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JENIS JENIS LUKA

JENIS-JENIS LUKA
1) Luka Terhiris

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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

2) Luka Terkoyak

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Professionally
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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

3) Luka Tertikam / Tembus

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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

4) Luka Lebam

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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

5) Luka Kena Tembak

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CARA MENAHAN DARAH

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CARA RAWATAN

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coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

6) Luka Kecil

CARA RAWATAN

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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

CARA RAWATAN

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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

7) Luka di Perut

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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

8) Luka di Dada

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9) Pendarahan bahagian
dalam Telinga

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coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

LUKA BAKAR

5.

terbakar

dan melecur adalah sama


keadaannya.
Perbedannya hanya dari segi tahap
kecederaan. Kebiasaan terbakar
melibatkan kecederaan yang lebih
serius daripada melecur.
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coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

Professionally
coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

MELECUR DAN LEBAM


Disebabkan terkena:
Air panas
Minyak panas
Wap panas

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Simptom:
Kulit melecur dan
kemerahan
Bahagian terbakar
mengelembung dan
bengkak dengan cepat
Sakit yang amat sangat

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

CARA RAWATAN TERBAKAR RINGAN


1

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6.

TERKENA LISTRIK

Akibat

dari terkena
aliranlistrik dapat
menyebabkan
kematian, mungkin
mereka yang mencoba
membantupun dapat
terkena bahaya.

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coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

LANGKAH YANG PERLU DIAMBIL

Matikan arus listrik dan pastikan


listrik sudah terputus.
Menggunakan alat untuk
menyelamatkan korban:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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Gunakan galah yang panjang dan kering


Kerusi kayu
Plastik tebal
Tali atau tali nylon yang kering
Benda atau alat yang tidakdapat
menghantarkan arus listrik

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

CARA MENGALIH BAHAYA

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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

CARA RAWATAN
Sekiranya

mangsa tidak bernafas,


pulihkan pernafasan dari mulut ke mulut.
Jika gagal segera lakukan CPR.
Jika ada kesan terbakar beri rawatan
terbakar.
Segerakan mangsa ke hospital.
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coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

PATAH & TERSELIUH


Kecederaan tulang meliputi patah atau retak .
Kemungkinan kecederaan boleh berlaku
disebabkan pukulan secara langsung atau
tidak langsung, terjatuh dari bangunan yang
tinggi, tarikan otot anggota yang tertindih,
tembakan atau perlanggaran dan sebagainya.

7.

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JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

JENIS-JENIS PATAH

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Patah tebu

Patah kayu
muda

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

JENIS-JENIS PATAH

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Patah riuk

Patah melarat

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

SIMPTOM
Lebam dan bengkak
Anggota tidak dapat digerakkan
Terluka atau berubah bentuk
Tajam/berbonjol pada kulit
Sakit

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CARA RAWATAN

BLANKET LIFT: Preparation

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CARA RAWATAN

BLANKET LIFT: Rolling On

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CARA RAWATAN

BLANKET LIFT: Lifting

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coordinates by:

TERCEKIK

8.

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coordinates by:

Professionally
coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

LEMAS DI AIR

9.

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coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

RAWATAN
Lakukan pemeriksaan asas seperti,
periksa pernafasan dan nadi.
Periksa tahap kesedaran, buka salur
pernafasan.
Jika perlu lakukan CPR.

Professionally
coordinates by:

KERACUNAN

10.

Apa-apa

bahan jika
dimasukkan ke
dalam kuantiti yang
mencukupi boleh
mengakibatkan
kemudaratan.

Professionally
coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

PUNCA KERACUNAN
Mulut makan, minum
Paru-paru sedut gas/asap
Suntikan gigitan, patukan, jarum
Kulit semburan racun perosak

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coordinates by:

JENIS KEMALANGAN &


CARA RAWATAN

(5)

RAWATAN
1. Pastikan persekitaran dan diri anda selamat.
2. Alihkan mangsa ke tempat yang selamat.
3. Kesan melecur pada mulut beri minum air
atau susu sedikit demi sedikit.
4. Jika sesak nafas, baringkan ke posisi koma.
5. Jika tidak sedar lakukan primary survey.

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coordinates by:

PEMULIHAN

(6)

PERNAFASAN

TEKNIK-TEKNIK

Melalui
cara:
1. Resusitasi secara hembusan (mulut ke mulut)
2. Resusitasi secara tekanan (kardio-pulmonari)
3. Holger Nielson
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coordinates by:

Professionally
coordinates by:

Holger Neilson

PEMULIHAN

(6)

PERNAFASAN

Professionally
coordinates by:

Holger Neilson

PEMULIHAN

(6)

PERNAFASAN

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Rescue Breathing
Is

a way of breathing air into an unconscious


victim who is not breathing but has a pulse.

CPR (on adults & large children)


(see handout)

Giving

chest compressions.

