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CHATTERING !

!!

and relative degree is equal to 1.

can the similar effect be obtained with


control as a continuous state
function?

if control is a non-Lipschitzian
function

For the system with

and continuous control

s s sign( s )

It means that state trajectories belong to the surface


s(x)=0 after a finite time interval.
Sliding Mode

Second Order Sliding Mode and


Relative Degree

Control is a continuous function as an output

of integrator with a discontinuous state


function as an input
Then sliding mode can be enforced with v as a discontinuous
For example
function
of andif sliding mode exists on line
then s tends to zero asymptotically and sliding mode exists in the
origin of two dimensional subspace
It is hardly reasonable to call this conventional sliding mode as the
second order sliding mode. For slightly modified switching line
,, s>0 the state reaches the origin after a finite time interval.
The finiteness of reaching time served for several authors as the
argument to label this motion in the point
second order sliding mode.

x2

x 1 x 2
x 2 u

x1

3
2

s=0

u Msign( s ), s x 2

x1 sign( x1 )

1-2 reaching phase


2-3 sliding mode of the 1st order
Point 3 sliding mode of the 2nd order
Finite times of 1-2 and 2-3

x 1 x 2
x 2 x3

System of the 3rd order

1st phase - reaching surface S=0


2nd phase - reaching curve s=0 in S=0
sliding mode of the 1st order

x 3 u
u Msign( S ),
S s
s x2

s sign( s ),
x1 sign( x1 )

3rd phase reaching the origin


mode of the 2nd order
4th phase sliding mode of the 3rd order
origin
Finite times of the first 3 phases

sliding
in the

TWISTING ALGORITHM
Again control is a
continuous function as
an out put of integrator

Of course relative degree between discontinuous input

and the conventional sliding mode can be enforced, since

and output

ds/dt

is us

Super TWISTING
ALGORITHM

Control

is continuous,
no
, relative
degree of the open
fromloop
v tosystem
s is equal to !

Finite time convergence


and
Bounded disturbance
can be rejected

However it works for the systems for special


continuous part with non-lipschizian function.

ASYMPTOTIC STABILITY

AND ZERO DISTURBANCES

FINITE TIME CONVERGENCE


Homogeneity property

FINITE TIME CONVERGENCE

Convergence time:

(cont.)

Examples of systems with no disturbances

HOMOGENEITY PROPERTY
for the systems with zero
disturbances and constant
Motion Equations:

A. Levant, A. Polyakov and A.Poznyak, Yu. Orlov twisting algorithms with time varying disturbances
In what follows

Mi.

TWISTING ALGORITHM
)

Beyond domain D
with

Lyapunov function decays at fi


Trajectories can penetrate into
through SI=0

and leave it through

TWISTING ALGORITHM
finite time convergence

The average rate of decaying of


Lyapunov function is finite and
negative, which means
Finite Convergence Time.

Super-Twisting Algorithm

Upper estimate of the disturbance

F<M/2

DIFFERENTIATORS

The first-order system


f(t)

Low pass
filter

The second-order
system
v+ u

x- +

Second-order sliding
mode

f(t)

is continuous, low-pass filter is


not needed.

Objective: Chattering reduction


Method: Reducing the magnitude
of the discontinuous control to
THE minimal value preserving
sliding mode under uncertainty
conditions.

0 1 1

[ sign( x)]eq a/k

(t ) 0 k
First, it was shown that
1. (t ) 0 <k is necessary condition for convergence
2.

For any 0 <k

0 0
there exists

such that finite-time convergence takes place for


Then

Similarly
.

k& k (t ) sign( (t )),

(t ) sign( x(t )) eq , 0 1 1.

(t )
(t )
sign
(
x
(
t
))

,
In sliding mode
eq
k
k
(t ) is close to k (t ).

Challenge:

to generalize twisting algorithm to get the

third order sliding mode adding two integrators with input


similar to that for the 2nd order:

Unfortunately the 3rd order sliding mode without sliding modes of lower order can not be
implemented, indeed time derivative of sign-varying Lyapunov function