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BIODIVERSITAS ,

FUNGSI
DAN KONSERVASI

BIODIVERSI

BIODIVERSITA
S

Definition:
Biological diversity or biodiversity is that part of nature which includes the
differences in genes among the individuals of a species, the variety and richness of
all the plant and animal species at different scales in space, locally, in a region, in
the country and the world, and various types of ecosystems, both terrestrial and
aquatic, within a defined area.
As defined in convention on Biological diversity singed at Rio De Jenerio (Brazil) in 1992 by
154 countries, the Biodiversity defined as the variability among living organisms from all
sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic eco-systems and the
ecological complexes of which the area part- this include diversity with in species, between
species and of ecosystem.
According to IUCN in 1998, the variety and variability of species of their population, the
variety of species of their life forms, the diversity of the complex association with species
with their interaction and their ecological process which influences perform.

Why is biodiversity important?


Everything that lives in an ecosystem is part of the web of life, including
humans. Each species of vegetation and each creature has a place on the
earth and plays a vital role in the circle of life. Plant, animal, and insect species
interact and depend upon one another for what each offers, such as food,
shelter, oxygen, and soil enrichment.
Maintaining a wide diversity of species in each ecosystem is necessary to
preserve the web of life that sustains all living things. In his 1992 best-seller,
"The Diversity of Life," famed Harvard University biologist Edward O. Wilson -known as the "father of biodiversity," -- said, "It is reckless to suppose that
biodiversity can be diminished indefinitely without threatening humanity itself."

Species

Ecosystem

diversity is the
effective
number of
different
species that are
represented in
a collection of
individuals

diversity refers to
the diversity of a
place at the level
of ecosystems.
The term differs
from biodiversity,
which refers to
variation in species
rather than
ecosystems.

Genetic diversity, the level of biodiversity refers to


the total number of genetic characteristics in the
genetic makeup of a species.

Ecosystem diversity

SPECIES

Genetic diversity

DIVERSITY
Species = a particular type of
organism; a population or
group of populations whose
members share certain
characteristics and can freely
breed with one another and
produce fertile offspring
Includes diversity above
the species level.
Biologists have viewed
diversity above the
species level in various
ways. Some alternative ways to
categorize it include:
Community
diversity
Habitat diversity
Landscape
diversity

Species diversity = the


number or variety of species
in a particular region
Species richness = number of
species
Evenness, or relative
abundance = extent to which
numbers of different species
are equal or skewed

Includes the differences


in DNA composition
among individuals
within a given species.
Adaptation to particular
environmental conditions may weed
out genetic variants that are not
successful.
But populations benefit from some
genetic diversity, so as to avoid
inbreeding or disease epidemics.

BIODIVERSITY IS THE KEY TO MANAGING ENVIRONMENT


An ecosystem that retains a high biodiversity (that is, a wide variety of living things) is much
more likely to adapt to human-caused environment change than is one that has little. Consider
the two food webs shown in the diagram. The arrows point from the organism that gets eaten
to the one that eats it. These food webs are highly simplified compared with food webs in real
ecosystems, but they still illustrate a key difference between more diverse and less diverse
ecosystems.
Food web B represents a situation with very low biodiversity, where at some levels the food
path involves only a single type of organism. Food web A represents a more diverse ecosystem
with, as a result, many more alternative feeding pathways.
Generally, loss of biodiversity should be regarded seriously, not only because the organisms
that have become extinct represent a big loss for both ethical and utilitarian (useful benefit)
reasons, but also because the organisms that remain have become more vulnerable (exposed)
to extinction in the future.

In the second pharagraph is stated that Food web A represents a more


diverse ecosystem with, as a result, many more alternative feeding
pathways.
Look at FOOD WEB A. Only two animals in this food web have three
direct (immediate) food sources.
Which two animals are they?
A. Native Cat and Parasitic Wasp
B. Native Cat and Butcher Bird
C. Parasitic Wasp and Leaf Hopper
D. Parasitic Wasp and Spider
E. Native Cat and Honeyeater

Food webs A and B are in different locations. Imagine if Leaf Hoppers died
out in both locations. Which one of these is the best prediction and
explanation for the effect this would have on the food webs?
A. The effect would be greater in food web A because the Parasitic Wasp has
only one food source in web A.
B. The effect would be greater in food web A because the Parasitic Wasp has
several food sources in web A.
C. The effect would be greater in food web B because the Parasitic Wasp has
only one food source in web B.
D. The effect would be greater in food web B because the Parasitic Wasp has
several food sources in web B.

