Ch 9 Flow Over Immersed Bodies

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Ch 9 Flow Over Immersed Bodies

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Characteristics

Learning objectives

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

identify and discuss the features of external flow.

Explain the fundamental characteristics of a boundary layer, including laminar,

transitional, and turbulent regimes.

Calculate boundary layer parameters for flow past a flat plate.

Provide a description of boundary layer separation.

Calculate the lift and drag forces for various objects.

study external flows

determine various forces on objects surrounded by moving fluid

One consider the fluid flowing past a stationary body with velocity U,

the upstream velocity

I)

(a) two-dimensional

(b) axisymmetric

II)

(c) three-dimensional

Forces from the surrounding fluid on a

two-dimensional object:

pressure force

viscous force

(side force for 3D body)

notes

D p cos dA w sin dA

L p sin dA w cos dA

back

D p ni dA w i dA

A

L p nj dA w j dA

A

back

Example

back

Example

notes

Example

L p sin dA w cos dA

D p cos dA w sin dA

L pdA

top

top

dA

top

90o

bottom

270o

pdA 0

bottom

bottom

w dA 2 w dA 0.0992 lb

top

notes

Example

notes

Example

front

0o

back

180o

L p sin dA w cos dA

D p cos dA w sin dA

w dA

pdA

front

front

dA 0

back

pdA 55.6 lb

back

notes

Example

a)

L=0

D = 0.0992 lb

b)

L=0

D = 55.6 lb

c)

L0

D0

Drag coefficient

CD

Lift coefficient

CL

D

1

U 2 A

2

L

1

U 2 A

2

Character of the flow is function of the shape of the body

For a given-shaped body, characteristics of the flow

depends on the value of Reynolds, Mach and Froude

numbers

For most external flows 10 < Re < 109

Re > 100 - inertia effects dominate

Re < 1 viscous effect dominate

Characteristics

of Flow Past

an Object

Characteristics of the

steady, viscous flow

past a flat plate

parallel to the

upstream velocity:

flow,

b) moderate Reynolds

number flow,

c) large Reynolds

number flow

Characteristics

of Flow Past an

Object

Characteristics of the

steady, viscous flow past

a circular cylinder:

flow,

b) moderate Reynolds

number flow,

c) large Reynolds number

flow

back

Slide 16

Shuttle landing Shuttle needs to be a relatively streamlined to glide properly.

Upon touchdown a drag chute is used to make it blunt object to slow it down.

Note: the wing tip vorticies (swirls) made visible by the smoke from the

skidding tires at the moment of touchdown.

Kayak and paddles A kayak is a streamlined to reduce drag. The paddle must

be blunt to impart the propulsive force to the kayak.

The Reynolds numbers for the paddle and the kayak are on the order of

100,000 to 1,000,000.

Human aerodynamic wake

Example

Slide 14

notes

Boundary Layer

Structure and

Thickness

on a Flat Plate

Large Reynolds number flow fields may be divided into viscous and inviscid regions

parcels. For laminar flows, mixing occurs only on the molecular scale

back

notes

layer analysis:

standard boundary layer thickness

boundary layer displacement thickness *

boundary layer momentum thickness

notes

y where u 0.99U

notes

notes

u

1 dy

U

body must be increased so that the fictitious uniform inviscid flow has the

same mass flowrate properties as the actual viscous flow

viscous effects on the plate

notes

u

U

u

1 dy

U

Example

Typical characteristics of

boundary layer thickness and

wall shear stress for laminar

and turbulent boundary layers

gravitational effects are obtained from Navier-Stokes & continuity equations

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

u

v w gx

2 2

2

x

y

z

2 v 2v 2v

v

v

v

v

p

u v w gy

2 2

2

x

y

z

y

z

t

x y

2 w 2 w 2 w

w

w

w

w

p

u

v

w gz

2 2

2

x

y

z

gravitational effects are

2u 2u

u

u

1 p

u

v

2

2

x

y

x

y

x

2 v 2 v

v

v

1 p

u v

2

2

x

y

y

x y

u v

0

x y

H. Blasius solved these simplified equations for the boundary layer flow past a flat

plate parallel to the flow

Assumptions made:

1.

v=u

and

=

x y

u v

0

x y

2u 2u

u

u

1 p

u

v

2

2

x

y

x

x

y

2 v 2 v

v

v

1 p

u v

2

2

x

y

y

x y

reduce to boundary layer equations:

