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# CHATTERING !

!!

## can the similar effect be obtained with

control as a continuous state
function?

if control is a non-Lipschitzian
function

s s sign( s )

## It means that state trajectories belong to the surface

s(x)=0 after a finite time interval.
Sliding Mode

Relative Degree

## of integrator with a discontinuous state

function as an input
Then sliding mode can be enforced with v as a discontinuous
For example
function
of andif sliding mode exists on line
then s tends to zero asymptotically and sliding mode exists in the
origin of two dimensional subspace
It is hardly reasonable to call this conventional sliding mode as the
second order sliding mode. For slightly modified switching line
,, s>0 the state reaches the origin after a finite time interval.
The finiteness of reaching time served for several authors as the
argument to label this motion in the point
second order sliding mode.

x2

x 1 x 2
x 2 u

x1

3
2

s=0

u Msign( s ), s x 2

x1 sign( x1 )

## 1-2 reaching phase

2-3 sliding mode of the 1st order
Point 3 sliding mode of the 2nd order
Finite times of 1-2 and 2-3

x 1 x 2
x 2 x3

## 1st phase - reaching surface S=0

2nd phase - reaching curve s=0 in S=0
sliding mode of the 1st order

x 3 u
u Msign( S ),
S s
s x2

s sign( s ),
x1 sign( x1 )

## 3rd phase reaching the origin

mode of the 2nd order
4th phase sliding mode of the 3rd order
origin
Finite times of the first 3 phases

sliding
in the

TWISTING ALGORITHM
Again control is a
continuous function as
an out put of integrator

## and the conventional sliding mode can be enforced, since

and output

ds/dt

is us

Super TWISTING
ALGORITHM

Control

is continuous,
no
, relative
degree of the open
fromloop
v tosystem
s is equal to !

## Finite time convergence

and
Bounded disturbance
can be rejected

## However it works for the systems for special

continuous part with non-lipschizian function.

ASYMPTOTIC STABILITY

## FINITE TIME CONVERGENCE

Homogeneity property

## FINITE TIME CONVERGENCE

Convergence time:

(cont.)

## Examples of systems with no disturbances

HOMOGENEITY PROPERTY
for the systems with zero
disturbances and constant
Motion Equations:

A. Levant, A. Polyakov and A.Poznyak, Yu. Orlov twisting algorithms with time varying disturbances
In what follows

Mi.

TWISTING ALGORITHM
)

Beyond domain D
with

## Lyapunov function decays at fi

Trajectories can penetrate into
through SI=0

## and leave it through

TWISTING ALGORITHM
finite time convergence

## The average rate of decaying of

Lyapunov function is finite and
negative, which means
Finite Convergence Time.

Super-Twisting Algorithm

F<M/2

DIFFERENTIATORS

## The first-order system

f(t)

Low pass
filter

The second-order
system
v+ u

x- +

Second-order sliding
mode

f(t)

not needed.

## Objective: Chattering reduction

Method: Reducing the magnitude
of the discontinuous control to
THE minimal value preserving
sliding mode under uncertainty
conditions.

0 1 1

## [ sign( x)]eq a/k

(t ) 0 k
First, it was shown that
1. (t ) 0 <k is necessary condition for convergence
2.

0 0
there exists

Then

Similarly
.

## k& k (t ) sign( (t )),

(t ) sign( x(t )) eq , 0 1 1.

(t )
(t )
sign
(
x
(
t
))

,
In sliding mode
eq
k
k
(t ) is close to k (t ).

Challenge:

## third order sliding mode adding two integrators with input

similar to that for the 2nd order:

Unfortunately the 3rd order sliding mode without sliding modes of lower order can not be
implemented, indeed time derivative of sign-varying Lyapunov function