TUGAS
TIAP-TIAP MAHASISWA MEMBUAT RESUME TENTANG
KEANEKARAGAMAN HAYATI DI INDONESIA
MAKSIMAL 5 SLIDE
SILAKAN DIKREASI SEDEMIKIAN RUPA DAN HASIL AKHIRNYA
DIKIRIMKAN KE awahabjufri@unram.ac.id (Kelas A) dan
wynsuana@unram.ac.id (Kelas B)
BATAS AKHIR MASUK KE INBOX EMAIL TUJUAN: 25 AGUSTUS
2016

FUNGSI
BIODIVERSITAS

FUNGSI BIODIVERSITAS
Nilai Konsumtif:
Makanan & Minuman
Bahan bakar
Obat-obatan
Bahan baku industri

Ecological Services:

Nilai Non Konsumtif:


Rekreasi
Pendidikan dan Penelitian

Degradation of waste

Balance of nature
Biological productivity
Regulation of climate
Cleaning of air and water
Cycling of nutrients
Control of potential pest and disease causing species
Detoxification of soil and sediments
Stabilization of land against erosion
Carbon sequestration and global climate change
Maintenance of soil fertility

Benefits of biodiversity: Biophilia


Biophilia = human love for and attachment to other living things;
the connections that human beings subconsciously seek out with
the rest of life:

Affinity for parks and wildlife


Keeping of pets
Valuing real estate with landscape views
Interest in escaping cities to go hiking, birding, fishing, hunting,
backpacking, etc.

Flora and fauna diversity depends onClimate


Altitude
Soils
Presence of other species
Most of the biodiversity concentrated in
Tropical region.
BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS:
A region with high biodiversity with most
of species being Endemic.
India have two Biodiversity HotspotsEast Himalayan Region and Western Ghat

THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
Natural causes:
Narrow geographical area
Low population
Low breeding rate
Natural disasters

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT: FACT OR FICTION?


Mahluk hidup butuh energi untuk dapat hidup. Energi utnuk MH di bumi
bersumber dari radiasi matahari. Sebagian kecil energi radiasi matahari yang
sampai ke atmosfer bumi yang berperan sebagai selimut pelindung kulit bumi.
Kebanyakan radiasi matahari melewati atmosfer, sebagian terserap dan
sebagian direfleksikan kembali. Sebagian energi yang direfleksikan diserap
kembali oleh atmosfer bumi, akibatnya temperatur rata-rata di muka bumi
menjadi lebih tinggi dibandingkan tidak ada atmosfer. Atmosfer bumi memiliki
efek yang sama seperti efek rumah kaca yang sering menjadi bahan
pembicaraan di seluruh dunia terutama dalam abad ke-20. Faktanya
temperatur atmosfer bumi terus meningkat. Dalam surat kabar dan majalahmajalah ilmiah sering disebutkan sebagai sumber utama meningkatnya
temperatur dalam abad ke 20.

Andr menyimpulkan bahwa rata-rata peningkatan


temperatur atmosfer bumi disebabkan oleh emisi CO2.
Sebaliknya, Jeanne berpikir bahwa kesimpulan tersebut
prematur. Dia mengatakan: Sebelum menerima
kesimpulan itu, Anda harus yakin bahwa ada faktor lain
yang dapat mempengaruhi efek rumah kaca agar tetap
atau konstan.
FAKTOR APAKAH YANG DIMAKSUD OLEH JEANNE?

Threatened endangered species in India

Diversity of subspecies
Endangered golden lion
tamarin, endemic to Brazils
Atlantic rainforest, which
has been almost totally
destroyed.
Within species,
diversity exists in
subspecies, or
geographic variations.
The tiger, Panthera
tigris, had 8
subspecies.
5 persist today,
including Panthera
tigris altaica, the
Siberian tiger.

CONSERVATI
ON OF
BIODIVERSIT

Conservation approaches: International treaties


Various treaties have helped conserve biota.
A major one is CITES, the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, prepared in 1973.
It bans international trade and transport of body parts of endangered
organisms.

Conservation approaches: International treaties


The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), from the Rio Conference in 1992,
aims to:
Conserve biodiversity
Use it sustainably
Ensure fair distribution of its benefits
The CBD has been signed by 188 nations, but not by the United States.

BIODIVERSITY CONVENSIONS
The first convention on biodiversity organized at Rio De Janerio, capital of Brazil from
June 5 to 16, 1992 named as United Nation Conference On Environment and
Development (UNCED), batter known as Rio Summit to maintain ecological balance
and enrich biodiversity. The agreement on biodiversity signed by 150 countries
including three programmes To ensure conservation of biodiversity
Sustainable use of biodiversity
Rational and equitable share of profit to accrue from use of genetic resources.
The second convention organized at Johannesburg in 2002 called World Summit On
Sustainable Development (WSSD) where the Biodiversity and Sustainable Ecosystem
Management was the issue.

The International Conference held on Biodiversity in Relation to Food &


Human Security in a warming planet 15-17 February, 2010 in Chennai.
International Conference on Wildlife & Biodiversity Conservation held
on 3 to 5 June, 2010 at Dal lake, Srinagar, Kashmir.
Indian Biodiversity Congress (IBC) & Indian Biodiversity Expo(IBE)
will be held on 27-31 December at Thriuvananthapuram, Kerala

CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY: INSITU AND EX-SITU


In-situ conservation:
Conservation of a species is best done by protecting its habitat along with all the other species
that live in it in nature.
Ex-situ conservation:
However, there are situations in which an endangered species is so close to extinction that
unless alternate methods are instituted, the species may be rapidly driven to extinction.