Boundary layer equations:

u v

0

x y

u

u

2u

u v

2

x

y

y

Boundary layer equations:

u v

0

x y

u

u

2u

u v

2

x

y

y

Boundary conditions:

uv0

u U

on

as

y0

y

Further assumptions:

1. In dimensionless form boundary layer velocity profiles on a flat plate should

be similar regardless on the location along the plate

u

y

g

U

2. Boundary layer thickness grows as the square root of x and inversely

proportional to the square root of U

x

U

y

and the stream function f xU

velocity components become

u Uf

, where

f f

U

x

is unknown function,

vU

f f

4x

2 f ff 0

Boundary conditions

f f 0 at 0

f 1

as

dimensionless form

profiles at different locations

y

From solution:

U

x

Thus:

x

U

or

x

Re x

Laminar, flat plate boundary layer thickness grows as the square root of the

distance from the leading edge

Also

* 1.721

x

Re x

and

0.664

x

Re x

x

U

w 0.332 U 3

x

7.48 103 x m

U

at x 3 m

0.013 m

w 0.0716 N m 2

at x 6 m

0.0183 m

w 0.0506 N m 2

w 0.332 U 3

0.124

x

x

a Flat Plate

a Flat Plate

analyze boundary layer flow

Consider uniform flow past a flat plate and the fixed control volume

a Flat Plate

Assumptions:

Velocity at section 2 varies from zero at the plate to upstream velocity at the edge of

the boundary layer

Momentum Integral

Boundary Layer

Equation for a Flat Plate

notes

Momentum Integral

Boundary Layer

Equation for a Flat Plate

uV n dA uV

n dA

plate

w dA b

plate

w dx

D = U bh b u 2 dy

2

Thus

Ubh b udy

0

Then

D b u U u dy

0

notes

Momentum Integral

Boundary Layer

Equation for a Flat Plate

Drag on a flat plate is related to momentum deficit within the boundary layer

D b u U u dy

0

Boundary layer flow on a flat plate is governed by a balance between shear drag and a

decrease in the momentum of the fluid

As x increases, increases and the drag increases (but shear stress decreases!)

notes

Momentum Integral

Boundary Layer

Equation for a Flat Plate

Drag on a flat plate is related to momentum deficit within the boundary layer

D b u U u dy

0

Boundary layer flow on a flat plate is governed by a balance between shear drag and a

decrease in the momentum of the fluid

As x increases, increases and the drag increases (but shear stress decreases!)

The thickness of the boundary layer is necessary to overcome the drag of the viscous shear

stress on the plate (in contrary to horizontal fully developed pipe flow)

notes

Momentum Integral

Boundary Layer

Equation for a Flat Plate

D bU 2

Shear stress on a flat plate is proportional to the rate of boundary layer growth

w U 2

d

dx

Last equation is known as the momentum integral equation for the boundary layer flow on

a flat plate

notes

Usefulness of the momentum integral equation lies in ability to obtain approximate

boundary layer results by using rather crude assumptions

Even a rather crude guess at the velocity profile will allow us to obtain reasonable drag and

shear stress results

Example

The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y

y

and u = U for

as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using

the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution

Solution

notes

Example

The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y

y

and u = U for

as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using

the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution

From momentum integral equation w U 2

U

0 U

d

dx

(1)

(2)

dy

(3)

U

6

U U 2 d

6

From (1), (2) and (3)

or d

dx

6 dx

U

Integrating from leading edge to arbitrary x we get

Momentum thickness

2 6

x

2 U

Combining (1), (3) and (4), wall shear stress

Blasuis value

w 0.332U 3 2

w 0.289U 3 2

or

3.46

x

U

(4)

profile approximates the actual profile

Consider general velocity profile as a function of dimensionless coordinate

u

y

g gY

for

U

u

1

for Y 1

U

0 Y 1

Boundary conditions

g 0 0

dg

dY

0

Y 1

and

g 1 1

Then boundary layer results with this general velocity profile are

2 C2 C1

x

Re x

and

C1C2 3 2

U

2

x

where

1

C1 g Y 1 g Y dY

0

dg

C2

dY

Re x

Y 0

Ux

used in the momentum integral equation

back

2 w

2C1C2

U 2

Re x

cf

CDf

Friction drag

Df CDf

1 l

8C1C2

c

dx

f

l 0

Rel

1

U 2bl

2

The boundary layer on a flat plate will become turbulent if the plate is long enough

