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Flow Over Immersed Bodies

General External Flow


Characteristics

Flow Over Immersed Bodies


Learning objectives
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
identify and discuss the features of external flow.
Explain the fundamental characteristics of a boundary layer, including laminar,
transitional, and turbulent regimes.
Calculate boundary layer parameters for flow past a flat plate.
Provide a description of boundary layer separation.
Calculate the lift and drag forces for various objects.

General External Flow Characteristics

Flow past objects is termed external flow

Theoretical, numerical and experimental approaches are used to


study external flows

Well consider characteristics of external flows and learn how to


determine various forces on objects surrounded by moving fluid

Coordinate system fixed to the object is used to study external flows

One consider the fluid flowing past a stationary body with velocity U,
the upstream velocity

Shape of the body affects the flow characteristics

Flow Structure vs. Body Shape

I)

(a) two-dimensional

(b) axisymmetric

II)

streamlined bodies, blunt bodies

(c) three-dimensional

Lift and Drag Concepts


Forces from the surrounding fluid on a
two-dimensional object:

pressure force

viscous force

resultant force: drag and lift


(side force for 3D body)

Lift and Drag Concepts

notes

Lift and Drag Concepts

D p cos dA w sin dA
L p sin dA w cos dA
back

Lift and Drag Concepts

D p ni dA w i dA
A

L p nj dA w j dA
A

back

Example

back

Example

notes

Example

L p sin dA w cos dA
D p cos dA w sin dA

L pdA
top

top

dA

top

90o

bottom

270o

pdA 0

bottom

bottom

w dA 2 w dA 0.0992 lb
top

notes

Example

notes

Example

front

0o

back

180o

L p sin dA w cos dA

D p cos dA w sin dA

w dA

pdA

front

front

dA 0

back

pdA 55.6 lb

back

notes

Example

a)

L=0

D = 0.0992 lb

b)

L=0

D = 55.6 lb

c)

L0

D0

Lift and Drag Coefficients


Drag coefficient

CD

Lift coefficient

CL

A is ether frontal or planform area

D
1
U 2 A
2
L
1
U 2 A
2

Characteristics of Flow Past an Object


Character of the flow is function of the shape of the body
For a given-shaped body, characteristics of the flow
depends on the value of Reynolds, Mach and Froude
numbers
For most external flows 10 < Re < 109
Re > 100 - inertia effects dominate
Re < 1 viscous effect dominate

Characteristics
of Flow Past
an Object
Characteristics of the
steady, viscous flow
past a flat plate
parallel to the
upstream velocity:

a) low Reynolds number


flow,
b) moderate Reynolds
number flow,
c) large Reynolds
number flow

Characteristics
of Flow Past an
Object
Characteristics of the
steady, viscous flow past
a circular cylinder:

a) low Reynolds number


flow,
b) moderate Reynolds
number flow,
c) large Reynolds number
flow
back
Slide 16

Streamlined and Blunt Bodies


Shuttle landing Shuttle needs to be a relatively streamlined to glide properly.
Upon touchdown a drag chute is used to make it blunt object to slow it down.
Note: the wing tip vorticies (swirls) made visible by the smoke from the
skidding tires at the moment of touchdown.
Kayak and paddles A kayak is a streamlined to reduce drag. The paddle must
be blunt to impart the propulsive force to the kayak.
The Reynolds numbers for the paddle and the kayak are on the order of
100,000 to 1,000,000.
Human aerodynamic wake

Example

Slide 14

Boundary Layer Characteristics

notes

Boundary Layer
Structure and
Thickness
on a Flat Plate

Large Reynolds number flow fields may be divided into viscous and inviscid regions

Consider infinitely long flat plate. Define Reynolds number.

Fluid particles within boundary layer experience viscous effects

Flow is rotational within boundary layer and irrotational outside

Transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs at Rexcr ~ 2x105 to 3x106

Distinguishing feature of turbulent flow is the occurrence of irregular mixing of fluid


parcels. For laminar flows, mixing occurs only on the molecular scale

back

notes

Boundary Layer Thickness on a Flat Plate (video)

Three boundary layer thickness definitions are used in boundary


layer analysis:
standard boundary layer thickness
boundary layer displacement thickness *
boundary layer momentum thickness

notes

Boundary Layer Thickness on a Flat Plate

y where u 0.99U

notes

Boundary Layer Displacement Thickness

notes

Boundary Layer Displacement Thickness

u
1 dy
U

Displacement thickness represents the amount that the thickness of the


body must be increased so that the fictitious uniform inviscid flow has the
same mass flowrate properties as the actual viscous flow

It represents the outward displacement of the streamlines caused by the


viscous effects on the plate

Boundary Layer Momentum Thickness

notes

Boundary Layer Momentum Thickness

u
U

u
1 dy
U

Example

Boundary Layer Characteristics

Typical characteristics of
boundary layer thickness and
wall shear stress for laminar
and turbulent boundary layers

