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Who is Sigmund Freud?

Who is Sigmund Freud?  An Austrian and the founder of s\ , a clinical method

An Austrian and the founder of s\, a clinical method for treating through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary

assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the


conscious. . .





According to Freud, our personality develops from the interactions among what he proposed as the three fundamental structures of the human mind: the id, ego, and superego. Conflicts among these three

structures, and our efforts to find balance among what each of them

"desires," determines how we behave and approach the

world. . .


According to his theory, these parts become unified as a child works

through the five stages of psychosexual

development. . . .



The id, the most primitive of the three structures, is concerned with instant gratification of basic physical needs and urges. It operates entirely unconsciously (outside of conscious thought).

The id, the largest part of the mind, is related to desires and impulses and is the main source of basic biological needs.


if your (id) walked past a stranger eating ice cream, it would most likely take the ice cream for itself. It doesn't know, or care, that it is rude to take something belonging to someone else; it would care only that you wanted the ice cream.


The superego is concerned with social rules and morals—similar to what many people call their "conscience" or their "moral compass."

It develops as a child learns what their culture considers right and wrong.


If your superego walked past the same stranger, it would not take their ice cream because it would know that that would be

rude. However, if both your id and your superego were involved, and your id was strong enough to override your superego's concern, you would still take the ice cream, but afterward you would most likely feel guilt

and shame over your

act. .


The Ego

In contrast to the instinctual id and the moral superego, the ego is the rational, pragmatic part of our personality. It is less primitive than the id and is partly conscious and partly unconscious.

It's what Freud considered to be the "self," and its job is to balance the demands of the id and superego in the practical context of reality.

The ego is related to reasoning and is the conscious, rational part of the personality; it monitors behavior in order to satisfy basic desires

without suffering negative consequences.


So, if you walked past the stranger with ice cream one more time, your ego would mediate the conflict between your id ("I want that ice cream right now") and superego ("It's wrong to take someone else's ice cream") and decide to go buy your own ice cream.

While this may mean you have to wait 10 more minutes, which would frustrate your id,

your ego decides to make that sacrifice as part of the compromise– satisfying your desire for ice cream while also avoiding an unpleasant social situation and potential feelings of shame.


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Psychosexual Stages of Development

Freud believed that the nature of the conflicts among the id, ego, and superego change over time as a person grows from child to adult. Specifically, he maintained that these conflicts progress, latency, and genital.

Across these five stages, the child is presented with different conflicts between their biological drives (id) and their social and moral conscience (supereg0) because their biological pleasure-seeking urges focus on different areas of the body (what Freud called "erogenous zones").

The child's ability to resolve these internal conflicts determines their future ability to cope and function as an adult. Failure to resolve a stage can lead one to become fixated in that stage, leading to unhealthy personality traits; successful resolution of the stages leads to a healthy adult.

He called his idea the psychosexual the through a series of five basic stages, each with a different focus, with each psychosexual stage directly related to a different physical center of pleasure.

children’s pleasure-seeking urges (governed by the id) are focused on a different area of the body, called an erogenous zone, at each of the five stages of development: oral, anal, phallic , latency, and genital.







Oral (0-1 years of age): During this stage, the mouth is the pleasure center for development. Freud believed this is why infants are born with a sucking reflex and desire their mother's breast. If a child's oral needs are not met during infancy, he or she may develop negative habits such as nail biting or thumb sucking to meet this basic

Anal (1-3 years of age): During this stage, toddlers and preschool-aged children begin to experiment with urine and feces. The control they learn to exert over their bodily functions is manifested in toilet-training. Improper resolution of this stage, such as parents toilet training their children too early, can result in a child who is uptight and overly obsessed with order.

Phalli Cory (3-6 years of age): During this stage, preschoolers take pleasure in their genitals and, according to Freud, begin to struggle with sexual desires toward the opposite sex parent (boys to mothers and girls to fathers). For boys, this is called the Oedipus complex, involving a boy's desire for his mother and his urge to replace his father who is seen as a rival for the mother’s attention. At the same time, the boy is afraid his father will punish him for his feelings, so he experiences castration anxiety. The Electra complex, later proposed l



Latency (6-12 years of age): During this stage, sexual instincts subside, and children begin to further develop the superego, or conscience. Children begin to behave in morally acceptable ways and adopt the values of their parents and other important adults.

Genital (12+ years of age): During this stage, sexual impulses reemerge. If other stages have been successfully met, adolescents engage in appropriate sexual behavior, which may lead to marriage and childbirth.