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K.

14 RP 2015-2016
Equipments design,
Equipments specification

Main equipments:
- storage equipments: for raw matls and products
- equipment of optimizing operating conditions:
reactor, separators, crusher and grinders, sievers,
mixers, HE (heater, cooler, boiler, evaporator,
condensor, burner, furnace, etc), compressors
Supporting equipments:
- transportation means: conveyor, elevator, pump
- instrumentations
- waste diposal, utilities

Storage equipments:

Tank
Silo
Bunker
Bin
Ware house
Open field
3

Equipment of optimizing operating conditions

Reactor:
Continuous: tube, STR, jacketted
Batch
Separators:
Varied, depend on the nature (physical
properties, etc) of the processed materials
4

Transportation means:
Conveyor
Elevator
Pump
Conveyor:
- open conveyor
- closed conveyor
- dragged conveyor
- carried

Open conveyor:
- belt: continuous, segmented
- wagon
Closed conveyor:
- pipe, duck, canal
- zipped
- screw
- pneumatic
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Elevator:
- centrifugal discharge
- positive discharge
- high capacity cont. disch
Pump:
- centrifugal
- piston
- vane
- hytor
- heat pump
- peristaltic

Instrumentations
- Pressure control
- Temperature control
- Flow control
Waste disposal, utilities
- varied, depend on the process
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Specification of a storage tank


-

Name of the tank


Code number of the tank
Function of the tank
Type of the tank
Volumetric capacity of the tank (standard cap.)
Dimension of the tank: diameter, height,
thickness
- Storage time
- Construction material of the tank
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Specification of a pump
-

Name of the pump


Code number of the pump
Function of the pump
Type of the pump
Capacity of the pump (standard)
Total head of the pump
Power for the pump
Construction material of the pump

10

Specification of a pipe
-

Name of the pipe


Code number of the pipe
Function of the pipe
Dimension of the pipe (standard):
SN
OD
ID
lenght
- Construction material of the pipe

11

Specification of a conveyor
-

Name of the conveyor


Code number of the conveyor
Function of the conveyor
Type of the conveyor
Transportation capacity of the conveyor
(standard)
- Dimension of the conveyor (wide, lenght, etc)
- Power for the conveyor
- Construction material of the conveyor
12

Specification of a reactor
- Name of the conveyor
- Code number of the reactor
- Function of the reactor
- Type of the reactor
- Volumetric capacity of the reactor (standard)
- Dimension of the reactor:
diameter
lenght
jacket, inside pipe, coil, baffle, etc
- Construction material of the reactor

13

Specification of a separator
- Name of the separator
- Code number of the separator
- Function of the separator
- Type of the separator
- Volumetric capacity of the separator (standard)
- Dimension of the separator:
diameter
lenght
inside arrangement: tray spacing, etc
- Construction material of the separator

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Specification of heat exchanger (HE)


- Name of HE
- Code number of HE
- Function of HE
- Type of HE
- Heat transfer capacity of HE
- Dimension of HE (standard):
diameter
lenght
inside arrangement: number of pass, pipe size, number of
pipe, pipe stacking, etc
- Construction material of HE

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Instrumentation
- Not counted one by one in preliminary
design
- Needed in plant design
- Specification:
described
by
electronic/instrumentation engineer
Waste disposal & Utilities
- As for equipments specification
preliminary design

in
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Design pressure
Design pressure normally is 5-10% above the normal
working pressure.
The hydrostatic pressure in the base of the column
should be added to the operating pressure, if significant.
Vessels subject to external pressure should be designed
to resist the maximum differential pressure that is likely
to occur in service.
Vessels likely to be subjected to vacuum should be
designed for a full negative pressure of 1 bar, unless
fitted with an effective, and reliable, vacuum breaker.
17

Design stress (nominal design strength)


For design purposes it is necessary to decide a value
for the maximum allowable stress (nominal design
strength) that can be accepted in the material of
construction.
This is determined by applying a suitable design
stress factor (factor of safety) to the maximum stress
that the material could be expected to withstand
without failure under standard test conditions.
The design stress factor allows for any uncertainly in
the design methods, the loading, the quality of the
materials, and the workmanship.
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For materials not subjected to high temperatures the


design stress is based on the yield stress (or proof
stress), or the tensile material at the design
temperature.
For materials subject to conditions at which the creep
is likely to be a consideration, the design stress is
based on the creep characteristics of the material:
the average stress to produce rupture after 105
hours, of the average stress to produce a 1 per cent
strain after 105 hours, at the design temperature.
Typical design stress factors for pressure
components are shown in Table 13.1.
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Table 13.1. Design stress factors


Material
Property

Minimum yield stress


or 0.2 per cent proof
stress, at the design
temperature
Minimum
tensile
strength, at room
temperature
Mean
stress
to
produce rupture at
105 h at the design
temperature

Carbon
Carbon-manganese, Austenic stainless steels
Low alloy steels

Non-ferrous metals

1.5

1.5

1.5

2.35

2.5

4.0

1.5

1.5

1.0

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In the British Standard, BS 5500, the nominal


design strengths (allowable design stresses), for
use with the design methods given, are listed in
the standard, for the range of materials covered by
the standard. The standard should be consulted
for the principles and design stress factors used in
determining the nominal design strengths.
Typical design stress values for some common
materials are shown in Table 13.2. These may be
used for preliminary designs. The standards and
codes should be consulted for the values to be
used for detailed vessel design.
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Table 13.2. Typical design stresses for plate


(The appropriate material standards should be
consulted for particular grades and plate thicknesses)
Materials
Materials

Carbon steel (semi-killed or silicon killed)


Carbon-manganese steels (semi-killed or
silicon killed)
Carbon molybdenum steel, 0.5 per cent
Mo
Low alloy steel (Ni, Cr, Mo, V)
Stainless steel 18Cr/8Ni unstabilised
(304)
Stainless steel 18Cr/8Ni Ti stabilised
(321)
Stainless steel 18Cr/8Ni Mo 2 per cent
(316)

Tensile
strength
360
360
460
460
450
450
550
550
510
510
540
540
520
520

Design stress at temperature C


0 to 50
0 to 50

100
100

150
150

200
200

250
250

300
300

350
350

400
400

450
450

500
500

135
135
180
180
180
180
240
240
165
165
165
175
175

125
125
170
170
170
170
240
240
145
145
150
150
150
150

115
115
150
150
145
145
240
240
130
130
140
140
135
135

105
105
140
140
140
140
240
240
115
115
135
135
120
120

95
95
130
130
130
130
240
240
110
110
130
130
115
115

85
85
115
115
120
120
235
235
105
105
130
130
110
110

80
80
105
105
110
110
230
230
100
100
125
125
105
105

70
70
100
100
110
110
220
220
100
100
120
120
105
105

190
190
95
95
120
120
100
100

170
170
90
90
115
115
95
95

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Welded joint efficiency, and construction categories


The strength of a welded joint will depend on the type of
joint and the quality of the welding.
The soundness of welds is checked by visual inspection
and by non-destructive testing (radiography).
The possible lower strength of a welded joint compared
with the virgin plate is usually allowed for in design by
multiplying the allowable design stress for the material
by a welded joint factor J. The value of the joint used in
design will depend on the type of joint and amount of
radiography required by the design code. Typical values
are shown in Table 13.3.
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Taking the factor as 1.0 implies that the joint


is equally as strong as the virgin plate; this is
achieved by radiographing the complete weld
length, and cutting out and remaking any
defects.
The use of lower joint factors in design,
though saving costs on radiography, will
result in a thicker, heavier, vessel, and the
designer must balance any cost savings on
inspection and fabrication against the
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Table 13.3. Maximum allowable joint efficiency


Degree of radiography
Type of joint
100 per cent spot none
Double welded butt
or equivalent
Single-weld
butt
joint with bonding
strips

1.0
0.9

0.85 0.7
0.80 0.65

25

The national codes and standards divide vessel


construction into different categories, depending
on the amount of non-destructive testing required.
The higher categories require 100 per cent
radiography of the welds, and allow the use of
highest values for the weldjoint factors.
The lower-quality categories require less
radiography, but allow only joint-efficiency factors,
and place restrictions on the plate thickness and
type of materials that can be used. The highest
category will invariably be specified for processplant pressure vessels.
26

The standards should be consulted to determine the


limitations and requirements of the construction categories
specified. Welded joint efficiency factors are not used, as
such, in the design equations given in BS 5500; instead
limitations are placed on the values of the nominal design
strength (allowable design stress) for materials in the lower
construction category.
The standard specifies three construction category:
Category 1: the highest class, requires 100 per cent nondestructive testing (NOT) of the welds; and allows the use of
all materials covered by the standard, with no restriction on the
plate thickness.
Category 2: requires less non-destructive testing but places
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some limitations on the materials which can be used and the

Category 3: the lowest class, requires only visual


inspection of the welds, but is restricted to
carbon and carbon-manganese steels, and
austenitic stainless steel; and limits are placed
on the plate thickness and the nominal design
stress. For carbon and carbonmanganese steels
the plate thickness is restricted to less than 16
mm and the design stress is about half that
allowed for categories 1 and 2. For stainless
steel the thickness is restricted to less than 25
mm and the allowable design stress is around 80
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Corrosion allowance
The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness
of metal added to allow for material lost by corrosion
and erosion, or scaling. The allowance to be used
should be agreed between the customer and
manufacturer. Corrosion is a complex phenomenon,
and it is not possible to give specific rules for the
estimation of the corrosion allowance required for all
circumstances.
The allowance should be based on experience with
the material of construction under similar service
conditions to those for the proposed design.
29

For carbon and low-alloy steels, where


severe corrosion is not expected, a minimum
allowance of 2.0 mm should be used; where
more severe conditions are anticipated, this
should be increased to 4.0 mm.
Most design codes and standards specify a
minimum allowance of 1.0 mm.

30

THE DESIGN OF THIN-WALLED VESSELS UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE

Cylinders and spherical shells


For a cylindrical shell the minimum thickness
required to resist internal pressure can be
determined from equation 13.7; the cylindrical
stress will be the greater of the two principal
stresses.

31

If

Di is internal diameter and e the minimum


thickness required, the mean diameter will be
(Dj + e); substituting this for D in equation 13.7
gives:
e=
where l is the design stress and Pi, the internal
pressure.

32

Rearranging

gives:
e = (13.39)
This is the form of the equation given in the
British Standard, BS 5500.

33

An

equation for the minimum thickness of a


sphere can be obtained from equation 13.9:
e = (13.40)

34

The

equation for a sphere given in BS 5500 is:


e = (13.41)
The equation given in the British Standard BS
5500 differs slightly from equation 13.40, as it
is derived from the formula for thick-walled
vessels.

35

If a

welded joint factor is used equations 13.39


and 13.40 are written:
e = (13.39a)
where J is joint factor.
and e = (13.40b)
Any consistent set of units can be used for
equations 13.39a to 13.40b.

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Reactor design
Reactors volume = V
V = (volumetric flow rate of total mass input to the
reactor) (reactors residence time)
There are two data needed for calculating reactors
volume, that are:
1. volumetric flow rate of total mass input to the reactor
(mass flow rate and density)
2. reactors residence time (to get specific conversion
at operating temperature, pressure, catalyst use,
mixing, etc)
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any of the two data is not available, the reactor volume


If
can not be calculated.

If the reactors residence time is not known, the reactor


volume needed can be estimated from reaction kinetics.
The kinetics gives correlation between conversion and
time.
If the reaction kinetics is given by equation
r = - = k CA = k CA0 (1 x)
x = CA = CA0 x CA0
38

- = k CA = k CA0 (1 x)
r =

= k CA0 dt
dt =
t =
= ln(1 x)
V = t
= ln(1 x)

39