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Data collection

under supervision of
Prof.Dr Elham Fayad
Prepared by
Mofida Albarrak

Objectives
After completion of this session the
students should be able to:
Identify major types of data collection
methods
Perform a data collection plan
Compare different type of Self-Reports
Discuss observational methods
Differentiate between validity and
reliability

Outlines

Part 1 :Measurement & data


collection

Major types of data collection


methods
Developing a data collection plan
Implementing a data collection
plan
Research examples

Cont.
Part 11 Self-Reports
Unstructured & Semi-Structured
Instruments
Questionnaires Versus interviews:
An assessment
Response Biases

cont.
Part 3 :Observational
methods

Observational methods:
Unstructured observations
Structured observations

Cont, :Part 4. Assessing


data quality
Measurement
Reliability of measuring
instruments
Validity
Other criteria for assessing
quantitative measure
Assessment of qualitative data

Introduction
Data collection means gathering
information to address those critical
evaluation questions that you have
identified earlier in the evaluation
process.
To plan data collection, you must
think about the questions to be
answered and the information
sources available.

,Cont
you must begin to think ahead
about how the
information could be organized,
analyzed, interpreted and then
reported to various audiences
There are many methods available to
gather information, and a wide
variety of information sources.

Pre-Data Collection Steps


1. Clearly define the goals and objectives of the
data collection
2. Reach understanding and agreement on
operational definitions and methodology for
the data collection plan
3. Ensure data collection (and measurement)
repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy,
and stability

What kind of data should


?be collected
The information you collect is the evidence
you will have available to answer the
evaluation questions.
Poor evidence is information which cannot
be trusted, is limited, or simply is not
relevant to the questions asked.
Good evidence is information that comes
from reliable sources
and through trustworthy methods that
address important questions

There are two general types


:of information
descriptive and judgmental.
Descriptive information
can include the following examples:
Characteristics of the project
Reports of project accomplishments
Current skill or knowledge levels of project personnel
and the target audience
Amount of participation by the target audience
Policies concerning cost share
Rules regarding research
Types of participants
Demographic data

Judgmental information

Includes the following examples:


Opinions from experts or consultants
Consumer preferences
Target audiences beliefs and values
Technical agency personnels interpretation
of laws
Stakeholders perceived priorities
Stakeholders interpretation of guidelines

What methods should be


?used to collect data
The selection of a method for collecting
information must balance several
concerns including
Resources available
Credibility
Analysis and reporting
Resources
And the skill of the evaluator

Major types of data


collection methods
Three types of approach have been
used most frequently by nurse
researcher:
Self-reports
Observation
Biophysiologic

Self-reports. 1
Self-report data can be gathered
either by oral interview or by written
questionnaire
The self-report method is strong with
respect to its directness & flexibility
*If we want to know what people
think, feel, or believe (qualitative
data) the most direct means of
gathering the information is to ask
them about it.

Disadvantage of self-report
Verbal report instruments share a
number of weaknesses. The most serious
issue is the question of the validity &
accuracy of self-report:
How can we really be sure that
respondents feel or act the way they say
they do?
How can we trust the information that
respondents provide, particularly if the
questions could potentially require them
to reveal an unpopular position on a
controversial issues?

Developing a data
collection plan
Identify types of data needed for the study
Select the types of measures to measure
each variable
Select and/or develop instruments
Secure written permission to use each
instrument
Pilot test researcher-developed instrument
& revise plan
Develop data collection forms and
procedures
Implement data collection plan

Identify types of data-1


needed for the study
1-Testing hypothesis or answering research
questions
2-Describe characteristics of sample
Demographics - age, gender, ethnic origin,
education background, marital status
Health-related variables - health habits, diet,
exercise, illness, length of illness,
3- Control for extraneous variables
Measure as many as possible
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors
(variables)
May want to see if main effects also
apply to

.Cont
4- Analyze data
5-Interpretation of results
Consider results that do not fit desired
outcomes
Identify what data might explain
undesirable
Obtain administrative data
Records of subject ID=s
Data on number of times subjects recruited
or approached, dates of data
collection, length of time for data
collection, location, time of day, and who
collected data
Who, what, when, where, and how of data
collection

measures to measure each


variable
Each variable must be measured - quantified
Highly structured measurement takes time
and testing to develop, yet gives data easier
to analyze both descriptively and
inferentially
Objective measurement of phenomenon
Better to use multiple methods to measure
variables - self-reports, observations, and
physiologic measures
Need to consider ethics, cost, time, staff,
and stress on pt./family &/or agency
personnel

Select and/or develop-3


instruments
Identify existing instruments
Fit with conceptual definition of variable
Quality of instrument - validity & reliability
Validity:
Will the information collection methods you have designed produce
information that measures what you say you are measuring? Be
sure that the information you collect is relevant to the
evaluation questions you are intending to answer.
Reliability:
Will the evaluation process you have designed consistently
measure what you want it to measure? If you use multiple
interviews, settings, or observers, will they consistently
measure
the same thing each time? If you design an instrument, will people
interpret your questions the same way each time?