On a flat plate the transition from laminar to turbulent flow takes place at:

We will use in calculations

Re xcr 5 105

from laminar to turbulent boundary

layer flow on a flat plate. Flow from

left to right video

Transition from

Laminar to

Turbulent Flow

plate for laminar, transitional, and

turbulent flow

back

Example

approximately what location will the boundary layer become turbulent, and how

thick is the boundary layer at that point if the fluid is (a) water at 15C, (b)

standard air, or (c) glycerin at 20C

Solution

5

x

U

xcr

Re xcr

1.7 105

U

cr

x xcr

Results

Fluid

(m2/s)

a. Water

1.1210-6

0.190

b. Air

1.4610-5

2.482

c. Glycerin

1.1910-3

Xcr (m)

202.3

Cr

(m)

1.310-3

0.017

1.42

1190

component of momentum in y direction

Wall shear stress for turbulent boundary layer flow is greater than for laminar

precise expression for shear stress in turbulent flow

Solution can be obtained by use of momentum integral equation. For that one

need: (Solve Example 9.6)

video

BL 1

empirical relation for wall shear stress

Comments

: x1 2

: x4 5

w : x 1 2

w : x 1 5

The random character of the turbulent flow causes a different structure of the

flow

Flat plate drag coefficient is a function of Rel and relative roughness /l

plate parallel to the upstream flow

back

Flat plate drag coefficient is a function of Rel and relative roughness /l

plate parallel to the upstream flow

moves through 20 C water with a velocity

U.

FIND Estimate the drag caused by the

shear stress on the bottom of the ski for 0

< U < 9 m/s.

moves through 20 C water with a velocity

U.

FIND Estimate the drag caused by the

shear stress on the bottom of the ski for 0

< U < 9 m/s.

SOLUTION

Df

1

U 2lbCDf 75U 2CDf

2

Rel

Ul

9.98 105 U

With U 3 m/s

D 1.8 N

Rel 10 6

2.58

moves through 20 C water with a velocity

U.

FIND Estimate the drag caused by the

shear stress on the bottom of the ski for 0

< U < 9 m/s.

SOLUTION

For flow along a flat plate pressure is constant throughout. For flow

past body other than flat plate the pressure is not uniform

pressure does vary along the body surface if surface is curved

fluid velocity at the edge of the boundary layer

gradient within the boundary layer

Notes

For inviscid flow:

0,

Re , =0,

U fs v s

moreover, drag is essentially independent of

the value of

Notes

without loss of energy

point to Ufs = 2U at the top, and than

decelerated to Ufs = 0 at the rear

energy

of flow along front half of the cylinder is

termed favorable pressure gradient

of flow along the rear half of the cylinder is

termed adverse pressure gradient

Notes

boundary layer experiences a

loss of energy due to friction

not enough to reach the rear end,

and the flow separates from the

surface

separation the average pressure

on the rear half of the cylinder is

considerably less than that on the

front half, and large pressure drag

is developed

boundary layer cause boundary

layer separation

Notes

region, and pressure distribution depend

on the nature of the boundary layer

kinetic energy and momentum than

laminar boundary layer because:

velocity profile is fuller

there is energy associated with

swirling motion

occurs later along the surface

Video 1

Video 2

Notes

Any object moving through fluid experiences drag. Drag is due to pressure

(pressure drag) and shear forces (friction drag)

D p ni dA w i dA

A

L p nj dA w j dA

A

notes

Drag

Drag can be determined by use of equation

D p ni dA w i dA

A

CD

D

1

U 2 A

2

number and relative roughness:

notes

Friction Drag

surface

Df w i dA

For blunt bodies and high Reynolds number flows friction drag is

small

For highly streamlined bodies and low Reynolds number flows most

of the drag is due to friction

notes

Friction Drag

Friction drag on a flat plate parallel to the flow can be calculated from

Df w i dA

or from

Df

1

U 2blCDf

2

notes

Example

A viscous, incompressible fluid flows past the circular cylinder shown in the Fig. a. According to a more

advanced theory of boundary layer flow, the boundary layer remains attached to the cylinder up to the

separation location at 108.8, with the dimensionless wall shear stress as is indicated in Fig. b. The

shear stress on the cylinder in the wake region, 108.8<<180, is negligible. Determine the drag coefficient

for the cylinder based on the friction drag only

notes

Example

A viscous, incompressible fluid flows past the circular cylinder shown in the Fig. a. According to a more advanced

theory of boundary layer flow, the boundary layer remains attached to the cylinder up to the separation location at

