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U1C: MPU 3173

MALAYSIAN STUDIES
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Chapter 1

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MALAYSIAN STUDIES

MPW 2133
MALAYSIAN STUDIES

Melaka Sultanate/Kingdom
- The concept of modern Malaysia started with Melaka prior to
1400.

Name of Melaka
- A tree name of Melaka
- Arabic word Malakat means market

The Golden Age Of Melaka


Geography Factor
- Hindered from the Monsoon winds
- Crossroad of Chinese, Indian
and Arabian trade routes

Economy Factor
- International trading port
- Fabled Spice Islands

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Political And Administration Factor


- Centre of spreading Islam
- Malay Language as Lingua Franca
- Expansion of its Empire Building
- Diplomatic relations
- Systematic and Efficient
administration
- Maintenance of law and order
- The use of currency in trading pitis

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The Downfall Of Melaka


Political Factor
- No genius leaders after the death of Tun Perak
- Corrupted and weak administration
- The society are not united
- Attacked from Portuguese in 1511

Economy Factor
- High tax in trading
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MALAYSIAN STUDIES

PARAMESWARA AND HIS


TROOPS

MALACCA TREE
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MPU 3173
MALAYSIAN STUDIES 3

Colonization Era
Background
Colonialism and Imperialism
i) Colonialism
ii) Imperialism

- maintenance of dominance over an


extended period of time
- powerful nation (that).influence weaker
nations

Downfall of Melaka
- Downfall of Melaka marked the beginning of the colonization period of
Malaysia
- British was the most influential colonizer in Malaysia
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Period of Colonization
1) Portuguese Colonization (1511-1641) 130 years
Objectives
3Gs : Gold, Glory, Gospel
- Effort to expand their influence to the other Malay states failed
- Influence only limited in Melaka

Landmarks & Remains


i) The existence of Portuguese Eurasian
II) Introduction of Roman Alphabets
iii) Adoption of Portuguese words in Malay languages
e.g. palsu (fake), almari (cupboard), jendela (window)
iv) Emergence of Melayu-Riau Kingdom
v) Historical Building (A Famosa)
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MPU 3173
MALAYSIAN STUDIES 3

Portuguese influence & remains in Malacca

Building - A Famosa
Fort

Culture - Dance

Descendants Serani
(Kristang)
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MPU 3173
MALAYSIAN STUDIES 3

Portuguese influence - Language

Fork Garfu (garfo)

Cupboard Alamari (armrio)

Butter Mentega (manteiga)

Car Kereta (carreta)

Wheel Roda (roda)

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2. Dutch Colonization (1641-1824) 183 years


Objectives
- Control spice monopoly in Melaka
- Started the trading in Malay archipelago beginning of 17th century
- Influenced only limited in Melaka

DUTCH BUILDINGS IN MALACCA

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3. British (1824-1942) (1945-1957) 130 years Objective


- First phase
- Second phase

: Early 17th century


: Need of natural resources

BRITISH FLEETS

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Political Effects of British Colonialism


1) Anglo-Dutch Treaty, 17th March 1824
- Malay archipelago was divided into two area
- Melayu Riau Kingdom was divided

2) Resident System
- Resident system was practiced
- King and aristocrats lost their rights

3) Federated Malay States, 1895


- Selangor, Pahang, Perak and Negeri Sembilan
- Durbar Conference (Council Of Ruler meeting)
- Got protection from British through Resident Officer

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4) Unfederated Malay States, 1909


- Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah, Perlis and Johor
- Before Bangkok Treaty 1909, were under Siamese for 88 years

5) The Straits Settlement


- Singapore, Malacca and Penang
- British Crown Colony

6) Decentralization
- World Economic Crisis 1925 lead to the proposal of
decentralization policy
- to increase efficiency in administration
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The Impact of British Colonization (1824-1957)


a) Political
i) Malay archipelago was divided into 2 political spheres
- British : from the north part of Singapore and above
- Dutch : from the south part of Singapore
ii) Malaysia is divided into 5 political units
- The Straits Settlement
- The Federated Malay States
- The Unfederated Malay States
- Sabah
- Sarawak
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iii) Introduction of Westminster system of Government