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution

Equations governing steady, two-dimensional, laminar flows with negligible


gravitational effects are obtained from Navier-Stokes & continuity equations

2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p

u
v w gx
2 2
2

x
y
z

2 v 2v 2v
v
v
v
v
p

u v w gy
2 2
2
x
y
z
y
z
t
x y
2 w 2 w 2 w
w
w
w
w
p

u
v
w gz
2 2
2

x
y
z

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution

Equations governing steady, two-dimensional laminar flows with negligible


gravitational effects are
2u 2u
u
u
1 p
u
v


2
2
x
y
x
y
x
2 v 2 v
v
v
1 p
u v

2
2
x
y
y
x y
u v

0
x y

L. Prandtl simplified these equations using boundary layer concepts


H. Blasius solved these simplified equations for the boundary layer flow past a flat
plate parallel to the flow

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution


Assumptions made:

1.

v=u

and

=
x y

2. Pressure is constant throughout the fluid

With these assumptions governing equations


u v

0
x y
2u 2u
u
u
1 p
u
v


2
2
x
y
x

x
y

2 v 2 v
v
v
1 p
u v

2
2
x
y
y
x y
reduce to boundary layer equations:

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution


Boundary layer equations:

u v

0
x y
u
u
2u
u v
2
x
y
y

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution


Boundary layer equations:

u v

0
x y
u
u
2u
u v
2
x
y
y

Boundary conditions:

uv0
u U

on
as

y0
y

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution

Further assumptions:
1. In dimensionless form boundary layer velocity profiles on a flat plate should
be similar regardless on the location along the plate
u
y
g
U

2. Boundary layer thickness grows as the square root of x and inversely
proportional to the square root of U

x
U

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution


y

By introducing dimensionless similarity variable


and the stream function f xU
velocity components become
u Uf

, where

f f

U
x

is unknown function,

vU
f f
4x

Substituting u and v into governing equations after manipulations gives


2 f ff 0

Boundary conditions
f f 0 at 0
f 1
as

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution

Boundary layer profiles in


dimensionless form

Similar boundary layer


profiles at different locations

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution


y
From solution:

U
x

u U 0.99 when 5.0 .

Thus:

x
U

or

x
Re x

Laminar, flat plate boundary layer thickness grows as the square root of the
distance from the leading edge

Also

* 1.721

x
Re x

and

0.664

x
Re x

Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution

x
U

w 0.332 U 3

x
7.48 103 x m
U

at x 3 m

0.013 m
w 0.0716 N m 2

at x 6 m

0.0183 m
w 0.0506 N m 2

w 0.332 U 3

0.124

x
x

Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for


a Flat Plate

Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for


a Flat Plate

Momentum integral method provides an approximate technique to


analyze boundary layer flow

Consider uniform flow past a flat plate and the fixed control volume

Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for


a Flat Plate

Assumptions:

Flow is steady within control volume

Pressure is constant throughout the flow field

Flow at section 1 is uniform

Velocity at section 2 varies from zero at the plate to upstream velocity at the edge of
the boundary layer

Momentum Integral
Boundary Layer
Equation for a Flat Plate

x component of the momentum equation

notes

Momentum Integral
Boundary Layer
Equation for a Flat Plate

x component of the momentum equation

uV n dA uV
n dA

where for a flat plate of with b

plate

w dA b

plate

w dx

and D is the drag that the plate exerts on the fluid

D = U bh b u 2 dy
2

Thus

From continuity equation

Ubh b udy
0

Then

D b u U u dy
0

notes

Momentum Integral
Boundary Layer
Equation for a Flat Plate

Drag on a flat plate is related to momentum deficit within the boundary layer

D b u U u dy
0

Boundary layer flow on a flat plate is governed by a balance between shear drag and a
decrease in the momentum of the fluid
As x increases, increases and the drag increases (but shear stress decreases!)

notes

Momentum Integral
Boundary Layer
Equation for a Flat Plate

Drag on a flat plate is related to momentum deficit within the boundary layer

D b u U u dy
0

Boundary layer flow on a flat plate is governed by a balance between shear drag and a
decrease in the momentum of the fluid
As x increases, increases and the drag increases (but shear stress decreases!)
The thickness of the boundary layer is necessary to overcome the drag of the viscous shear
stress on the plate (in contrary to horizontal fully developed pipe flow)

Equation above was obtained by T. von Karman in 1921

notes

Momentum Integral
Boundary Layer
Equation for a Flat Plate

In term of the momentum thickness

D bU 2
Shear stress on a flat plate is proportional to the rate of boundary layer growth

w U 2

d
dx

Last equation is known as the momentum integral equation for the boundary layer flow on
a flat plate

notes

Momentum-Integral Boundary Layer Method


Usefulness of the momentum integral equation lies in ability to obtain approximate
boundary layer results by using rather crude assumptions
Even a rather crude guess at the velocity profile will allow us to obtain reasonable drag and
shear stress results

Example

Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate at y = 0 .