108.8, with the dimensionless wall shear stress as is indicated in Fig. b. The shear stress on the cylinder in the wake

region, 108.8<<180, is negligible. Determine the drag coefficient for the cylinder based on the friction drag only

Solution:

D

Df w i dA 2 b w sin d

A

0

2

2Df

2

CDf

sin d

2

2 0 w

U bD U

CDf

2 w

1

sin

U 2

Re

2 w Re

sin d

U 2

notes

Example (cntd.)

CDf

Re

F sin d

0

Answer:

CDf

5.93

Re

notes

Pressure Drag

Pressure drag is produced by the normal stresses.

Pressure (form) drag strongly depends of the body shape.

It can be determined from

Dp p ni dA

A

2 p ni dA

C p n i dA

2Dp

CDp

U 2 A

U 2 A

A

where pressure coefficient (dimensionless form of the pressure)

2 p p0

Cp

U 2

For high Reynolds number flows CDp is relatively independent of Reynolds

number

For very small Reynolds number flows CDp is proportional to 1/Re

notes

Example

A viscous, incompressible fluid flows past the circular cylinder shown in Fig. a. The pressure coefficient on

the surface of the cylinder (as determined from experimental measurements) is as indicated in Fig. b

Determine the pressure drag coefficient for this flow.

Combine the results of this and previous examples to determine the drag coefficient for a circular cylinder.

Compare your results with those given in Fig. 9.21 of the text.

notes

Example (cntd.)

A viscous, incompressible fluid flows past the circular cylinder shown in Fig. a. The pressure coefficient on

the surface of the cylinder (as determined from experimental measurements) is as indicated in Fig. b

Determine the pressure drag coefficient for this flow.

Combine the results of this and previous examples to determine the drag coefficient for a circular cylinder.

Compare your results with those given in Fig. 9.21 of the text.

CDp

2

1

1 2

D

C p cos dA

C p cos b d C p cos d

0

A

bD 0

2

CDp 1.17

notes

Example (cntd.)

Drag coefficient

CD CDf CDp

Df

D

CDf

CD

5.93

1.17

Re

5.93

5.93

Re

Re 1.17

1

1 0.197 Re

For Re = 103, 104, and 105 ratio is 0.138, 0.0483, and 0.0158

Most of the drag on the blunt cylinder is the

pressure drag a result of the boundary

layer separation

notes

Shape Dependence

video

with the characteristic area

either the frontal area, A = bD,

or the planform area, A = bl

notes

Shape Dependence

(amount of streamlining)

Two objects of considerably different size that gave the same drag force:

(a) circular cylinder CD = 1.2; (b) streamlined strut CD = 0.12

notes

Consider low, moderate and large Reynolds number flows

notes

Case 1. Low Reynolds number (Re<1)

notes

Case 1. Low Reynolds number (Re<1)

For very low Reynolds number flows, inertia is negligible, and drag coefficient varies inversely with Re

Example

A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake

after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

notes

Example

A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake

after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

notes

Example

A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake

after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W D Fb

A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake

after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W D Fb

W SG H 2O

3

d

6

A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake

after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W D Fb

W SG H 2O

3

d

6

FB H 2O

3

d

6

A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake

after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W SG H 2O

W D Fb

Assume

CD

24

Re

3

d

6

FB H 2O

3

d

6

A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake

after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W SG H 2O

W D Fb

Assume

Then

CD

3

d

6

FB H 2O

3

d

6

24

Re

1

1

24

2

2

2

2

D H2OU

d CD H2OU

d

2

4

2

4 H2OU d H 2O

A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake

after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W SG H 2O

W D Fb

Assume

Then

or

CD

3

d

6

FB H 2O

3

d

6

24

Re

1

1

24

2

2

2

2

D H2OU

d CD H2OU

d

2

4

2

4 H2OU d H 2O

D 3H2OUd

- Stokes law

A small grain of sand, diameter d = 0.10 mm and specific gravity SG = 2.3, settles to the bottom of a lake

after having been stirred up by a passing boat. Determine now fast it falls through the still water.

