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EE4272: Computer Networks

Instructor: Tricia Chigan


Dept.: Elec. & Comp. Eng.
Spring, 2003

Spring, 2003

EE 4272

Chapter 1: Introduction
1) Data Communications: Deals with the transmission of signals in a
reliable & efficient manner.
Topics: Signal Transmission; Transmission Media; Signal Encoding;
Interfacing; Data Link Control; Multiplexing

2) Networking: Deals with the technology & architecture of the


communications networks used to interconnect communicating devices
Topics: LANs; WANs;

3) Communications Protocols: Protocol Architectures; Analysis of


individual protocols at various layers of the architecture

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Simplified Communications Model - Diagram


Purpose of Com. Sys.: Exchange of data between parties.

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A Communications Model
Source
- Generates data to be transmitted. E.g., Phone, computer
Transmitter
- Converts data into transmittable signals. E.g., encode bit
stream into electromagnetic signals.
Transmission System
- Carries data. E.g., transmission line, or a complex network
Receiver
- Converts received signal into data readable to des. device.
Destination
- Takes incoming data

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Key Communications Tasks

Transmission System Utilization: efficient/fair facility sharing


Signal Generation
Synchronization
Exchange Management
Error detection and correction
Addressing and routing
Recovery
Message formatting
Security
Network Management
Reading assignment: read the details of P6-p7
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Simplified Data Communications Model

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Networking
Point-to-point communication not usually practical
- Devices are too far apart
- Large set of devices would need impractical number of
connections

Solution is a communications network

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Wide Area Networks

Large geographical area


Crossing public rights of way
Rely in part on common carrier circuits
Alternative technologies: all about resource sharing
Circuit switching: Dedicated communications path
established for the duration of the conversation. e.g. telephone
network

Packet switching: Date are sent out in a sequence of


packets; Each packet passes through the network along some
path; Used for terminal-to-computer, or computer-tocomputer comm.
Frame relay (up to 2 Mbps): reading assignment p10
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM): reading assignment
p11
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Local Area Networks


Smaller scope
- Building or small campus

Usually owned by same organization as


attached devices
Data rates much higher
Usually broadcast systems (e.g. Ethernet
Bus)
Now some switched systems (e.g. Gigabit
Ethernet Switch ) and ATM are being
introduced
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Protocols
Used for communications between entities in a
system
Entities: User applications; e-mail facilities; terminals
Systems: Computer; Terminal; Remote sensor
Must speak the same language
Key Elements of a Protocol:
- Syntax: Data formats; Signal levels
- Semantics: Control information; Error handling
- Timing: Speed matching; Sequencing
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Protocol Architecture
Framework about how a set of protocols
work together to finish the communication
task between source and destination
Three Protocol Architectures:
- Three-Layer Model
- TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
- OSI Model

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TCP/IP Protocol Architecture


Developed by the US Defense Advanced Research
Project Agency (DARPA) for its packet switched
network (ARPANET)
Used by the global Internet
No official model but a working one.

Application layer: logic needed to support various user


applications

Host to host or transport layer: reliable end-to-end delivery


mechanisms, e.g. TCP

Internet layer: provide routing function across multiple networks


Network access layer: concern the exchange of date between
end system & the network to which it is attached

Physical layer: Physical interface between a data trans. device &


a trans. medium or network

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TCP/IP Protocol Architecture Model

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OSI Model
Open Systems Interconnection : A
framework for developing protocol standards.

Developed by the International


Standardization Organization (ISO)
Seven layers
A theoretical system delivered too late!
TCP/IP is the de facto standard

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OSI Layers
Application: e.g. web browser, email, file transfer
Presentation: provides independence to the app. processes from
differences in data representation (syntax).

Session: Provides control structure for comm. between applications;


establish, manages, and terminates connections (sessions) between
cooperating applications

Transport: end-to-end reliable delivery control


Network: routing/switching; establish/maintain/terminate
connections

Data Link: reliable transfer of information across the physical links;


send frames with necessary synch., error control, and flow control

Physical: concern with transmission of unstructured bit stream over


physical medium;

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OSI v TCP/IP

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Standards
Required to allow for interoperability between
equipments
Advantages
Ensures a large market for equipment and software
Allows products from different vendors to

communicate

Disadvantages
Freeze technology
May be multiple standards for the same thing

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Standards Organizations

Internet Society
ISO
ITU-T (formally CCITT)
ATM forum
IETF
Further Reading Resource
Web sites for IETF, IEEE, ITU-T, ISO
Internet Requests for Comment (RFCs)

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