The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y
y
and u = U for
as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using
the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution

Solution

notes

Example

Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate at y = 0 .


The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y
y
and u = U for
as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using
the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution
From momentum integral equation w U 2
U

0 U

d
dx

(1)

on the other hand

(2)

dy

(3)

U
6

U U 2 d
6
From (1), (2) and (3)

or d
dx

6 dx
U
Integrating from leading edge to arbitrary x we get
Momentum thickness

2 6

x
2 U
Combining (1), (3) and (4), wall shear stress
Blasuis value

w 0.332U 3 2

w 0.289U 3 2

or

3.46

x
U

(4)

Momentum-Integral Boundary Layer Method

Approximate velocity profiles are used with momentum integral equation

Accuracy of results depends on how closely the shape of the assumed


profile approximates the actual profile

Momentum-Integral Boundary Layer Method


Consider general velocity profile as a function of dimensionless coordinate

u
y
g gY
for
U

u
1
for Y 1
U

0 Y 1

Boundary conditions
g 0 0
dg
dY

0
Y 1

and

g 1 1

Momentum-Integral Boundary Layer Method


Then boundary layer results with this general velocity profile are

2 C2 C1

x
Re x

and

C1C2 3 2
U
2
x

where
1

C1 g Y 1 g Y dY
0

dg
C2
dY

Re x
Y 0

Ux

Momentum-Integral Boundary Layer Method

Typical approximate boundary layer profile


used in the momentum integral equation
back

Momentum-Integral Boundary Layer Method

2 w
2C1C2

U 2
Re x

Local friction coefficient

cf

Friction drag coefficient

CDf

Friction drag

Df CDf

1 l
8C1C2
c
dx

f
l 0
Rel

1
U 2bl
2

Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow


The boundary layer on a flat plate will become turbulent if the plate is long enough
On a flat plate the transition from laminar to turbulent flow takes place at:

Re xcr 2 105 to Re xcr 3 106


We will use in calculations

Re xcr 5 105

Turbulent spots and the transition


from laminar to turbulent boundary
layer flow on a flat plate. Flow from
left to right video

Transition from
Laminar to
Turbulent Flow

Typical boundary layer profiles on a flat


plate for laminar, transitional, and
turbulent flow

back

Example

A fluid flows steadily past a flat plate with a velocity of U = 3 m/s. At


approximately what location will the boundary layer become turbulent, and how
thick is the boundary layer at that point if the fluid is (a) water at 15C, (b)
standard air, or (c) glycerin at 20C
Solution
5

x
U

xcr

Re xcr
1.7 105
U

cr

x xcr

Results
Fluid

(m2/s)

a. Water

1.1210-6

0.190

b. Air

1.4610-5

2.482

c. Glycerin

1.1910-3

Xcr (m)

202.3

Cr

(m)

1.310-3
0.017
1.42

1190

Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow

Structure of turbulent boundary layer is complex, random and irregular

Flow is the mix of eddies of different size

Mass, momentum and energy are convected in x and y directions

Mass convection is small in y direction but there is considerable transfer of x


component of momentum in y direction

Plate acts as a momentum sink, extracting momentum from fluid

Wall shear stress for turbulent boundary layer flow is greater than for laminar

There is no exact solution for turbulent boundary layer since there is no


precise expression for shear stress in turbulent flow

Solution can be obtained by use of momentum integral equation. For that one
need: (Solve Example 9.6)

video

BL 1

approximate velocity profile


empirical relation for wall shear stress

Progress is being made in numerical integration of Navier-Stokes equations

Comments

Laminar boundary layer flow

Turbulent boundary layer flow

: x1 2

: x4 5

w : x 1 2

w : x 1 5

The random character of the turbulent flow causes a different structure of the
flow

Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow


Flat plate drag coefficient is a function of Rel and relative roughness /l

Friction drag coefficient for a flat


plate parallel to the upstream flow
back

Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow


Flat plate drag coefficient is a function of Rel and relative roughness /l

Friction drag coefficient for a flat


plate parallel to the upstream flow

Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow

GIVEN The water ski shown in Figure


moves through 20 C water with a velocity
U.
FIND Estimate the drag caused by the
shear stress on the bottom of the ski for 0
< U < 9 m/s.