W SG H 2O

W D Fb

Assume

Then

or

CD

3

d

6

FB H 2O

3

d

6

24

Re

1

1

24

2

2

2

2

D H2OU

d CD H2OU

d

2

4

2

4 H2OU d H 2O

D 3H2OUd

- Stokes law

Re 0.564

Case 2. Moderate and large Reynolds number flows

Flow past a circular cylinder can take on a variety of different structures

Drag coefficient may change considerably when the boundary layer becomes turbulent

Karman vortex street Flow past cylinder

Oscillating sign

Flow past an ellipse

number for objects with various degrees of streamlining

Flat plate

Compressibility Effects

Drag coefficient is usually independent of Mach number for Ma < 0.5. For

larger Mach number, CD strongly depend on Ma, with secondary Reynolds

number effects. Figure

existence of shock waves. Character of CD is different for blunt and sharp

bodies Figure

Surface Roughness

increase or decrease drag

For streamline bodies (flat plate parallel to flow) drag increases with

increasing surface roughness

For extremely blunt body (flat plate normal to flow) drag is independent of

surface roughness

roughness can cause a decrease in the drag Figure

interface of two fluids.

Object moving on the surface produces waves that require the source of

energy.

effects) and Froude number (wave-making effects)

body shape Figure

Drag on a complex body can be approximated as the sum of the drag on its

parts Example

composite bodies Drag on a truck Figure Automobile streamlining

Example

A high-speed car with m = 2000 kg, CD = 0.3, and A = 1 m2 deploys a 2-m parachute to slow

down from an initial velocity of 100 m/s. Assuming constant CD, brakes free, and no rolling

resistance, calculate the distance and velocity of the car after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 s. For air

assume = 1.2 kg/m3, and neglect interference between the wake of the car and the

parachute.

notes

Example

A high-speed car with m = 2000 kg, CD = 0.3, and A = 1 m2 deploys a 2-m parachute to slow

down from an initial velocity of 100 m/s. Assuming constant CD, brakes free, and no rolling

resistance, calculate the distance and velocity of the car after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 s. For air

assume = 1.2 kg/m3, and neglect interference between the wake of the car and the

parachute.

dV

1

Fc Fp V 2 CDc Ac CDp Ap

dt

2

dV

K

Rearrange

V2

where

K CD A

dt

m

2

V dV

K t

K

1

1

Separate variables and integrate

dt

or

V

t

0

V0 V 2

m 0

m

CDc Ac CDp Ap

V0

Rearrange and solve for V

V

K

(1)

1 K m V0t

2

notes

Apply Newton's law

Fx m

Example

A high-speed car with m = 2000 kg, CD = 0.3, and A = 1 m2 deploys a 2-m parachute to slow

down from an initial velocity of 100 m/s. Assuming constant CD, brakes free, and no rolling

resistance, calculate the distance and velocity of the car after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 s. For air

assume = 1.2 kg/m3, and neglect interference between the wake of the car and the

parachute.

V0

ln 1 t

1.2

K

V0

m

From table

CDp

Hence

Then

K

V 0.122 s -1

m

(2)

2 m 2 4.07 m 2

4

notes

A high-speed car with m = 2000 kg, CD = 0.3, and A = 1 m2 deploys a 2-m parachute to slow

down from an initial velocity of 100 m/s. Assuming constant CD, brakes free, and no rolling

resistance, calculate the distance and velocity of the car after 1, 10, 100, and 1000 s. For air

assume = 1.2 kg/m3, and neglect interference between the wake of the car and the

parachute.

t, s

10

100

1000

V, m/s

89

45

7.6

0.8

S, m

94

654

2110

3940

notes

Lift

Lift

Do we need lift?

