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How many people were involved in this


story
What can we learn from this film
Esther
and
Brunette
seems
to
understand Michael better than the
others? Why? Does she have a special
talent? Or is it because Michaels
different relation to her
What does the film tell us about
listening,
communication,
human
relation

Perception

WE DONT SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE


SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.

What is Perception?

The process of interpreting the messages of our


senses to provide order and meaning to the
environment
Depends on
Target
Attributes of a target, relationship of target to
others, etc.
Situation
Social or work setting, actions of others, etc.
Perceiver
Attitudes, experiences, personalities, etc.

Perceptual Process Model

Feeling

Hearing

Seeing

Smelling

Selective Attention
Organization and
Interpretation
Emotions and
Behavior

Tasting

Two factors Key Role

Two factors that play key role in the internal


cognitive aspects of perception are: Perceptual
Selectivity and Perceptual Organization.

Perceptual Selectivity:
What gets the attention of an individual is the
focus
Why an individual chooses one & not the other
stimuli that confront.
One chooses to select only a few because of the
PRINCIPLE OF SELECTIVITY.

Two factors that influence the perceptual


selectivity are : External factors (outside
environment) & Internal based on individuals
psychological make up that which appeal to or
compatible with their learning, motivation &
personality

Bruners Model of the Perceptual Process

Internal Set Factors

The concept of set

Selectivity- Is based largely on the


individuals complex psychological make up

Past Experience

Role of secondary motives- Learning

Internal set factors emphasize People will


select out stimuli from the environment that
appeal to or and are compatible with their
learning, motivation, personality

External Attention Factors

Intensity: More intense the stimuli (sound,


colour, smell) more likely to be perceived
Size larger the size of an object.e.g. one page
ads.
Contrast small among the big or vice versa;
short among the tall or vice versa;
Repetition Stimulus that is repeated gets the
attention; ads are often repeated;
Motion pay attention to the moving objects
Novelty or familiarity serve as greater attention
getting phenomenon.

Factors That Influence Perception


Characteristics of the Perceiver
Values and attitudes
Motives
Interests
Experience
Expectations
Perceptual context
Time
Work setting
Social setting

Perception

Characteristics of the Target


Structural beauty
Novelty and Familiarity
Motion and Change
Repetition
Intensity
Sounds
Size
Contrast and Background
Proximity

Perceptual organization

When we are given a cluster of sensations, we


organize them into a gestalt or a whole

The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

We take in sensory information and infer a


perception that makes sense to us based on our
past experiences.

What do you see?

PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION

Closure- output is low, supervisor complaints a


number of grievances then the management
perceives the whole group to be trouble making
Continuity - Closely related to the closure; the
continuity principle says that a person will tend to
perceive continuous lines or patterns. (leads to
inflexibility; noncreativity; only the obvious, or
continuous patterns are perceived
Proximity- employees working in a particular
machine identified as a single group because of
physical proximity.

PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION

Similarity Greater the similarity of stimuli,


greater the tendency to perceive them as a
common group; e.g., blue uniform having same
characteristics when in fact each is unique and
different
Perceptual Constancy gives a person a sense of
stability in the changing world; Learning plays a
critical role; if constancy were not at work, the
world would be very chaotic; e.g. deciding &
selecting right tool for right nuts

Social Perception
Directly concerned with how an individual
perceives the other; how we get to know others
Characteristics that influence how a person
perceives others:
Knowledge Makes it easier to see others
accurately
Ones own characteristics affect the
characteristics one is likely to see in others.
Acceptance of self people who accept
themselves are more likely to be ale to see
favorable aspects of other people
Accuracy in perceiving others is not a simple skill

Attribution Theory

Attribution Theory
When individuals observe behavior, they try to
guess if it is internally or externally caused
Fundamental attribution error
When judging other peoples SUCCESS we Inflate
the role of external factors Underestimate the
role of internal factors
When judging other peoples FAILURES we:
Inflate the role of internal factors Underestimate
the role of external factors
Self-serving bias
Opposite of fundamental attribution error

Locus of control & Attribution


Work behavior may be explained by whether
employee perceives his outcome as controlled
internally/externally
Those who perceive internal control, personally
influence the outcome through their ability, skills
or effort
Those who perceive external control feel
outcomes beyond their control (external forces
control their outcome)
Important: perceived locus of control may have

Self efficacy

Self efficacy affect the attributes people make


Highly self efficacious person think they
themselves are the reason for success
Tend to make positive internal attributes about
their success
Attribute setbacks as situational
Attributions also affect persons self efficacy if
people make internal attributions for their

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Cycle

Employees
behavior matches
expectations

Expectations
affect supervisors
behavior

Supervisors
behavior affects
employee

Improving Perceptual
Accuracy
Diversity
Initiatives

Know
Yourself

Improving
Perceptual
Accuracy

Compare
Perceptions
With Others

Empathize
With Others

Postpone
Impression
Formation

The Stereotyping Process

Develop categories
and assign traits

Scientists are
absent-minded

Mr. X. is a scientist

Assign categorys traits


to the person

Mr. X. is
absent-minded

Impression Management

Impression Motivation: The degree of motivation to


impression management
Depends on the relevance the impression have to
the individual goal
The value of those goals
Impression Construction specific type of
impression people want to make
Five factors relevant to the kinds of impression
people try to construct: The Self-Concept; Desired &
Undesired identity image; Role Constraints; Targets
value, & Current Social Image.

Impression Management Tactics


A subordinate tries to imitate her bosss
BehavioralThe target of perception matches
his or her behavior to that of the
behavior by being modest and soft-spoken
Matching perceiver.
because her boss is modest and soft-spoken.
The target tries to present herself
A worker reminds his boss about his past
Selfor himself in as positive a lightaccomplishments
as
and associates with coPromotionpossible.
workers who are evaluated highly.
A worker stays late every night even if she has
Conforming The target follows agreed-upon
completed all of her assignments because
rules for behavior in the
to Situational
staying late is one of the norms of her
organization.
Norms
organization.
The target compliments the perA coworker compliments a manager on his
Appreciating
ceiver. This tactic works best excellent
when
handling of a troublesome employee.
or Flattering
flattery is not extreme and when it
Others
involves a dimension important
to the perceiver.
The targets beliefs and behaviors
A subordinate delivering a message to his boss
Being
are consistent. There is agreement
looks the boss straight in the eye and has a
Consistent
between the targets verbal and
sincere expression on his face.
nonverbal behaviors.

Salience

Extent to which a target of perception stands


out in a group of people or things

Causes of Salience

Being novel
Anything that makes a Examples: Being the only person of a
particular age, sex, or race in a situation
target unique in a situation

Being
figural

Standing out from


the background

Example: Being in a spotlight, sitting at


the head of the table, wearing bright
clothes

Being
Inconsistent
Behaving or looking in a Example:
way
A normally shy person who is
with other
that is out of the ordinarythe life of the party
peoples
expectations