GIVEN The water ski shown in Figure


moves through 20 C water with a velocity
U.
FIND Estimate the drag caused by the
shear stress on the bottom of the ski for 0
< U < 9 m/s.
SOLUTION

Df

1
U 2lbCDf 75U 2CDf
2

Rel

Ul
9.98 105 U

With U 3 m/s
D 1.8 N

Rel 10 6

CDf 0.455 log Re l

2.58

1700 Rel 2.7 103

GIVEN The water ski shown in Figure


moves through 20 C water with a velocity
U.
FIND Estimate the drag caused by the
shear stress on the bottom of the ski for 0
< U < 9 m/s.
SOLUTION

Effect of Pressure Gradient

For flow along a flat plate pressure is constant throughout. For flow
past body other than flat plate the pressure is not uniform

Pressure variation in direction normal to the surface is small but


pressure does vary along the body surface if surface is curved

Terminology: U upstream velocity; Ufs free-stream velocity, the


fluid velocity at the edge of the boundary layer

Variation in Ufs causes pressure gradient in the boundary layer

Characteristics of the entire flow are dependent on the pressure


gradient within the boundary layer

For a flat plate U = Ufs, for a curved surface body it is not

Notes

Effect of Pressure Gradient. Inviscid Flow


For inviscid flow:

0,

Re , =0,

U fs v s

ps is determined from Bernoulli equation

Pressure is symmetrical and drag is zero

Experiment shows that drag is nonzero,


moreover, drag is essentially independent of
the value of

Notes

Effect of Pressure Gradient. Inviscid Flow

For inviscid flow fluid particle travel


without loss of energy

It is accelerated from Ufs = 0 at stagnation


point to Ufs = 2U at the top, and than
decelerated to Ufs = 0 at the rear

There is exchange of pressure and kinetic


energy

The decrease in pressure in the direction


of flow along front half of the cylinder is
termed favorable pressure gradient

The increase in pressure in the direction


of flow along the rear half of the cylinder is
termed adverse pressure gradient

Notes

Effect of Pressure Gradient. Viscous Flow

For viscid flow the particle in the


boundary layer experiences a
loss of energy due to friction

The kinetic energy of a particle is


not enough to reach the rear end,
and the flow separates from the
surface

Because of the boundary layer


separation the average pressure
on the rear half of the cylinder is
considerably less than that on the
front half, and large pressure drag
is developed

Viscous effects within the


boundary layer cause boundary
layer separation

Notes

Effect of Pressure Gradient. Viscous Flow

Location of separation, width of the wake


region, and pressure distribution depend
on the nature of the boundary layer

Turbulent boundary layer has more


kinetic energy and momentum than
laminar boundary layer because:
velocity profile is fuller
there is energy associated with
swirling motion

Turbulent boundary layer separation


occurs later along the surface

Video 1

Video 2

Notes

Drag and Lift

Generalized Formulae for Drag and Lift

Any object moving through fluid experiences drag. Drag is due to pressure
(pressure drag) and shear forces (friction drag)

Non-symmetrical objects experience lift

Generalized formulae for drag and lift calculations:


D p ni dA w i dA
A

L p nj dA w j dA
A

Compare with eqs. 9.1, 9.2

notes

Drag
Drag can be determined by use of equation

D p ni dA w i dA
A

if pressure distribution and wall shear stress are known.

Most of information of drag is obtained from experiment

Experimental results are given in the form of a drag coefficient:


CD

D
1
U 2 A
2

CD is a function of shape of the body, Reynolds number, Mach number, Froude


number and relative roughness:

CD shape, Re, Ma, Fr, l


notes

Friction Drag

Friction drag is a function of wall shear stress and orientation of a


surface
Df w i dA

Consider plate parallel and perpendicular to the flow

For blunt bodies and high Reynolds number flows friction drag is
small

For highly streamlined bodies and low Reynolds number flows most
of the drag is due to friction
notes

Friction Drag
Friction drag on a flat plate parallel to the flow can be calculated from
Df w i dA
or from

Df

1
U 2blCDf
2

Where friction drag coefficient can be obtained from Figure or Table

notes

Example
A viscous, incompressible fluid flows past the circular cylinder shown in the Fig. a. According to a more
advanced theory of boundary layer flow, the boundary layer remains attached to the cylinder up to the
separation location at 108.8, with the dimensionless wall shear stress as is indicated in Fig. b. The
shear stress on the cylinder in the wake region, 108.8<<180, is negligible. Determine the drag coefficient
for the cylinder based on the friction drag only

notes

Example
A viscous, incompressible fluid flows past the circular cylinder shown in the Fig. a. According to a more advanced
theory of boundary layer flow, the boundary layer remains attached to the cylinder up to the separation location at
108.8, with the dimensionless wall shear stress as is indicated in Fig. b. The shear stress on the cylinder in the wake
region, 108.8<<180, is negligible. Determine the drag coefficient for the cylinder based on the friction drag only

Solution:

D
Df w i dA 2 b w sin d
A
0
2
2Df
2
CDf

sin d
2
2 0 w
U bD U

CDf

2 w
1
sin

U 2
Re

2 w Re
sin d
U 2

notes

Example (cntd.)