Biodiversity inventories
Conserving Biodiversity in protected HabitatsIn situ conservation
Ex situ conservation
Seed Bank, Gene Bank, Pollen Bank, DNA
Bank

Restoration of Biodiversity
Imparting Environmental Education
Enacting, strengthening and enforcing Environmental
Legislation
Population Control
Reviewing the agriculture practice
Controlling Urbanization
Conservation through Biotechnology

Biodiversity
In situ Conservation

Biodiversity loss and species extinction


Extinction = last member of a species dies and the species vanishes forever
from Earth
Extirpation = disappearance of a particular population, but not the entire
species globally
These are natural processes.
On average one species goes extinct naturally every 5001,000 yearsthis is
the background rate of extinction.
99% of all species that ever lived are now extinct.

TINGKAT KELANGKAAN SPESIES (IUCN)


Punah (Extinct ). Spesies yang tidak diragukan lagi bahwa individu terakhir
mati.
Punah di Alam (Extinct in the wild). Spesies yang populasinya hanya
ditemukan di penangkaran atau terdapat sebagai populasi alami yang
hidup di luar sebaran aslinya.
Kritis (Critical endangered). Spesies yang menghadapi resiko kepunahan
sangat tinggi di alam dalam waktu dekat.
Genting (Endangered). Spesies yang tidak tergolong kritis, namun
menghadapi resiko kepunahan sangat tinggi di alam.

TINGKAT KELANGKAAN SPESIES (IUCN)


lanjutan
Rentan (Vulnerable). Spesies yang tidak tergolong kritis maupun
genting, namun menghadapi resiko kepunahan sangat tinggi di
alam.
Relatif rentan (Lower risk). Spesies yang setelah dievaluasi tidak
tergolong kritis, genting maupun rentan.
Kurang data (Data deficient). Spesies yang tidak cukup memiliki
data untuk dilakukan perkiraan tingkat kelangkaannya.
Tidak dievaluasi (Not evaluated). Spesies yang tidak atau belum
dinilai berdasaran kriteria di atas.

Ethics?
Do we have an ethical responsibility to prevent species extinction?
On one hand, as humans we need to use resources and consume other
organisms to survive.
On the other hand, we have conscious reasoning ability and are able to
make conscious decisions.

Conservation Biology
Scientific discipline devoted to understanding the factors, forces, and
processes that influence the loss, protection, and restoration of
biological diversity within and among ecosystems.
Applied and goal-oriented: conservation biologists
intend to prevent extinction.

This discipline arose in recent decades as biologists grew alarmed at


the degradation of natural systems they had spent their lives studying.

Equilibrium theory of island biogeography


Explains how species diversity patterns arise on islands, as a result of:

Immigration
Extinction
Island size
Distance from the mainland

The theory originally developed as basic science for oceanic islands.


Then it was found to apply to islands of habitat (fragments) within terrestrial
systems, for conservation biology.

Conservation approaches: Captive breeding


Many endangered species are being bred in zoos, to boost populations and
reintroduce them into the wild.
This has worked so far for the
California condor
(in photo, condor hand puppet feeds
chick so it imprints on birds, not
humans).
But this is worthless if there is not
adequate habitat left in the wild.

Conservation approaches: Umbrella species


When habitat is preserved to meet the needs of an umbrella
species, it helps preserve habitat for many other species. (Thus,
primary species serve as an umbrella for others.)
Large species with large home ranges (like tigers and other top predators)
are good umbrella species.
So are flagship species, or charismatic species that win public affection, like
the panda.

Conservation approaches: Biodiversity hotspots

Biodiversity hotspot = an
area that supports an
especially high number of
species endemic to the area,
found nowhere else in the
world

Conservation approaches: Biodiversity hotspots

Global map of
biodiversity
hotspots, as
determined by
Conservation
International.

Conservation approaches: Community-based conservation


Many environmentalists from developed nations who want to
establish reserves in developing nations have been viewed with
resentment by local people.
But today many efforts work with local communities to get them
invested in the conservation of their own natural resources.
This community-based conservation makes efforts more
complex, but will probably be more successful in the long run.

Conservation approaches: Economic incentives


Debt-for-nature swaps = a non-governmental organization (NGO)
raises money and offers to pay off debt for a developing country, in
exchange for parks, reserves, habitat protection
Conservation concession = an NGO offers money to a
developing nations government for a concession to some of its
landfor conservation, rather than for resource extraction

CONCLUSION
Biodiversity is our life. If the Biodiversity got lost at this rate
then in near future, the survival of human being will be
threatened. So, it is our moral duty to conserve Biodiversity as
well our Environment. Long-term maintenance of species and
their management requires co-operative efforts across entire
landscapes. Biodiversity should be dealt with at scale of
habitats or ecosystems rather than at species level .