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Learning Objectives

To gain a comprehensive understanding of


bridge loading
To develop a critical appreciation and
comprehensive understanding of methods of
structural Idealisation and analysis of bridge
structures.
To develop a critical awareness of bridge
inspection and assessment.

Lecture-1
Bridge Definition
Types of Bridges
Bridge Components
Aesthetic in Bridge Design
Selection criterion of a Bridge Type
Quiz

What is a Bridge?
Bridge is a structure which covers a gap
Generally bridges carry a road or railway across a
natural or artificial obstacle such as, a river, canal
or another railway or another road
Bridge is a structure corresponding to the
heaviest responsibility in carrying a free flow of
transport and is the most significant component
of a transportation system in case of
communication over gaps for whatever reason
such as aquatic obstacles, valleys and gorges etc.

What is a Bridge?

Bridge is the KEY ELEMENT


in a Transportation System

Structures for Transportation


Beauty can be
expressed in the
structural efficiency,
simplicity, and
repetition of a bridge.

Millau Viaduct, France

Bridge Components
Substructure

Superstructure

Foundation (Pile/Spread footing) Any structure above bearing


Wearing surface
Pier (Column)
Abutment

Bridge Components

Bridge Planning
Traffic Studies
Hydro technical Studies
Geotechnical Studies
Environmental Considerations
Alternatives for Bridge Type
Economic Feasibility
Bridge Selection and Detailed Design

Bridge Span Length


Short span : 6-30m
Medium span: 30-100m
Long span:
>100m

Span>6m
Span<6m

Bridge
Culvert

Types of Bridges
Material
Usage
Span
Structural
form

Steel Concrete Timber


Hybrid
Stone/Brick FRP
Pedestrian Highway Railroad
Short

Medium

Long

Slab
Girder Truss Arch
Suspension Cable-Stayed

Types of Bridges
Material and Fabrication
Materials

Fabrication

Masonry (brick, rock)

Precast (RC, PC)

Timber

Cast in place (RC, PC)

Reinforced Concrete

Pre tensioned (PC)

Prestressed Concrete

Post tensioned (PC)

Iron

Prefabricated (Steel)

Steel

Rivet (steel)

Composites

Bolted (steel, timber)

Highway Bridges

Bristol Bridge,
Bristol, UK

Pedestrian Bridges

London Millennium Footbridge, UK

Electric Wharf Footbridge, UK

Railway Bridges

Thames Ditton Railway bridges

The Forth Railway Bridge, Scotland

Types of Bridges
Basic types based on
structural form:
Arch
Beam
Cantilever
Truss
Cable Stayed
Suspension

Types of Bridges
Arch Bridge
Arch bridges are one of the oldest types of
bridges and have great natural strength.
Instead of pushing straight down, the
weight of an arch bridge is carried
outward along the curve of the arch to the
supports at each end.
These supports, called the abutments,
carry the load and keep the ends of the
bridge from spreading out.

Types of Bridges
Beam/Girder Bridge
The most basic type of bridge
Typically consists of a beam simply
supported on each side by a support and
can be made continuous later
Typically inexpensive to build
Forces
When something pushes down on
the beam, the beam bends. Its top
edge is pushed together, and its
bottom edge is pulled apart.

Types of Bridges
Beam/Girder Bridge
Currently, most of the beam bridges
are precast (in case of RC and PC) or
prefabricated
Most are simply-supported
Some are made continuous on site

Simply supported

Cantilever

Continuous

Types of Bridges
Cantilever Bridge
In a cantilever
constructed out
directions at the
weight on both
each other

bridge, the roadway is


from the pier in two
same time so that the
sides counterbalance

Notice the larger section at the


support to resist the negative moments
Firth of Forth Bridge,
Scotland
521m span

Types of Bridges
Truss Bridge
All beams in a truss bridge are
straight. Trusses are comprised of
many small beams that together
can support a large amount of
weight and span great distances.
Typical Span lengths: 40m-500m

Types of Bridges
Suspension Bridges
Suspension bridge needs to have very
strong main cables
Cables are anchored at the abutment
London Tower
Bridge (1894),UK

Types of Bridges
Cable-stayed Bridge
All the forces are transferred
from the deck through the
cables to the pylon
Roadway deck can be :

(prestressed) Concrete Box Deck


Steel Box Deck
Steel Truss Deck

Which Type Should I Use?


Consider the following:
Span length
Bridge length
Beam spacing
Material available
Site conditions (foundation, height, apace constraints)
Speed of construction
Aesthetics
Cost
Access for maintenance

Selection of a Bridge Type


by Span Lengths

Aesthetics : What it
means?
An ugly bridge, however safe, serviceable and inexpensive, is not a
good bridge
Long span bridge over a river can be a land mark: thus aesthetics
should be an important factor
Bridge should blend with the environment
Smooth transition between members
Determinant of bridges appearance (in order of importance)
Vertical and Horizontal geometry relative to surrounding topography and
other structures
Superstructure type and shape
Pier/abutment placement and shape
Color, surface texture, Signing, Lighting & landscaping

Aesthetics : What it
means?