CDf

Re

F sin d
0

Answer:

CDf

5.93
Re

Result is valid only for laminar boundary layer flow

notes

Pressure Drag
Pressure drag is produced by the normal stresses.
Pressure (form) drag strongly depends of the body shape.
It can be determined from
Dp p ni dA
A

or in terms of the pressure drag coefficient


2 p ni dA
C p n i dA
2Dp

CDp

U 2 A
U 2 A
A
where pressure coefficient (dimensionless form of the pressure)
2 p p0
Cp
U 2
For high Reynolds number flows CDp is relatively independent of Reynolds
number
For very small Reynolds number flows CDp is proportional to 1/Re

notes

Example
A viscous, incompressible fluid flows past the circular cylinder shown in Fig. a. The pressure coefficient on
the surface of the cylinder (as determined from experimental measurements) is as indicated in Fig. b
Determine the pressure drag coefficient for this flow.
Combine the results of this and previous examples to determine the drag coefficient for a circular cylinder.
Compare your results with those given in Fig. 9.21 of the text.

notes

Example (cntd.)
A viscous, incompressible fluid flows past the circular cylinder shown in Fig. a. The pressure coefficient on
the surface of the cylinder (as determined from experimental measurements) is as indicated in Fig. b
Determine the pressure drag coefficient for this flow.
Combine the results of this and previous examples to determine the drag coefficient for a circular cylinder.
Compare your results with those given in Fig. 9.21 of the text.

CDp

2
1
1 2
D
C p cos dA
C p cos b d C p cos d
0
A
bD 0
2

Pressure drag coefficient

CDp 1.17
notes

Example (cntd.)
Drag coefficient

Friction drag to total drag ratio

CD CDf CDp

Df
D

CDf
CD

5.93
1.17
Re

5.93

5.93

Re

Re 1.17

1
1 0.197 Re

For Re = 103, 104, and 105 ratio is 0.138, 0.0483, and 0.0158
Most of the drag on the blunt cylinder is the
pressure drag a result of the boundary
layer separation

Comparison with the experimental data

notes

Drag Coefficient Data

Shape Dependence

video

Drag coefficient for an ellipse


with the characteristic area
either the frontal area, A = bD,
or the planform area, A = bl

notes

Drag Coefficient Data

Shape Dependence

(amount of streamlining)

Two objects of considerably different size that gave the same drag force:
(a) circular cylinder CD = 1.2; (b) streamlined strut CD = 0.12

notes

Drag Coefficient Data

Reynolds Number Dependence


Consider low, moderate and large Reynolds number flows

notes

Drag Coefficient Data

Reynolds Number Dependence


Case 1. Low Reynolds number (Re<1)

notes

Drag Coefficient Data

Reynolds Number Dependence


Case 1. Low Reynolds number (Re<1)
For very low Reynolds number flows, inertia is negligible, and drag coefficient varies inversely with Re

Example
A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake
after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

notes

Example
A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake
after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

notes

Example
A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake
after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W D Fb

Example
A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake
after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W D Fb

W SG H 2O

3
d
6

Example
A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake
after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W D Fb

W SG H 2O

3
d
6

FB H 2O

3
d
6

Example
A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake
after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W SG H 2O

W D Fb

Assume

CD

24
Re

3
d
6

FB H 2O

3
d
6

Example
A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake
after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W SG H 2O

W D Fb

Assume

Then

CD

3
d
6

FB H 2O

3
d
6

24
Re

1
1
24
2
2
2
2
D H2OU
d CD H2OU
d

2
4
2
4 H2OU d H 2O

Example
A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake
after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W SG H 2O

W D Fb

Assume

Then

or

CD

3
d
6

FB H 2O

3
d
6

24
Re

1
1
24
2
2
2
2
D H2OU
d CD H2OU
d

2
4
2
4 H2OU d H 2O

D 3H2OUd

- Stokes law

Example
A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake
after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W SG H 2O

W D Fb

Assume

Then

or

CD

3
d
6

FB H 2O

3
d
6

24
Re

1
1
24
2
2
2
2
D H2OU
d CD H2OU
d

2
4
2
4 H2OU d H 2O

D 3H2OUd

U 6.32 103 m/s

- Stokes law

Re 0.564

Drag Coefficient Data

Reynolds Number Dependence


Case 2. Moderate and large Reynolds number flows
Flow past a circular cylinder can take on a variety of different structures
Drag coefficient may change considerably when the boundary layer becomes turbulent
Karman vortex street Flow past cylinder
Oscillating sign
Flow past an ellipse

Flow past a flat plate

Drag Coefficient Data

Reynolds Number Dependence

Character of the drag coefficient as a function of Reynolds


number for objects with various degrees of streamlining

Flat plate

Drag Coefficient Data

Compressibility Effects

For large U, compressibility effects become important and CD = (Re, Ma)

Precise dependence of CD on Re and Ma is complex.

