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Simple Connections

in Steel Structures

Introduction
ARTICULATED CONNECTIONS
Prior to the development of the plastic
theory, articulated connections were
used. Articulated connections allow,
under normal service conditions,
relative movements between the
connected members in the elastic
range,
without
causing
any
plasticization of these members, as
well as of the required devices for the
connection itself (bolts, pins, angles,
etc.).
While
these
connections
approximated the design assumptions
to a high degree, these are often hard
to fabricate and install, and the cost
associated in its fabrication is
prohibitive.

Introduction
NON-ARTICULATED
CONNECTIONS
In the advent of the plastic theory of
structural analysis and design, several
connection types have been designed
to approximate design assumptions to
an acceptable degree by allowing
different degrees of plasticity in the
connection itself, depending on the
requirements of the design. Such
connections do not allow any relative
displacement in the elastic range but
provides the values of design
displacements or rotations via the
spreading of plasticity.

Types of Non-articulated Steel


Connections (AISC)
FULLY-RESTRAINED (FR)
Fully-restrained
moment
connections
provide
full
continuity at the connection so
that the original angles between
intersecting
members
are
maintained essentially constant
during the loading of the
structure, i.e., with rotational
restraint on the order of ninety
percent (90%) or more of that
necessary to prevent any angle
change.

Types of Non-articulated Steel


Connections (AISC)
PARTIALLY RESTRAINED (PR)
Partially
restrained
moment
connections
allow
moment
transfer
accompanied
with
rotation
between
connected
members. A simplified approach
to PR connection design is to use
a flexible moment connection,
where the gravity loads are
taken in the shear connection
only and any end restraint
provided
by
the
moment
connection is neglected for

Types of Non-articulated Steel


Connections (AISC)
SIMPLE CONNECTIONS
Simple connections provide a
transfer of direct forces only
(without moment transfer), with
very little rotational restraint
such that it allows connected
members to achieve at least
eighty percent (80%) of the
theoretical angular displacement
if frictionless hinged connections
could be used.

SIMPL
E

FIXED /
PARTIA
L
End Rotations of Non-articulated Steel Connections:
Fully-restrained moment connections maintain a 90% rotational restraint
Partially-restrained moment connections maintain an end rotation restraint between
20% to 80%
Simple connections maintain an end rotation restraint of 20% or less

Simple Connections

Common Schemes for Simple


Connections
FIN PLATE (SHEAR END
PLATE) CONNECTION
A thin plate is used to
connect two beams or a
beam and a column. The fin
plate is usually shop welded
at the column then site
bolted to the beam. Shown is
an example of beam-tocolumn single fin plate
connection.

Common Schemes for Simple


Connections
WEB CLEAT
CONNECTION
A couple of angles is bolted
or welded to the web or
flange of the column and to
the web of the beam. Shown
is an example of beam-tocolumn web cleat connection
using bolts.

Common Schemes for Simple


Connections
FLUSH
END
CONNECTION

PLATE

A flush end plate is welded


to the beam end and bolted
to the column. In this type of
connection, however, the
shear force is transferred
from the beam to the column
solely by the connecting
bolts.

Common Schemes for Simple


Connections
WEB AND SEAT CLEAT
CONNECTION
A couple of angles is bolted
or welded to beam web as in
web cleat connections, but
an additional seat angle is
placed in correspondence of
the bottom beam flange to
facilitate the site connection
of the beam to the column.

Common Schemes for Simple


Connections
SIMPLE SUPPORT
CONNECTION
A plate is welded at the top
of the column then the beam
is bolted at the site,
achieving a simple support
condition.
Notably,
additional stiffeners were
used
to
prevent
local
buckling of the beam flange.