Lift coefficient

CL

L

1

U 2 A

2

Body shape is the most important parameter that effects the lift coefficient

notes

Lift

Lift

For creeping flows (Re<1) shear stress and pressure effects may be

comparable

top and bottom surfaces

pressure, hence lift is proportional to square of the air speed

Airfoil

Airfoil

angle of attack

chord length

A = bc

planform area

= b2/A

aspect ratio

= b/c

if c is constant

Lift and drag coefficients for wings are functions of the angle of attack and aspect ratio Figure

At large angles of attack the boundary layer separates and the wing stalls Figures video

Flaps alter the lift and drag characteristics of a wing Figure video video2

video

Circulation

Circulation

Circulation

Circulation

back

w 0.332 U 3

Typical characteristics of

boundary layer thickness and

wall shear stress for laminar

and turbulent boundary layers

back

Navier-Stokes equations

2u 2u 2u

u

u

u

u

p

u

v w gx

2 2

2

x

y

z

2 v 2 v 2 v

v

v

v

v

p

u v w gy

2 2

2

x

y

z

y

z

t

x y

2 w 2 w 2 w

w

w

w

w

p

u

v

w gz

2 2

2

x

y

z

back

for a flat plate parallel to

the upstream flow

back

back

for a smooth circular cylinder and a smooth sphere

back to ex 1

Re s 2.24 107

CDs 0.3

C Dc 0.7

back to ex 2

Compressibility Effects

Drag coefficient as a function of Mach number for twodimensional objects in subsonic flow

back

Compressibility Effects

back

Surface Roughness

number range for which the laminar boundary layer becomes turbulent

back

characteristics for that portion of the drag due to the generation of waves

back

Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,

needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.

Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,

needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.

Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc

2

Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,

needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.

Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc

2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs

2

4

Dc

1

U 2bDcC Dc

2

Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,

needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.

Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc

2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs

2

4

Re s

UDs

2.24 107

Dc

1

U 2bDcC Dc

2

Rec

UDc

8.41106

Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,

needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.

Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc

2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs

2

4

Re s

UDs

2.24 107

Dc

1

U 2bDcC Dc

2

Rec

UDc

8.41106

Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,

needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.

Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc

2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs

2

4

Re s

UDs

2.24 107

CDs 0.3

and

CDc 0.7

Dc

1

U 2bDc CDc

2

Rec

UDc

8.41106

Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,

needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.

Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc

2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs

2

4

Re s

UDs

2.24 107

Dc

Rec

CDs 0.3

Ds 3470 lb

and

1

U 2bDc CDc

2

CDc 0.7

Dc 4840lb

UDc

8.41106

Example: A 60-mph (i.e. 88-fps) wind blows past the water tower shown in Fig. a. Estimate the moment, M,

needed at the base to keep the tower from tipping over.

Solution: Free-body diagram is shown in Fig. b

M Ds b s Dc

2

Ds

U 2 Ds2CDs

2

4

Re s

UDs

2.24 107

Dc

1

U 2bDc CDc

2

Rec

UDc

8.41106

CDs 0.3

Ds 3470 lb

Answer:

and

CDc 0.7

Dc 4840lb

Example: (cntd.)

(a) wind is not uniform

(b) tower is not exactly combination of smooth sphere and circular cylinder

(c) cylinder is not of infinite length

(d) due to interaction of cylinder and sphere the net drag is not the sum of the two

(e) drag coefficient was obtained by extrapolation

back

aerodynamic drag and increase their fuel economy

back

(b) deflector added to cab reduces air drag by 20 percent.

back

Regular two-dimensional objects

Regular Three-dimensional objects

Other objects

back

data as a function of angle of attack

and the aspect ratio of the airfoil

next

back

(a) zero angle of attack, no separation,

(b)

5 angle of attack, flow separation

next

Two representation of the same lift and drag data for a typical airfoil:

(a) lift-to-drag ratio as a function of angle of attack,

(b) the lift and drag polar diagram

back

possible with the use of various

types of flap design

back

Assume (guess) velocity profile in the boundary layer

u u U, y

u

U

w U 2

u

1

dy

U

d

dx

D bU 2

Even crude guess at the velocity profile gives reasonable drag and shear stress

Example

The water ski shown in figure moves through 70 F water with a velocity U.