Drag coefficient is usually independent of Mach number for Ma < 0.5. For
larger Mach number, CD strongly depend on Ma, with secondary Reynolds
number effects. Figure

For most objects CD increases intensely in the vicinity of Ma = 1 due to


existence of shock waves. Character of CD is different for blunt and sharp
bodies Figure

Drag Coefficient Data

Surface Roughness

Depending on the body shape, an increase in surface roughness may


increase or decrease drag

For streamline bodies (flat plate parallel to flow) drag increases with
increasing surface roughness

For extremely blunt body (flat plate normal to flow) drag is independent of
surface roughness

For blunt bodies like a circular cylinder or sphere, an increase in surface


roughness can cause a decrease in the drag Figure

Drag Coefficient Data

Froude Number Effects

Froude number is the ratio of free-stream speed to wave speed on the


interface of two fluids.

Object moving on the surface produces waves that require the source of
energy.

Drag coefficient for surface ships is a function of Reynolds number (viscous


effects) and Froude number (wave-making effects)

Viscous and wave effect can be separated

Wave-making drag Dw is a complex function of the Froude number and the


body shape Figure

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag

Drag on a complex body can be approximated as the sum of the drag on its
parts Example

Aerodynamic drag on automobiles provides one more example of the use of


composite bodies Drag on a truck Figure Automobile streamlining

Drag coefficient information is available in the literature Figures

How to reduce the drag?

Example
A high-speed car with m = 2000 kg, CD = 0.3, and A = 1 m2 deploys a 2-m parachute to slow
down from an initial velocity of 100 m/s. Assuming constant CD, brakes free, and no rolling
resistance, calculate the distance and velocity of the car after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 s. For air
assume = 1.2 kg/m3, and neglect interference between the wake of the car and the
parachute.

notes

Example
A high-speed car with m = 2000 kg, CD = 0.3, and A = 1 m2 deploys a 2-m parachute to slow
down from an initial velocity of 100 m/s. Assuming constant CD, brakes free, and no rolling
resistance, calculate the distance and velocity of the car after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 s. For air
assume = 1.2 kg/m3, and neglect interference between the wake of the car and the
parachute.

dV
1
Fc Fp V 2 CDc Ac CDp Ap
dt
2
dV
K

Rearrange
V2
where
K CD A
dt
m
2
V dV
K t
K
1
1
Separate variables and integrate

dt
or
V

t
0
V0 V 2
m 0
m
CDc Ac CDp Ap

V0
Rearrange and solve for V
V
K
(1)
1 K m V0t
2
notes
Apply Newton's law

Fx m

Example
A high-speed car with m = 2000 kg, CD = 0.3, and A = 1 m2 deploys a 2-m parachute to slow
down from an initial velocity of 100 m/s. Assuming constant CD, brakes free, and no rolling
resistance, calculate the distance and velocity of the car after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 s. For air
assume = 1.2 kg/m3, and neglect interference between the wake of the car and the
parachute.

V0
ln 1 t

1.2

K
V0
m

Integrate (1) to find distance traveled

From table

CDp

Hence

CDc Ac CDp Ap 0.3 1 m 2 1.2

Then

K
V 0.122 s -1
m

(2)

2 m 2 4.07 m 2

4
notes

Example
A high-speed car with m = 2000 kg, CD = 0.3, and A = 1 m2 deploys a 2-m parachute to slow
down from an initial velocity of 100 m/s. Assuming constant CD, brakes free, and no rolling
resistance, calculate the distance and velocity of the car after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 s. For air
assume = 1.2 kg/m3, and neglect interference between the wake of the car and the
parachute.

t, s

10

100

1000

V, m/s

89

45

7.6

0.8

S, m

94

654

2110

3940

notes

Lift

Lift

How lift is generated?

Do we need lift?

Lift coefficient
CL

L
1
U 2 A
2

CL = (shape, Re, Ma, Fr, /l)

Body shape is the most important parameter that effects the lift coefficient

For large Re most of the lift comes from pressure forces


notes

Lift

Pressure distribution on a surface of an automobile

Lift

For creeping flows (Re<1) shear stress and pressure effects may be
comparable

Airfoils produce lift by generating pressure distribution that is different on the


top and bottom surfaces

For large Re pressure distributions are directly proportional to the dynamic


pressure, hence lift is proportional to square of the air speed

Airfoil

Airfoil

angle of attack

chord length

A = bc

planform area

= b2/A

aspect ratio

= b/c

if c is constant

Lift and drag coefficients for wings are functions of the angle of attack and aspect ratio Figure

At large angles of attack the boundary layer separates and the wing stalls Figures video

