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KULIAH I

MEKANIKA TEKNIK
PENDAHULUAN

OLEH:
RINA SANDORA,ST., MT

SURABAYA, 2015

Class Today

Apa saja yang dipelajari?


INTRODUCTION :
Konsep tegangan
Konsep Regangan
HUKUM HOOKE

Apa itu Mekanika?


Cabang ilmu fisika yang berbicara tentang
keadaan diam atau geraknya benda-benda
yang mengalami kerja atau aksi gaya
Mechanics

Rigid Bodies
(Things that do not change shape)

Statics

Dynamics

Deformable Bodies
(Things that do change shape)

Fluids

Incompressible

Compressible

Definisi dan Konsep


Kekuatan bahan : Kemampuan suatu benda
untuk menahan gaya yang terjadi padanya
sampai batas yang ditentukan
Kekuatan bahan meliputi hubungan antara
gaya yang bekerja dan pengaruhnya
terhadap gaya dalam benda tersebut.

Definisi dan Konsep


Tegangan : Reaksi dalam (gaya dalam)
persatuan luas penampang
Gaya dalam adalah reaksi bagian dalam
benda terhadap gaya luar
Gaya dalam = gaya luar
Akibat definisi tsb muncul sebuah konsep
tegangan

Definisi dan Konsep


Akibat gaya tarik, bahan akan mengalami
pemanjangan (elongation)
Akibat gaya tekan, bahan akan mengalami
pemendekan
Perubahan panjang baik pemanjangan
maupun pemendekan dinyatakan dengan
delta

Definisi dan Konsep


Perbandingan antara perubahan panjang (delta) dengan
panjang semula (L) disebut sebagai REGANGAN (Strain)
yang dinyatakan dengan huruf yunani (Epsilon)
Regangan mrp besaran tak berdimensi (dimensionless
quantity) karena regangan merupakan 2 ukuran panjang
Regangan normal (normal strain) : beban yang diberikan
arahnya tegak lurus penampang

Definisi dan Konsep


Jika batang mengalami pemanjangan / tarikan
maka regangan disebut REGANGAN TARIK
(Tensile Strain) dan regangannya dinyatakan
berharga positif (+)
Jika batang mengalami pemendekan / penekanan
maka regangan disebut REGANGAN TEKAN
(Compressive Strain) dan regangannya dinyatakan
berharga negatif (-)

HUKUM HOOKE
Penemu : Robert Hooke 1635-1703
Konsep :
Suatu bahan yang mengalami pembebanan
menunjukkan suatu hubungan linier antara
tegangan dan regangan maka bahan
dinyatakan elastis

HUKUM HOOKE
Perbandingan antara tegangan dan
regangan pada daerah elastis linier dikenal
sebagai modulus elastisitas (modulus
elasticity = E)
----------

Apa perbedaan partikel dan benda tegar?


Particle: A very small amount of matter which
may be assumed to occupy a single point in
space.
Rigid body: A combination of a large number
of particles occupying fixed position with
respect to each other.

Apa perbedaan Partikel dan Benda Tegar ?


Partikel:
Mempunyai suatu
massa namun
ukurannya dapat
diabaikan, sehingga
geometri benda tidak
akan terlibat dalam
analisis masalah

Benda Tegar:
Kombinasi sejumlah
partikel yang berada
pada suatu jarak
tetap terhadap satu
dengan yang lain

Contoh Partikel

Contoh Benda Tegar

Review Sistem Satuan


Four fundamental physical quantities. Length, Time, Mass, Force.
We will work with two unit systems in statics: SI & US Customary.

Bagaimana konversi dari SI ke US atau sebaliknya ?

THE WHAT, WHY AND HOW OF A

FREE BODY DIAGRAM (FBD)


Free Body Diagrams are one of the most important things for
you to know how to draw and use.
What ? - It is a drawing that shows
all external forces acting on the
particle.
Why ? - It helps you write the
equations of equilibrium used to
solve for the unknowns (usually
forces or angles).

How ?
1. Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free from its
surroundings.
2. Show all the forces that act on the particle.
Active forces: They want to move the particle.
Reactive forces: They tend to resist the motion.
3. Identify each force and show all known magnitudes
and directions. Show all unknown magnitudes and /
or directions as variables .
A

Note : Engine mass = 250 Kg

FBD at A

Fundamental Principles
The parallelogram law for the addition of forces: Two
forces acting on a particle can be replaced by a single
force, called resultant, obtained by drawing the diagonal
of the parallelogram which has sides equal to the given
forces

f1+f2

f2
f1

Parallelogram Law

Fundamental Principles (cont)


The principle of transmissibility: A force acting at a point
of a rigid body can be replaced by a force of the the same
magnitude and same direction, but acting on at a different
point on the line of action

f2
f1
f1 and f2 are equivalent if their
magnitudes are the same and the
object is rigid.

Principle of Transmissibility

APPLICATION OF VECTOR
ADDITION
There are four
concurrent cable forces
acting on the bracket.
How do you determine
the resultant force
acting on the bracket ?