Estimate the drag caused by the shear stress on the bottom of the ski for 0 < U < 30

ft/s

Solution

Assumptions: Ski is a flat plate parallel to the upstream flow

1

U 2blCDf 1.94U 2CDf

2

Ul

Re x

3.8 105 U

Df

For U 30 ft/s

Df 0.598 lb

Df 9.76 lb

Pressure drag must be accounted for.

with Nonzero Pressure Gradient

Free-stream velocity is not constant along the curved body

U fs U

U fs U fs x

Total pressure is constant along the streamlines outside the boundary layer

p U 2fs 2 const

Pressure gradient

dU fs

dp

U fs

dx

dx

dU fs

d

2

*

U

U

fs

fs

dx

dx

This equation represents a balance between viscous forces, pressure forces and the fluid

momentum

Then boundary layer results with this general velocity profile are

2 C2 C1

x

Re x

and

C1C2 3 2

U

2

x

where

1

C1 g Y 1 g Y dY

0

C2

dg

dY

Re x

Y 0

Ux

the same, only constants are different. That is

x U

or

Re x x const

and

w :

U 3 x

Friction Drag

Friction drag on a flat plate parallel to the flow can be calculated from

Df w i dA

or from

Df

1

U 2blCDf

2

Wall shear stress along the surface of a curved body is difficult to determine.

Approximate results may be obtained.

If shear stress is known, friction drag can be determined

Example

The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y

y

and u = U for

as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using

the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution

From momentum integral equation w U 2

d

dx

(1)

Example

The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y

y

and u = U for

as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using

the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution

From momentum integral equation w U 2

on the other hand

d

dx

(1)

(2)

Example

The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y

y

and u = U for

as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using

the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution

From momentum integral equation w U 2

on the other hand

Momentum thickness

0 U

d

dx

(1)

(2)

dy

(3)

U

6

Example

The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y

y

and u = U for

as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using

the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution

From momentum integral equation w U 2

on the other hand

Momentum thickness

From (1), (2) and (3)

0 U

d

dx

U U 2 d

6 dx

(1)

(2)

dy

(3)

U

6

6

or d

dx

U

Example

The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y

y

and u = U for

as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using

the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution

From momentum integral equation w U 2

U

0 U

d

dx

(1)

(2)

dy

(3)

U

6

U U 2 d

6

From (1), (2) and (3)

or d

dx

6 dx

U

Integrating from leading edge to arbitrary x we get

Momentum thickness

2 6

x

2 U

or

3.46

x

U

(4)

Example

The boundary layer velocity profile is approximated as u = Uy/ for 0 y

y

and u = U for

as shown in the figure. Determine the shear stress by using

the momentum integral equation. Compare results with the Blasius solution

From momentum integral equation w U 2

U

0 U

d

dx

(1)

(2)

dy

(3)

U

6

U U 2 d

6

From (1), (2) and (3)

or d

dx

6 dx

U

Integrating from leading edge to arbitrary x we get

Momentum thickness

2 6

x

2 U

Combining (1), (3) and (4), wall shear stress

Blasuis value

w 0.332U 3 2

w 0.289U 3 2

or

3.46

x

U

x

back

(4)

Example 9.6 Consider turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate.

the boundary layer velocity profile is assumed to be u/U = (y/)1/7 = Y1/7 for

Y = y/ 1 and u = U for Y > 1. This is a reasonable approximation of

experimentally observed profiles, except very near the plate where this formula

gives u/y = at y = 0. Note the differences between the assumed turbulent

profile and the laminar profile. Also assume that the shear stress agrees with the

experimentally determined formula:

w 0.225U 2

14

*, and and the wall shear stress, w, as the

function of x. Determine the friction drag

coefficient, CDf

14

2 d

U

w 0.225 U

w

dx

U

For assumed velocity profile, boundary layer momentum thickness

2

u

Y1 7

U

u

U

1 u

u

u

1

dy

dY

0 U

U

U

or by integration

7

0

72

Boundary layer thickness is obtained from differential equation

1

Y 1 7 1 Y 1 7 dY

0.225 U 2

14

7

d

U 2

72

dx

1 4 d 0.231

U

14

15

By integration from 0 at x 0:

or in dimensionless form

dx

0.370 x 4 5

U

0.370

x Re1x 5

Displacement thickness

1

u

1

u

* 1 dy 1 dY 1 Y 1 7 dY

0

0

U

8

0

U

* 0.0463

U

15

x4 5

Momentum thickness

7

0.0360

72

U

15

x4 5

w 0.0225 U

14

U 0.370 U

15

x

45

0.228 U 2

Re1x 5

Friction drag

l

Df b w dx 0.0360 U 2

0

bl

Re1l 5

Df

Df

1

U 2 A

2

0.0720

Re1l 5

back

dU fs

d

U 2fs *U fs

dx

dx

Notes

Thats all

But

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