Flaps alter the lift and drag characteristics of a wing Figure video video2

video

Circulation

Wind tip vortices

Circulation

Circulation

Circulation

Now its end of topic

Forces and moments on a body immersed in a uniform flow

back

Boundary Layer Characteristics

w 0.332 U 3

Typical characteristics of
boundary layer thickness and
wall shear stress for laminar
and turbulent boundary layers

back

Navier-Stokes equations

2u 2u 2u
u
u
u
u
p

u
v w gx
2 2
2

x
y
z

2 v 2 v 2 v
v
v
v
v
p

u v w gy
2 2
2
x
y
z
y
z
t
x y
2 w 2 w 2 w
w
w
w
w
p

u
v
w gz
2 2
2

x
y
z

back

Friction drag coefficient


for a flat plate parallel to
the upstream flow

back

back

Drag coefficient as a function of Reynolds number


for a smooth circular cylinder and a smooth sphere

back to ex 1
Re s 2.24 107

CDs 0.3

Rec 8.41 106

C Dc 0.7

back to ex 2

Drag Coefficient Data

Compressibility Effects

Drag coefficient as a function of Mach number for twodimensional objects in subsonic flow

back

Drag Coefficient Data

Compressibility Effects

Drag coefficient as a function of Mach number for supersonic flow

back

Drag Coefficient Data

Surface Roughness

Effect of surface roughness on the drag coefficient of a sphere in the Reynolds


number range for which the laminar boundary layer becomes turbulent

back

Drag Coefficient Data

Froude Number Effects

Typical drag coefficient data as a function of Froude number and hull


characteristics for that portion of the drag due to the generation of waves

back

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,
needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.
Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,
needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.
Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc
2

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,
needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.
Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc
2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs
2
4

Dc

1
U 2bDcC Dc
2

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,
needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.
Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc
2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs
2
4

Re s

UDs
2.24 107

Dc

1
U 2bDcC Dc
2

Rec

UDc
8.41106

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,
needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.
Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc
2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs
2
4

Re s

UDs
2.24 107

From Figure 9.21

Dc

1
U 2bDcC Dc
2

Rec

UDc
8.41106

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,
needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.
Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc
2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs
2
4

Re s

UDs
2.24 107

From Figure 9.21

CDs 0.3

and

CDc 0.7

Dc

1
U 2bDc CDc
2

Rec

UDc
8.41106

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,
needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.
Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc
2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs
2
4

Re s

UDs
2.24 107

Dc

Rec

From Figure 9.21

CDs 0.3

Ds 3470 lb

and

1
U 2bDc CDc
2

CDc 0.7

Dc 4840lb

UDc
8.41106

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,
needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.
Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc
2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs
2
4

Re s

UDs
2.24 107

Dc

1
U 2bDc CDc
2

Rec

UDc
8.41106

From Figure 9.21

CDs 0.3

Ds 3470 lb

Answer:

and

CDc 0.7

Dc 4840lb

M 3.64 105 ftlb 493.52 kNm

Example: (cntd.)

Comments: Above result is only an estimate because


(a) wind is not uniform
(b) tower is not exactly combination of smooth sphere and circular cylinder
(c) cylinder is not of infinite length
(d) due to interaction of cylinder and sphere the net drag is not the sum of the two
(e) drag coefficient was obtained by extrapolation

back

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag

Historical trend of streamlining automobiles to reduce their


aerodynamic drag and increase their fuel economy

back

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag

Drag reduction of a tractor-trailer truck: (a) horsepower required to overcome resistance;


(b) deflector added to cab reduces air drag by 20 percent.

back

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Regular two-dimensional objects

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Regular Three-dimensional objects

Drag Coefficient Data

Composite Body Drag


Other objects

back

Typical lift and drag coefficient


data as a function of angle of attack
and the aspect ratio of the airfoil

next
back

Flow visualization photographs of flow past an airfoil:


(a) zero angle of attack, no separation,
(b)
5 angle of attack, flow separation

next

Two representation of the same lift and drag data for a typical airfoil:
(a) lift-to-drag ratio as a function of angle of attack,
(b) the lift and drag polar diagram

back

Typical lift and drag alterations


possible with the use of various
types of flap design

back

Momentum-Integral Boundary Layer Method


Assume (guess) velocity profile in the boundary layer

u u U, y

u
U

Obtain equation for from

Calculate shear stress from

w U 2

Calculate drag from

u
1

dy
U

d
dx

D bU 2

Even crude guess at the velocity profile gives reasonable drag and shear stress

Example

The water ski shown in figure moves through 70 F water with a velocity U.
Estimate the drag caused by the shear stress on the bottom of the ski for 0 < U < 30
ft/s

Solution
Assumptions: Ski is a flat plate parallel to the upstream flow
1
U 2blCDf 1.94U 2CDf
2
Ul
Re x
3.8 105 U

Df

For U 10 ft/s Rel =3.8 106

For U 30 ft/s

Df 0.598 lb

Df 9.76 lb

Total drag is more than just friction drag.


Pressure drag must be accounted for.