Addition of Vectors
Trapezoid rule for vector addition
Triangle rule for vector addition
C
B
C

Law of cosines,
R 2 P 2 Q 2 2 PQ cos B

R PQ
Law of sines,
sin A sin B sin C

Q
R
A
Vector addition is commutative,

PQ Q P
Vector subtraction

Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Trigonometric solution - use the triangle
rule for vector addition in conjunction
with the law of cosines and law of sines
to find the resultant.
The two forces act on a bolt at
A. Determine their resultant.

Sample Problem (cont)


Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule.
From the Law of Cosines,
R 2 P 2 Q 2 2 PQ cos B

40 N 2 60 N 2 2 40 N 60 N cos155

R 97.73N
From the Law of Sines,
sin A sin B

Q
R
sin A sin B

Q
R

sin 155
A 15.04
20 A
35.04

60 N
97.73N

ADDITION OF SEVERAL VECTORS


Step 1 is to resolve each force
into its components
Step 2 is to add all the x
components together and add all
the y components together. These
two totals become the resultant
vector.
Step 3 is to find the magnitude
and angle of the resultant vector.

Example of this
process,

You can also represent a 2-D vector with a


magnitude and angle.

EXAMPLE
Given: Three concurrent forces
acting on a bracket.
Find: The magnitude and
angle of the resultant
force.

Plan:
a) Resolve the forces in their x-y components.
b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector.
c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components.

EXAMPLE (continued)

F1 = { 15 sin 40 i + 15 cos 40 j } kN
= { 9.642 i + 11.49 j } kN
F2 = { -(12/13)26 i + (5/13)26 j } kN
= { -24 i + 10 j } kN
F3 = { 36 cos 30 i 36 sin 30 j } kN
= { 31.18 i 18 j } kN

EXAMPLE (continued)
Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,
FR = { (9.642 24 + 31.18) i + (11.49 + 10 18) j } kN
= { 16.82 i + 3.49 j } kN
y

FR

FR = ((16.82)2 + (3.49)2)1/2 = 17.2 kN


= tan-1(3.49/16.82) = 11.7

Sample Problem
SOLUTION:
Resolve each force into rectangular
components.
Determine the components of the
resultant by adding the corresponding
force components.
Four forces act on bolt A as shown.
Determine the resultant of the force
on the bolt.

Calculate the magnitude and direction


of the resultant.

Sample Problem (cont)


SOLUTION:
Resolve each force into rectangular
force mag
x comp
y comp
components.

129.9
75.0
F1 150

27.4
75.2
F2
80

110.0
F3 110
0

96.6
25.9
F4 100
R x 199.1 R y 14.3
Determine the components of the resultant by
adding the corresponding force components.
Calculate the magnitude and direction.
R y 14.3 N
tan

4.1 4.1
Rx 199.1 N
R

14.3 N
199.6 N
sin

READING QUIZ
1. The subject of mechanics deals with what happens to a body
when ______ is / are applied to it.
A) magnetic field

B) heat

D) neutrons

E) lasers

C) forces

2. ________________ still remains the basis of most of todays


engineering sciences.
A) Newtonian Mechanics

B) Relativistic Mechanics

C) Euclidean Mechanics

C) Greek Mechanics

READING QUIZ
3. Which one of the following is a scalar quantity?
A) Force B) Position C) Mass D) Velocity
4. For vector addition you have to use ______ law.
A) Newtons Second
B) the arithmetic
C) Pascals
D) the parallelogram

CONCEPT QUIZ
5. Can you resolve a 2-D vector along two directions, which
are not at 90 to each other?
A) Yes, but not uniquely.
B) No.
C) Yes, uniquely.

6. Can you resolve a 2-D vector along three directions (say


at 0, 60, and 120)?
A) Yes, but not uniquely.
B) No.
C) Yes, uniquely.

ATTENTION QUIZ
7. Resolve F along x and y axes and write it in
vector form. F = { ___________ } N
y
A) 80 cos (30) i - 80 sin (30) j

B) 80 sin (30) i + 80 cos (30) j


C) 80 sin (30) i - 80 cos (30) j

30
F = 80 N

D) 80 cos (30) i + 80 sin (30) j


8. Determine the magnitude of the resultant (F1 + F2)
force in N when F1 = { 10 i + 20 j } N and F2 =
{ 20 i + 20 j } N .
A) 30 N

B) 40 N

D) 60 N

E) 70 N

C) 50 N

Penjelasan TUGAS
Dikerjakan pada kertas A4
Tulis nama dan NRP di sebelah kanan atas,
serta tanggal dan tugas ke berapa
Silahkan mengerjakan soal apa saja yang
berkaitan dengan materi yang disampaikan
Silahkan mengerjakan berapa pun soal yang
sanggup anda selesaikan
Soal-soal harus dari buku yang disepakati
Mencantumkan judul buku, pengarang, dan
nomer soal yang dikerjakan, plus halaman buku

Apa pentingnya mekanika (statik) /


keseimbangan ?

Apa saja yang dipelajari?


Keseimbangan partikel
Keseimbangan benda tegar
Diagram gaya normal, diagram gaya
geser, dan diagram momen
Konsep tegangan
Momen inersia dan momen polar
Teori kegagalan statis