SUNDAY
MidMORNIN
to Lat
G
AT
PULAU
LANGKA
WI

Tracheobronchial Tree

Tracheobronchial Tree
T
R
A
C
H
E
A

APICAL

LATERAL

.B
M.L

Lateral
Basal

Post
Basal

Superior

Medial
Basal
ANTERIOR
BASAL

COLORED = SEGMENTAL BRONCHUS

I.L.
B

.B
I.L

MEDIAL

S.L.B

.B
L. P

S.L.B
R.P
.B

ANTERIO
R

POSTERI
OR
ANTERIO
R
B
.
SUPERIO
L
R
LINGULA
INFERIO
R R
LINGULA
R
Lateral
Basal
No

B
C.

POSTERI
OR

APICAL

of
Segmental
RIGHT Bronchus
LEFT Lung
Lung 3
3+
SUPERIOR
2
LOBE
MIDDLE LOBE 2
INFERIOR
5
5
Post
Basal

Broncopulmanory Segements

Well defined portions of the lungs which is aerated by Segmental /


Tertiary Bronchus

Pyramidal in shape - Apex directed towards root of the lungs ,


Base towards Surface

The name of the Segmental Bronchus corresponds to the name of


the Segment
Ex : Apical Segment Apical Segmental
Bronchus

It is a individual units consisting its own ;-

1 branch of Pulmanory Artery


1 or 2 branches of Pulmonary Vein
1 Segmental bronchus
Autonomic Nerves
Lymph Vessels

Clinical Importance
1. Segmental Resection
Refers to - Single infected segment can be
(Segmentectomy).
surgically removed without affecting its
neighbours.
Infections - never crosses the intersegmental
septa and are restricted to one
bronchopulmonary segment except
Tuberculosis and Cancer .
2.

Postural drainage

Excessive accumulation of secretions in bronchi


may lead to infection
Postural drainage - Such secretions can be drain
out of the lungs by placing the patient in a
posture that helps the fluid to be drain from the
lungs by gravity .

Broncopulmanory Segements
Right lung
Subdivided into three lobes
with ten segments:
Right upper lobe
1. Apical
2. Posterior
3. Anterior
Right middle lobe
4. Lateral
5. Medial
Right lower lobe
6. Superior
7. Medial Basal
8. Anterior Basal
10 Posterior Basal
9 Lateral Basal

Costal aspect

Medial
Surface

Broncopulmanory Segements
Left Lung
Costal aspect

Subdivided Into Two Lobes


With Ten Segments :
Left
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Upper Lobe
Apical
Posterior
Anterior
Superior Lingular
Inferior Lingular

Left Lower Lobe


6. Superior
7. Medial Basal
8. Anterior Basal
10. Posterior Basal

Medial
Surface

Relations to pulmonary artery and vein


Pulmonary artery gives branches to
accompany the bronchi
Each segment has its own arterial supply

Pulmonary Vein do not accompany the bronchi or


pulmonary arteries
They run in intersegmental planes forming segmental
veins
Each segment has more then 1 vein

Bronchiole
Segmental bronchi

several million bronchioles

Bronchioles - < 1mm in diameter


Cartilagenous rings replaced by cartilagenous plates as the size of
bronchioles decrease.
Size reaches to 0.6mm - completely disappear
To make it simple , just remember bronchioles have no cartilage
Lined by Ciliated Cuboidal Epithelium and well developed layer of
smooth muscle.
Bronchioles
50 to 80 terminal bronchioles - still in the
conducting zone
Terminal Bronchiole
2 or > respiratory bronchioles which
mark the beginning of the respiratory region.

Respiratory zone - Resp Bronchiole , A.Duct ,


A.Sac and Alveoli
Respiratory bronchioles and the alveolar ducts
are responsible for 10% of the gas exchange.
The alveoli are responsible for the other 90%.
Acinus = Distal to each Terminal Bronchial - consists of three
to four orders of respiratory bronchioles.
Respiratory bronchioles

2 to 10 alveolar ducts.