Momentum-Integral Boundary Layer Equation


with Nonzero Pressure Gradient

Pressure gradient effects can be included in the momentum integral equation


Free-stream velocity is not constant along the curved body
U fs U

U fs U fs x

Total pressure is constant along the streamlines outside the boundary layer
p U 2fs 2 const

Pressure gradient

dU fs
dp
U fs
dx
dx

Momentum integral equation with pressure gradient:

dU fs
d
2
*
U

U
fs
fs
dx
dx

This equation represents a balance between viscous forces, pressure forces and the fluid
momentum

Momentum-Integral Boundary Layer Method


Then boundary layer results with this general velocity profile are

2 C2 C1

x
Re x

and

C1C2 3 2
U
2
x

where
1

C1 g Y 1 g Y dY
0

C2

dg
dY

Re x

Y 0

Ux

For any assumed profile the functional dependence of and w on , , U and x is


the same, only constants are different. That is

x U

or

Re x x const

and

w :

U 3 x

Friction Drag
Friction drag on a flat plate parallel to the flow can be calculated from
Df w i dA
or from

Df

1
U 2blCDf
2

Where friction drag coefficient can be obtained from Figure or Table

Wall shear stress along the surface of a curved body is difficult to determine.
Approximate results may be obtained.
If shear stress is known, friction drag can be determined

Example

Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate at y = 0 .


The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y
y
and u = U for
as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using
the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution
From momentum integral equation w U 2

d
dx

(1)

Example

Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate at y = 0 .


The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y
y
and u = U for
as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using
the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution
From momentum integral equation w U 2
on the other hand

d
dx

(1)
(2)

Example

Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate at y = 0 .


The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y
y
and u = U for
as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using
the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution
From momentum integral equation w U 2
on the other hand
Momentum thickness

0 U

d
dx

(1)
(2)

dy

(3)

U
6

Example

Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate at y = 0 .


The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y
y
and u = U for
as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using
the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution
From momentum integral equation w U 2
on the other hand
Momentum thickness
From (1), (2) and (3)

0 U

d
dx

U U 2 d

6 dx

(1)
(2)

dy

(3)

U
6

6
or d
dx
U

Example

Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate at y = 0 .


The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y
y
and u = U for
as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using
the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution
From momentum integral equation w U 2
U

0 U

d
dx

(1)

on the other hand

(2)

dy

(3)

U
6

U U 2 d
6
From (1), (2) and (3)

or d
dx

6 dx
U
Integrating from leading edge to arbitrary x we get
Momentum thickness

2 6

x
2 U

or

3.46

x
U

(4)

Example

Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate at y = 0 .


The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y
y
and u = U for
as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using
the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution
From momentum integral equation w U 2
U

0 U

d
dx

(1)

on the other hand

(2)

dy

(3)

U
6

U U 2 d
6
From (1), (2) and (3)

or d
dx

6 dx
U
Integrating from leading edge to arbitrary x we get
Momentum thickness

2 6

x
2 U
Combining (1), (3) and (4), wall shear stress
Blasuis value

w 0.332U 3 2

w 0.289U 3 2

or

3.46

x
U

x
back

(4)

Example 9.6 Consider turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate.

the boundary layer velocity profile is assumed to be u/U = (y/)1/7 = Y1/7 for
Y = y/ 1 and u = U for Y > 1. This is a reasonable approximation of
experimentally observed profiles, except very near the plate where this formula
gives u/y = at y = 0. Note the differences between the assumed turbulent
profile and the laminar profile. Also assume that the shear stress agrees with the
experimentally determined formula:

w 0.225U 2

14

Determine the boundary layer thicknesses ,


*, and and the wall shear stress, w, as the
function of x. Determine the friction drag
coefficient, CDf

Solution Momentum integral equation


14
2 d

U
w 0.225 U
w

dx
U
For assumed velocity profile, boundary layer momentum thickness
2

u
Y1 7
U

u
U

1 u
u

u
1

dy

dY

0 U
U
U

or by integration
7

0
72
Boundary layer thickness is obtained from differential equation
1

Y 1 7 1 Y 1 7 dY


0.225 U 2

14

7
d
U 2
72
dx


1 4 d 0.231
U

14

15

By integration from 0 at x 0:
or in dimensionless form

dx


0.370 x 4 5
U
0.370

x Re1x 5

Displacement thickness

1
u

1
u
* 1 dy 1 dY 1 Y 1 7 dY
0
0
U
8

0
U


* 0.0463
U

15

x4 5

Momentum thickness
7

0.0360
72
U

15

x4 5

Wall shear stress

w 0.0225 U

14

U 0.370 U

15

x
45

0.228 U 2

Re1x 5

Friction drag
l

Df b w dx 0.0360 U 2
0

bl
Re1l 5

Friction drag coefficient


Df

Df
1
U 2 A
2

0.0720
Re1l 5

back

Momentum Integral Equation with Nonzero Pressure Gradient

dU fs
d
U 2fs *U fs
dx
dx

Notes

Thats all
But
For those who wants to know more