- E.g, Parliamentary democracy
iv) Adoption of some English legal system into the
local legal system
v) Become a member of Commonwealth Association
b) Economy
i) System of transportation
- Before British intervention, river played an important role
in the development of the countrys economy, politics and
social.
a) Roads
- Network of roads were built to transport goods
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b) Railway
- The development of railway contributed mostly to the fast
development of tin mining activities
ii) Post, Telephone and Telegraph
- 1st post office was built in the Straits of Settlements
- Telegraph to improve the efficiency of the administration
- Telephone 1st used in the Straits of Settlements
iii) Urbanization / New Cities
- Developed due to trade and mining activities and
communication system.
iv) Modern Agriculture
- British introduced rubber and palm oil around 1900-1920s
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C) Social
i) Education
- Introduced vernacular system of education
- School based on the races
ii) Multi Racial Society, e.g; Malay, Chinese, Indian
- Main race in Malaysia are the Malays
-Opening of tin mining, sugar cane and rubber plantations by
the British contributed the influx of immigrants in Malaysia
such as the Chinese and Indians
d) Historical Buildings
i) KTM Berhad
ii) Sultan Abdul Samad Building
iii) Royal Club Selangor
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THE
MALAYS

THE
CHINESE

THE
INDIANS

POLICY OF DIVIDE AND RULE BY THE BRITISH

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4) Siamese (1821-1909) 88 years


- Colonized some of the Malay Statesofficially in 1821
- Influence was on the religion and arts

5) Japanese (1942-1945) 3 years


i) Japanese Administration in Malaya
- 15th February 1942- 13th September 1945
- Malaya was called Malai Baru
ii) Social Impact
- ill treatment forced labor for
Death Railway
- Squatters Chinese run away to outskirt of jungle
- Ethnic conflict between the Malays and Chinese
- Japanese education

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iii) Economy Impact


- Economy collapse
- Tin and rubber cant be continued
- Economy and standard of living drop
- High Inflation
- Trades with outside world were stopped
iv) Political Impact
- Asia for Asians
- Believe on Self-Government
- Malay nationalism

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FRONT

BACK

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After Japanese Occupation


- Malaya was under MCP (known as Bintang Tiga)
- Unrest everywhere
- Templer Plan and Briggs Plan were introduced to curb
the Communist movement
- Finally, emergency period ended on 31th July 1960

MALAYAN COMMUNIST PARTY


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Summarized of Emergency Period (1948-1960)


Introduction

Impacts

Solution

Emergency Period
1948-1960

Measures
/Action Taken

Support
Communist
Terrorism 27

EMERGENCY PERIOD 1948-1960

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CHIN PENG

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STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE


Bloodshed Movement
1) Against Siamese
- Malay opposition in Pahang and Melaka
2) Against Portuguese
- Malay opposition in Naning, Rembau, and Muar
3) Against Dutch
- Selangor and Johor kingdom opposed
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4) Against British
- Naning
- Selangor
- Perak
- Pahang

- Dol Said
- Raja Mahadi
- Datuk Maharaja Lela
- Tok Gajah,Datuk Bahaman

5) Against Japanese
- Malayan People Anti Japanese Action
(MPAJA)

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Nationalist Movement
1) Japanese occupation
2) British occupation
3) Methods used
a) Through writing
b) Through association

Negotiation
- Various discussion were held
with the British

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Steps Taken Towards Independence


1) Malayan Union, 1946
2) Federation of Malaya, 1948
3) Political Parties (Coalition Parties)
4) Member System, 1952
5) Inter-ethnic Relations Committee
6) 1St General Election, 1955
7) Merdeka Talks 1956
8) Federation of Malaya Constitution 1957
9) Independence, 31st August 1957

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THE INFLUENCE AND SPIRIT OF NATIONALISM AMONG THE


PEOPLE
Channel: Outside influence
Sources: Japan ( in 1905, the Japanese succeeded
in defeating Russia)
Turkey (movement led by Mustapha Kamal Antarturk)
Indonesia (Indonesian nationalist
struggle against Holland)
Channel: Mass Media
Sources: Majlis (1st national newspaper)
Warta Malaya (newspapers that created awareness
among the Malays)
Utusan Melayu (newspapers that became a
symbol of Malay unity)
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Channel: Organizations
Sources: A union in every state (the aim was for the development and
interest of the Malays.
Kesatuan Melayu Muda / KMM (fought for Malays interests and the
integration of Malaya with Indonesia under the concept of the Melayu
Raya. A radical union)

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MALAYAN UNION, 1 APRIL 1946


. Made up of nine Malay states, Penang Island and Melaka.
. The British Governor was the chief administrator while the Malay
rulers only advised the Governor.
. Citizenship based on Jus Soli principle.
. The transformation of the title Sultan to President