Position

the heel of the right hand on the lower half of the


breast bone, right between the nipples.
Position left hand on top of the right hand.
Position shoulders directly over the hands and push
straight down, pushing the breastbone down 1.5 2
inches.
15

chest compressions, then 2 breaths.

After

3 sets of 15 and 2 check for signs of circulation.

RICE Treatment

Rest

Ice

For 24 to 72 hrs. Longer rest may be required for severe injuries.


Apply for 20 min cycles ASAP after injury occurs. Applying cold
helps reduce pain, swelling and inflammation.

Compression
Wrap

tight!

the injury to reduce swelling. Make sure it is not too

Elevation
Raise

the injured part above heart level to reduce swelling


and drain blood and fluid from the area.

AED (Automated External


Defibrillator)

What

is an automated external defibrillator


(AED)?
An AED is a device about the size of a laptop
computer that analyzes the heart's rhythm for
any abnormalities and, if necessary, directs
the rescuer to deliver an electrical shock to
the victim. This shock, called defibrillation,
may help the heart to reestablish an effective
rhythm of its own.

How

AED (Automated External


Defibrillator)

does an AED work?


An AED is easy to operate. It uses voice prompts to
instruct the rescuer. Once the machine is turned on,
the rescuer will be prompted to apply two electrodes
provided with the AED to the victim's chest. Once
applied, the AED will begin to monitor the victim's
heart rhythm. If a "shockable" rhythm is detected, the
machine will charge itself and instruct the rescuer to
stand clear of the victim and to press the shock
button.

AED (Automated External


Defibrillator)

AEDs are

required to be in most large public

buildings.
Such as malls, schools, and stadiums.

Splints
A material

or device used to protect and


immobilize a body part.
A splint should be used only if it can be
applied without hurting the victim.
Two Types of Splints
Soft

splints are made from blankets, towels,


sheets, or bandages.
Rigid splints are made from rolled-up newspapers
or boards.

Appling Splints
Attempt

to splint the injury in the position you

find it.
Make sure it is not too tight!
On Fractured Bones
Must

include the joint above and below the injured


bone.

On

Injured Joints

Must

include the bone above and below the


injured joint.

Slings
Is

a wide piece of cloth looped under an


inured arm for support.
Example: Triangular Bandage

Treatments for Common


Injuries

Types Bleeding Wounds


Bruise
Is

a wound blood vessels cause bleeding under


the skin.

Incision
Is

a cut caused by a sharp-edged object, such a


razor, scissors, broken glass.

Laceration
Is

a cut that causes a jagged or irregular tearing of


the skin.

Types Bleeding Wounds


Abrasion
AKA a

scrape, is a wound caused by rubbing or scraping


away the skin.

Avulsion
Is

a wound in which skin or other body tissue is separated


or completely torn away from the body.

Puncture
Is

a wound produced when a pointed instrument or


projectile pierces the skin.
The risk of infection is high with this type of wound.

Controlling Bleeding
What

is the procedure for controlling bleeding


that we covered last class?

Shock
Is

a dangerous reduction in blood flow to the


body tissues.
Signs of shock includerapid, shallow
breathing; cold, clammy skin; rapid, weak
pulse; dizziness; weakness; and fainting.
What is the treatment for shock that we
covered last class?

Fractures
Is

a break or crack in a bone.


Two Types
Open

Fracture

There

Closed

is also a break in the skin.

Fracture

There

is no break in the skin.

Treatment
Treat

for bleeding and shock, splint the injury,


apply ice.

Dislocations
Is

the movement of a bone away from its joint.


Treatment
Splint

above and below the dislocated joint, apply


a cold compress.
Never try and set a dislocation!

Sprains and Strains


Sprain

is an injury to the ligaments, tendons,


and soft tissue around a joint caused by
undue stretching.
Strain is an overstretching of muscles and/or
tendons.
Treatment Apply the RICE treatment.

Weather Related Injuries


Heat

Cramps are painful muscle spasms in the


legs and arms due to excessive fluid loss through
sweating.
Treatment

have victim rest in a cool, shaded area; drink


cool water; and stretch stiff muscles.

Heat

Exhaustion is extreme tiredness due to the


bodys inability to regulate its temperature.
Treatment

have victim lie down with feet elevated in a


cool, shaded area; give cool water to drink.

Weather Related Injuries


Heat

Stroke is an overheating of the body


that is life-threatening. Sweating ceases, so
that the body cannot regulate its temperature.
Treatment

have victim lie in cool, wet towels or


sheets; place ice backs near the neck, armpits,
and groin.

Weather Related Injuries


Frostbite

is the freezing of body parts, often


the tissues of the extremities.
Treatment

do not attempt rewarming; handle the


affected area carefully and try to keep it warm.

Hypothermia

is a reduction of the body


temperature so that it is lower than normal.
Treatment

move the victim to a warm


environment; remove any wet clothing; cover their
head with blankets.