The Four Cs of Bridge


Aesthetics
Context
Comprehensive
Cost
Constructability

Adapted from Restore Aesthetics as Design Priority by


Jeffery Grob

The Four Cs of Bridge


Aesthetics
Context
All projects from a simple creek bridge
to the longest multi span water crossing
must first be considered with a view to
the context in which it is located.
Comprehensive
The designs that work best are those
that take aesthetics in to account right
from start.

The Four Cs of Bridge


Aesthetics
Cost
No discussion of design considerations
can be conducted realistically without
asking How much is it going to cost?.
Constructability
No discussion of aesthetics is complete
without considering constructability.

Qualities of Aesthetic
Design
There are not HARD & FAST rules or formulas for aesthetics of
bridge design. It finally gets down to the responsibility of each
designer on each project to make personal choices that will
lead to a more beautiful structure
Function
Proportion
Harmony
Order & Rhythm
Contrast & Texture

Function
For a bridge design to be successful,
it must always safely perform its
function.
For example, a bridge is designed
that fulfills every requirements of
aesthetic consideration and other
requirements such as economy,
constructability etc. but is somehow
unable to perform the function for
which it was designed, then however
beautiful it is, it wont be appealing.
The very first notion of beauty in a
bridge is that it performs its function
efficiently and people using it are
satisfied.

Proportion
Good proportions are fundamental to achieving an aesthetically pleasing
bridge structure
It is generally agreed that when a bridge is placed across a relatively
shallow valley, the most pleasing appearance occurs when there are an
odd number of spans with span lengths that decrease going up to the side
of the valley.
The bridge over a deep valley again should have an odd number of
spans, but should be of equal length. Slender girders and the tall, tapered
piers can add to the aesthetic pleasure
The proportions of parapet,
spandrel, arch etc. are very
important on such bridges.
Runnymede Bridge, River Thames (1962)

Proportion
Slender girders can be achieved if the superstructure is made
continuous. In fact, the superstructure continuity is the most important
aesthetic consideration

Byker
Viaduct,
Tall,
slender divided piers,
straight haunches and a
shallow deck.

Athlone Bypass Bridge, Ireland


A shallow deck, straight haunches
extended into piers and broad ,shallow
cutwaters combine to give a strong and
distinctive effect.

Harmony
Harmony between the elements of a bridge:
It depends on the proportions between the span lengths and depth of
girders, height and size of piers, and negative spaces and solid masses.
Harmony between the whole structure and its surroundings
The scale and size of a bridge structure should be relative to
environment.
A9
Dornoch
Firth
Bridge,
Scotland.
Constant depth
box on simple
supports, a low
key
solution
suiting
a
shallow
estuarial
crossing.

River
Camel
Viaduct,
Wadebridge,
Cornwall: Simple constant depth girder
viaduct with clean and neat lines.

its

Order and Rhythm


Developing a rhythm to the bridge is also important. For example,
spans should match where possible or at least demonstrate a consistent
order.
The cumulative effect of all bridge elements including lighting columns,
barrier support and pier should be considered.

For example, outer spans of this


bridge are not the same dimension
and the symmetry of the bridge is
affected.

Contrast, Texture &


Finishes
All bridges do not have to blend in with their surroundings. when a
bridge is built in the middle of the country, it should blend in with the
country side, but very often, because of its proportions and dynamism,
the bridge stands out and dominates the landscape
For Example: When the deck line is not
expressed, the scale looks odd due to
paucity of detail. Also the coursing of the
stone or brick then follow neither the arch,
the deck nor the parapet, so invariably it
tends to be horizontal.

G-Mex
bridge,
Manchester
Metrolink.
The steel structure contrasts
boldly with its surroundings.
Avon Bridge, M40,Warwick
A lack of much detailing gives wallpaper effect

Engineering Process
Establish requirements

Understand context

Design Refinement

Setting design objectives


and principles

Implementation Plan
Develop design
Analysis of design

Bridge Design Process


Project
Scope

Function (To bridge or not? Replace or


remove?)
Who is User?
Location/Survey

Where is best spot?

Plans,
Specs,
Estimates.

Many decisions.

Project
and
finalized.
Preliminary Design

Final Design
Construction

Funding
Scope

Quiz
Question 1:
What are the oldest type of Bridges?
A. Beam
B. Arch
C. Cable-stayed
D. Suspension

Quiz
Question 2:
Which type of bridge is normally
the longest type?
A. Beam
B. Arch
C. Cable-stayed
D. Suspension

Quiz
Question 3:
Which type of bridge is the cheapest?
A. Beam
B. Arch
C. Cable-stayed
D. Suspension

Quiz
Question 4:
Which Quality of Aesthetic Design is the
most important?
A. Rhythm
B. Function
C. Proportion
D. Harmony

Quiz
Question 5:
During this step, the designs are studied
based on their merit in relationship to
strength, cost, market appeal, and
manufacturability.
A. Identify Problems
B. Modify the Implementation
C. Determine Constraints
D. Analysis of Design