THE FAILURE OF THE MALAYAN UNION


. Strong opposition of the Malays (sultans powerless)
. No strong support from the non-Malays
. Wrong introduction (jus soli, force)
. Opposition from former British administration in
Malaya
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Federation of Malaya, 1st


February 1948
. After Malayan Union abolished
. Federation - Made up of nine Malay states, Penang Island and
Malacca.
. The High Commissioner was the chief administrator, with its centre
in Kuala Lumpur.
. A council of Rulers (kings) gave advice to the High Commissioner.
. Fully accepted by UMNO
. Opposition from non- Malays.
. Opposition from Malays- PUTERA

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Towards Self Government


. British introduced various mechanisms to solve the problem of unity
among the three major ethnic groups in Malaya.
. The introduction of new educational system and the Ethnic- Relation
Committee.
. At the same time, many political parties was formed in Malaya such as
UMNO, MCA, MIC, PAS and Parti Negara.

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Final Steps Towards Independence


. 1st general election was held in 1955.
. Alliance party won 52 seats out of 53.
. They organized a mission to London. They went in January 1956 and
after one month of talks produced the Merdeka/ Independence
Agreement, which the date for Malayan independence was set on August
1957.
The Proclamation Of Independence
. The symbolization of Malayan Independence took place the minute the
clock ticked the first second on the 31st August 1957 at the Selangor Club
Green (Merdeka Square).
. The union Jack flag was brought down and was replaced with the flag of
Independent Malaya (now known as Jalur Gemilang)
. Tunku Abdul Rahman was appointed as the first Prime Minister.
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Proclamation
Of
Independence

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Formation of Malaysia
Malaysia has been announced as a New Nation on 16th September 1963.
Some Bruneian and Singaporean refused to join the formation of new nation.
16th September 1963
Malaya + Borneo + Singapore = Malaysia
9th August 1965
Malaya + Borneo = Malaysia

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REASONS FOR THE FORMATION OF MALAYSIA


1. The Communist Threat
The Communist were growing in strength in Singapore and posed a real
threat to the Lee Kuan Yews government.
The solution is to merger or union of Malaya and Singapore.
2. Ethnic Politics and Ethnic Balances
A merger of Malaya and Singapore alone would put the Malays as a whole in
a minority.
3. Independence Factor
Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei will get quick independence from
British by joining Federation of Malaysia
4. Decline of British Power
British power continued to decline and it was easier for them to hand over
their power to a friendlier state like Malaysia.
5. Economic Cooperation and International relations in the Region

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RESPONSES AND REACTION ON THE IDEA OF


MALAYSIAN FEDERATION
a) Federation of Malaya
Pro-Tunku and the Alliance Party (Parti perikatan)
Against- Parti Rakyat & Pan- Malayan Islamic Party.
They prefer MAPHILINDO
b) Singapore
Pro-Lee Kuan Yew and PAP
Against- Left wing party
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c) North Borneo (Sabah)


Pro- British and few indigenous people
Against- Chinese.
d) Sarawak
Pro- British and few indigenous people
Against- Chinese & SUPP, PANAS, Dayak
e) Brunei
Pro- Sultan and the upper class
Against- Parti Rakyat and A.M. Azahari

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OPPOSITION FROM THE NEIGHBOURING


COUNTRIES
PHILIPPINES
-

President Diosdado Macapagal wanted Sabah


as one of his territory
He recommended MAPHILINDO
Hoped the concept of Malaysia would fall
Breaks diplomatic relationship with Malaya

INDONESIAS CONFRONTATION
-

President Sukarno announced confrontation policy


towards Malaysia on January 1963
Claimed that Malaysia as a neo-colonialist plot pushed
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by the British & breaks off the diplomatic ties with Msia.

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IMPORTANT EVENTS TOWARDS


MALAYSIAN FEDERATION
1. Visit to Sabah and Sarawak (June 1961)
2. Tunkus visit to Brunei (July 1961)
3. Negotiation with Singapore (August 1961)
4. Malaysia Solidarity Consultative Committee (mid 1961)
5. Cobbold Commission (report was published on August 1962)
6. Referendum Campaign and Singapore Referendum
(September 1962)
7. UN Commission (June 1963)

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Bruneis refusal
- Brunei was denied on the request to have 10 seats in parliament
- Brunei was denied the right to have control on the oil royalty.
-Brunei was also denied on the seniority position of Sultan Brunei in the
Conference of Rulers.

The Secession (Withdrawal) of Singapore (1965)


- Less than two years, on August 1965, Singapore ceded from Malaysia and
became the Independent Republic of Singapore

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THE END

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