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Presented by:
Restu Maulia
Jamiatul Hasanah

According to Lintion, culture defined as a way of life of its
members, the collection of ideas and habits which they learn, share
and transmit from generation to generation
Edgar Schein also state that Culture is the deeper level of basic
assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an
organization, that operate unconsciously and define in a basic taken
for granted fashion or organization's view of its self and its
Culture in general sense is the combination of traditions, beliefs,
norms, values, etc. It is all about how a person behaves in group or
with others

According to Julia Wood (2004), communication is a systemic

process in which individuals interact with and through symbols
to create and interpret meanings.
According to Hybel & Weaver (2004) the terms
Communication which is interact with others to share
information and beliefs, exchange ideas and feelings, make
plans and solve problems.
Communication is simply the act of transferring information
from one place to another.
The need for cross cultural communication skill arises whenever
people from different language and culture come into contact.

Categories of communication include:

Spoken or Verbal Communication: face to face, telephone,

radio or television and other media.

Non-Verbal Communication: body language, gestures, how we

dress or act - even our scent.

Written Communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the

Internet or via other media.

Visualizations: graphs and charts, maps, logos and other

visualizations can communicate messages.

Verbal and Nonverbal Communication


Verbal communication

According to Bovee and others: Verbal communication is the

expression of information through language which is composed of
words and grammar.
According to Penrose and others, Verbal communication consists of
sharing thoughts through the meaning of words. verbal
communication is the process of exchanged of information or
message between two or more persons through written or oral words.
So, Verbal communication is face to face conversation between
people. It includes sounds, words, or speaking.


Non verbal communication is communication that occurs without
words which is continuous. It is body language and environmental
context involved in any communication. It is not what is said with
words but how it is said and expressed. Non-verbal
communication is different from person to person and especially
from one culture to another. Cultural background defines their
nonverbal communication as many forms of non-verbal
communications like signs and signals are learned behavior.

Four categories of Non verbal


Aesthetic communication occurs through creative expression. This would

include all the arts: music, dance, theatre, crafts, art, painting, and sculpture.

Physical communication covers the personal kind of communication, and

includes a smile or frown, wink, touch, smell, salute, gesture, and other bodily
movements. Social conversation uses a lot of these physical signals along with
the spoken words.

Signs are a more mechanical kind of non verbal communication, which

includes signal flags or lights, a 21 gun salute, a display of airplanes in
formation, horns, and sirens.

Symbols of communication are used for religious or personal status reasons, as

well as to build self esteem. This includes jewelry, cars, clothing, and other
things to communicate social status, financial means, influence, or religion.

Cross cultural communication problems between two

societies of different cultures
The obvious way we communicate is by using words. However, as we
have seen, we also use non verbal communication: our tone of voice,
body language, gestures, posture and facial expressions all impact on
Often people think that the use of gestures and facial expressions will be
sufficient to convey an accurate message, without regard for the different
rules of non-verbal communication which may apply in the other persons
culture. However, just as verbal communication rules differ across
cultures, so too do the rules of non verbal communication.
When we are learning a new language, we need to learn the language as
well as have an awareness of the culture. It is important to learn new
meanings and new ways of behaving. But, If difficulties or
misunderstandings occur in cross cultural communication, it will arise
some problems.

Verbal Communication
Case 1
Country : Indonesia
Nationality/Gender : Malaysian Girl
Situation : When Indonesian student has a conversation with her
friend from malaysia then she said Awak gak pahamlah then
malaysian girl looks confuse and says apa yg saye tak paham?
Reaction : I tried to explain to her that awak in medan means
Conclusion : most indonesian people especially in Medan call
her/himself by Awak that means I and malaysia awak means

Case 2
Country : Malaysia
Nationality/gender : Indonesian/girl
Situation : when malaysian girl said tengoklah budak-budak ni then indonesian girl
think that budak here means slave
Reaction : malaysian girl explain that budak in malaysia means anak-anak
Conclusion : malaysian people call budak as boys in bahasa, meanwhile in indonesia
budak means slave
Case 3
Country : Indonesia/ Medan
Situation : When I asked my friend, she is acehnese girl, cemana kuliah semalam?,
she looked confuse, then said there is no class at night
Reaction : I try to explain that in Medan semalam means yesterday
Conclusion : In Aceh semalam means Last night

Non verbal Communication

Topic: Facial Expression
Country: Japan
Nationality/Gender: German / girl
Situation: When I asked a Japanese girl (who is going to participate in an exchange program for
one year) some typical questions about Japan, she did not look at me during the conversation.
Reaction: I tried to explain to her that it is very important to look at someone when they are
talking, especially when she is going to communicate with western people.
Conclusion: Japanese people do not often look you in the eyes when they talk, particularly with
strangers or elders, however, it is judged to be very rude in European countries.
Case 2
Topic: Intimacy
Country: Sweden
Nationality/Gender: Japanese/Female
Situation: When I was walking with my host cousin, he asked me to link arms with him.
Reaction: I was surprised because in Japan this kind of thing is only for couples.
Conclusion: In Europe in general, it is acceptable to link arms together even though we are not a
couple. Personal space in Europe is much smaller than in Japan.

Case 3
Topic: Greeting
Country: Portugal
Nationality/Gender: Japanese/Male
Situation: When I met with my host aunt the first time, I tried to shake her hand instead of
kissing her as a greeting. After, my host brother told me not to do so.
Reaction: I didnt understand why I couldnt do so and I asked him for an explanation.
Conclusion: In Portugal, one never shakes hands when he greets a woman because shaking
hands with a woman means that you do not want to kiss her. It is a very impolite way to
greet a woman.

Avoiding miscommunication

Be Purposeful in Your Communication

Be Respectful of Others
Listen Carefully
Be Clear and Precise