Walls of alveolar ducts consist of alveolar sacs or the mouths


of alveoli.
Lined by Non-Ciliated Simple Squmous
Smooth muscles are found in the walls of the airways upto the
level of alveolar ducts.

Alveolus
Singular - alveolus , plural: alveoli
"little cavity

Latiin -

Outcrop from either alveolar sacs or alveolar ducts


which are both sites of gas exchange with the blood

Typical pair of human lungs - 700 million alveoli - 70m 2


of surface area
Each alveolus is
wrapped in a fine mesh
of capillaries covering
about 70% of its area
Diameter of adult
alveolus 200
mictometers and

Alveolus
Type I cells (simple squamous
epithelium) 95 %
Type II cells (cuboidal epithelium) 5 %

Secrete surfactant Prevents


alveoli from collapsing by reducing the
surface tension of the fluid lining the
alveolar surface

Repair damaged alveolar


epithelium
Macrophages (Dust Cells ) that destroy

21

Alveolus
Contain some collagen and elastic fibres
Elastic fibers - allow the alveoli to stretch and Spring back
during and inhalation and exhalation
Each alveolus Interconnect by way of alveolar pores ( Pores of
Kohn )

Histology of alveoli

Respiratory Membrane
Is the barrier between alveolar air and blood
A.K.A alveolarcapillary barrier or
membrane
Permeable to molecular O2 , CO2 , CO and
many other gases.
Only simple squamous alveolar cells and
squmous endothelial cells of capilary
Their both basement membrane are fused

Prevents air bubbles from forming in the blood and blood from entering the
alveoli.

Extremely thin approximately 2m-600nm - to allow sufficient oxygen


diffusion

Type 4 Collagen fibers will provide strength to the barrier.

Histology
Trachea
Fibrous connective tissue
Cartilaginous Layer Hyaline Cartilage
Glandular
Mucos Membrane

Part
Lamina
Propria

Secrete Mucos
Has lining Epithelia
- Psedostratified
Ciliated Columnar

Bronchus
Fibrous connective tissue
Muscular Layer , which have elastic fibers in
between
Cartilaganeous Layer Glandular
Hyaline Cartilage
Mucos Membrane
Secrete

Part
Lamina
Propria

Mucos

- Psedostratified Ciliated
Columnar Ep.

- Ciliated Simple Columnar


Ep.

- Simple Cuboidal Ep.

Upper Part
of
Bronchus
Towards
the lower
parts of the

Bronchiole

No cartilage
Smooth Muscle is major component
Lined by Simple Cuboidal Ep.
No Mucos Glands
Occasionally Goblet Cells found
Small no . of Neuroendocrine Cells sometimes
cluster to form neuroepithelial bodies
Clara Cells Present
Respiratory Zone
A.Duct
Alveoli 2
types of lining
epithelia
A.Sac

Glandular Alveoli
Simple Cuboidal
Septal Alveoli Ep
Simple Squamous Ep

Nose

Ciliated Columnar Ep.

Pharynx

Larynx

Trachea

Bronchus

Upper
Part
Lower
Part

Pseudostratified
Ciliated Columnar Ep.
Upper
Part
Lower
Part

Ciliated Simple Columnnar Ep.

Lower

Bronchiole

Terminal

Simple Cuboidal Ep.

Resp

Alveolar Duct

Alveoli

Sept
al
Glandul

Simple Squmous Ep
Simple Cuboidal Ep.

Dear
Lecturers
and Friends
Reference

Gratitude
Sincere thanks to the Lectures
from Dept Of Anatomy , IMS. Each of
you have helped me a lot by explaining the concept of the topic and
guiding my presentation.
Thank You Dr Venugopal

. Dr Manah Chandra . Dr Gargi Sonni


Dr Ravindra Kumar