.Cont

Resources - costs
Instrument use & scoring
Data collectors salary
Subject compensaton
Availability & familiarity
Researcher expertise
Equipment
Norms - comparability
Established norms for instrument - provide
comparison group
Replication - use same instruments
Populations appropriateness
Reading level & writing ability
Cultural , ethnic origin
Gender biased
Translations for non-English speaking subjects

Secure written permission to


use each instrument
Look for employer and write to
author at place of employment
Find most recent publication to
identify current employer
Request a copy of the
instrument and information on
scoring, procedures, validity, and
reliability

Develop instrument, pilot test


researcher-developed
instrument

Revise it plan Instrument


based on theoretical framework
of study
Pilot test on small scale &
evaluate before administration
large group
Determine amount of time to
complete instrument

Areas problematic for


subjects
Difficult to understand & reading level
too high

Offensive terminology

Sequencing of questions
Training of data collectors
How well instrument discriminates
among subjects - detects differences
in subjects
Revise instrument based on pilot

Develop data collection 6


forms and procedures

Forms
Screening potential subjects
Consent & assent forms
Explanations to potential subjects for
people referring subjects

Advertisements to recruit subjects

Records for tracking contacts with


subjects

Mailing lists and logs for receipts

.Cont

Procedures

Specific conditions for data


collection

Specific procedures and


sequencing for experiments

Standard information for


subject's questions

Procedures for risks if they


occur

List of all materials needed

Interview guidelines,
instruments, observation directions

Implement data
collection plan

Select who will collect data


Researcher or neutral agent
Staff
Experience
Background similar to subject
Unremarkable appearance - dress,
make-up, jewelry

Personality - pleasant, sociable,


non-judgmental, non-threatening

Available to collect data for the


entire study period

Training data collectors


Includes general principles of data
collection & specifics for study

Data collection training manual

Review manual, forms, and


procedures

Demonstrate data collection and


return demonstration with videotape

Periodic observation of data


collection to verify procedures are
followed

Self-reports

Approaches to collect self report data


Unstructured
Semi- Unstructured
Self report techniques
Interviews
verbal communication between research
and subject; commonly used in
exploratory and descriptive studies
Unstructured interview
1- subject's world view; open-ended
questions with probes and prompting;
qualitative; audiotape

Semi-structured interview 1 subject; list of topics or questions for


discussion with additional probes, aka
topic guide; uses both open

and close-ended questions; taped


Structured interview
1 subject; specific questions asked in

Consistent order using the same


words each time; no variation from
questions and no explanation of unclear
questions

Focus group interview


5 to 15 subjects in a group;

Interviewer/moderator asks
open-ended questions; efficient yet
some individuals inhibited by
others in the group

Life history - anthropologic;


chronologic changes; sequence of
events

Critical incident - subject


describes an event (incident) from
his viewpoint r/t research topic

Diary - subject's daily log


describing own experiences r/t the
research topic
Instruments - interview schedule
with questions and space to record
answers; tape recordings of faceto-face or telephone interviews
Interviewer training - pilot
testing; familiar with content and
situations encountered with
interviewing; practice maintaining
unbiased verbal and nonverbal
communication

Gathering unstructured self report


data
good listener good questioner; make
subject relaxed and open; maintain
focus on the topic; summarize and
close on a positive note
Evaluate unstructured approach
data
Explore new topics and experiences;
time consuming and demanding

Structured self report instrument


Types of closed-ended questions
1- Dichotomous items
2 opposing choices; yes/no or true/false
2- Multiple choice -- >2 choices
from which subject selects 1 option
3- Rank-order - subject places
options in rank or order of importance
based on tool directions
4-Forced-choice - 2 polar
alternative statements; similar to
dichotomous, but in the form of sentences
rather than singl words

5- Rating - Likert scale; semantic


differential scale
Psychological tests

Personality inventories
mmpi, Edwards personal
preference

Projective techniques
Rorschach inkblot test; Thematic
Apperception Test (tell a story
based on a picture)

Administering self-report instruments


Interviews

Put subject at ease

Punctual, friendly, courteous,


respectful

Privacy obtain written consent


Check tape recorder function before each
interview; bring extra batteries and tapes

Remain neutral

Use interview guide for consistency

Advantages of interview
Better response rates
Wider range of subjects
Can clarify questions
Greater depth of questions
Decreases missing information
Order of questions controlled
Adds supplementary observational
data

Questionnaires

Group or individuals easy with group


Personal contact with subjects or mailed
Want response rate of at least 60% to
avoid response bias
Cover letter stating completion and return
of questionnaire indicates
consent of subject
Can drop off and pick up in person or mail
Mailing with follow-up plan
questionnaire, postcard, questionnaire,
postcard
Advantages - Cheaper, anonymity, no
interviewer bias

Response biases of subjects


Social desirability chooses
answer most socially acceptable
Response set items influence
the subjects response to other
items
Extreme responses selects
response on either extreme end of
poles

Acquiescence response
yeah-sayers always agrees with
statement; use both positive and
negative statements to
counterbalance this response
Nay-Sayers always disagrees
with statement; use both positive
and negative statements to
counterbalance this response

Tips for wording the


question
Clearly stated
Bias decreased
Sensitive information respect
subject
Worded so that subjects can
respond to questions
Short sentences ask only 1
question at a time; positive
statements

.Cont
Avoid leading questions; focus on
research objectives and questions
Use closed-ended questions with
socially unacceptable topics
Do not assume subjects are well
informed about topic
Impersonal wording of items
without "I"
Mutually exclusive item choices

Observational methods
Gathering data through visual, auditory, tactile and other
senses
Phenomenon

Characteristics of individuals

Verbal & nonverbal communication behavior

Activities

Skill attainment and performance

Environmental characteristics
Steps in observation

Decide what to observe

Determine how to conduct observation to ensure


every variable observed in same manner Orient and
provide written instructions to observers

Validate accuracy and consistency of observation


techniques

Observational Methods

Unstructured observations
No planning spontaneous
Observer freedom
Risk loss of objectivity
Requires excellent memory &
interpersonal skills
Structured observations
Define what is to be observed
Define how observations will be made,
recorded, and coded
Recording structured observations

Participant observations observer & subject


interact to some degree duration observation

Overt subject aware of observation

Covert subject not aware of


observation

Non-participant observations
observer and subject do not interact; can be
overt or covert
Timing of observations

Time sampling making an observation


for a specified length of time at pre-determined
intervals (eg observe for 5 minutes every 15
minutes or observe for 5 minutes 3 randomly
selected times each hour)

Event sampling making an observation


whenever an event occurs

Biophysiologic-111
Methods
Purposes
Basic physiology with relevance for nursing
care
Ways that nursing actions or medical
interventions affect patient health outcomes
Evaluation of specific nursing procedures or
interventions testing a hypothesis
Improving measurement and recording of
biophysiologic data collected by RN
Correlation of physiologic function in patient
with health problems

Major types

In vivo

Measurements performed directly with in or on


living organisms themselves

May use complex instrumentation system with


computers
May be simple thermometer, pulse oximeter,
stethoscope

In vitro

Measurements performed outside the organisms


body Specimens collected and tested outside body

Blood chemistries, microbiologic, cytologic


specimens .SCAN

Considerations for
physiologic measurements
Will measure yield good information? Does
it fit research
questions/hypothesis and variables of
study?
What other methods of measurement could
be used? Invasive &
noninvasive
Equipment and supply costs; reliability of
equipment and complexity of operation
Training of personnel

Conclusion
The most important issue related to data
collection is selecting the most
appropriate information or
. evidence to answer your questions
To plan data collection, you must think
about the questions to be answered and
the information sources available. Also,
you must begin to think ahead about
how the information could be organized,
analyzed, interpreted and then reported
to various audiences

References
Glesne, C. and Peshkin, A. (1992). Becoming
qualitative researchers: An
introduction. White Plains, NY: Longman
Publishing.
Patton, M.Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and
research methods (2nd
ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Morse, J.M. (ed.) (1993). Critical issues in
qualitative research methods.Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage Publications.
Rubin, H.J. and Rubin, I.S. (1995). Qualitative
interviewing. Thousand,Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications.