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1

No
.

1.

Assessment
Type
(Tests,
Presentations,
Group/
Individual,
Assignments,
etc.)

Individual
Assignment
part1

2.

Individual
Assignment
part2

3.

TEST

LAB

4.

Coursework Reference
(Topics/ Chapters/ Subjects
covered or other Relevant
Information)

SupplyofCleanWater
andplumbinglayoutina
lowrisecasestudy.
Drainagesystems

LightingLayoutand
stormwaterdrainagein
thesamelowrisecase
study.

TopicsonHeat,Sound,
WaterSupplyandStorm
WaterManagement

2EXPERIMENTS

Issue to
Students
(Week)

Submission of
Coursework
(Week)

10

11

11

12

Feedback to
Students
(Week)

Marks
(100%)

25

25

11

12

13

Rem
arks

30

20

Total:
100%

Courseworkcomponent:40%weightingofoverallassessment.

Studentmustachieve50%thresholdgradingincourseworktoqualifyforapassinth

Topic5:
SanitationandSewerageDisposalSystem:
OBJECTIVES:

Sanitaryandsewerageterminologyandfundamentals
Internalsoilandwastepipesystem:singlestack,one
pipe,twopipe
Sanitaryfittingsandappliances,watersealandinterceptor
traps
Sanitarypipematerials
Outdoorsewer/drainagesystems:combinedandseparate
systems

Topic5:
SanitationandSewerageDisposalSystem
Sewerpipematerialsandmanholes

Sewagetreatmentprocessesandtypes
Sewagepumping
Sewagedisposal:protectionofenvironmentfromsewer
spill
SanitaryandsewerageauthoritiesinMalaysia

References:
HallF.&GreenoR.,2011,Building
Services Handbook, Part 11. 6thEdition.
Elsevier.
GreenoR.,1997.Building Services,
Technology and Design. Longman.

Introduction
Introduction
For healthy living, it is necessary to have a clean
environment. Hence the need for a proper disposal
system of :
Waste water wash water, used water
Storm water (rain)
Sewage Toilet wastes/ industrial wastes

Introduction
Sanitaryworksmaybedividedinto;
-Collection:discharge into sanitary systems then
collection by septic tank for public sewer lines

- Treatment:Complex filtering and treatment


-Disposal:final discharge of water and solid
collection

Introduction:
understandwatersupply
andusedwaterdischarge

JBA
IWK

Introduction
The3typesofsewersystemsare:
(forstormwater&sewage)
- Separatesystems
-Combinedsystems
-Partiallyseparatesystems

10

SystemsofSanitation
Separate Systems
Separatesewersare
constructedfor
handlingofstorm
waterandsanitary
sewage
Suitableforareas
wherethetopography
permitsdisposalof
stormwaterbygravity,
whilesanitarysewage
requirepumping

11

SystemsofSanitation
Combined Systems

Onlyonesetofsewers
Useforsanitary
sewageandtown
drainage(stormwater)
Mustbepumped

12

SystemsofSanitation
Partially separate systems
Moreeconomicalascomparedtoseparatesystems
Aportionofstormwaterdischargeintonaturaldrainage
(river)
Balancedflowtothecombinedsystem

13

PatternsofCollection
Variouspatternsfollowedforcollectionofsewageand
wastewaterare:
1.Perpendicularpattern/grid
2.Interceptorpattern
3.Radialsystem
4.Fanpattern
5.ZonePattern

14

a.Perpendicular
pattern/grid

15

b.Interceptor&Radialpattern

PLAN

16

d.Fanpattern

PLAN

To
Main
sewer

17

e.ZonePattern

To
Main
sewer

18

Factors Tut Q 4
Factorswhichgovernthepatternsofcollectionare:
i.Topographyhillyorflatland
ii.Locationneartownorinremotearea
Iii.Methodoftreatmentcitysewageorseptictank
iv.TypeofSewagehomesorindustrial
v.Areatobeserveddensepopulation,orsmall
population

19

SewagePumping
Wheneverthelevelofthebranch/servicesewerfromthe
buildingislowerthanthemainsewerlevel,sewage
pumpinghastoberesortedto.
Therequirementsforsewagepumpsare:
reliability(cantrust)
Unchokable(cannotchokeorgetstuck)
Accessibleformaintenance(canreachinside)
Robust(hardy&strong)
Wearresisting(canstandheavyuse)

20

SewagePumping

21

Sanitary & Sewerage


System
1. Sanitary&SewerageAuthorities,Act
andRegulations
2. Sanitary(Soil&Waste)System
3. SewerageSystem
4. Sanitary&SeweragePipingWorks

22

Sanitary & Sewerage


Authorities, Act and
Regulations

23

Sanitary & Sewerage Authorities, Act


and Regulations

Buildingsanitarysystemiscontrolledundereachlocalmunicipal
councilbuttheexternalseweragesystemisprovidedbyIndahWater
Konsortium(IWK).

Act&Regulationstobeusedforsanitarysystem:
UBBL1984
Localmunicipalcouncilsregulation

Act&Regulationstobeusedforexternalseweragesystem:
MS1228:1991CodeofPracticeforDesignandInstallationof
SewerageSystem
SewerageSystemGuidelines(byJPP)
Street,Drainage&BuildingAct1974

24

Sanitary (Soil &


Waste) System
2.1
2.2
2.3

Sanitary definitions
Sanitary stacks
Sanitary appliances

25

2.0 Sanitary (Soil & Waste) System

Soil&wastepipesystemdesignedtocarryawaythedischarges
fromsanitaryfittingsquicklyandsafely.

Gravityflowwillrequireaconstantslopinggradientwhichneeds
carefuldesign&consideration.

Sanitaryappliances:watercloset,flushingcistern,urinal,sink,wash
basin,bath,shower,floortrap&etc.

26

2.1 Types Of Indoor Sanitary Discharge Pipes


The4typesofpipesusedforindoorsanitarydischargeare:
1)

Soil pipe conveyinghumandischargesfromWCsorurinals.

2)

Waste pipe conveyingwater-bounddischargesfromsinks,baths,


showers,washbasins,bidets.

3) Vent (or Ventilation) pipe


apipeaboveawasteor
soilpipethatallowsgasto
escapefromthesystem.
4) Anti-siphon pipe
apipeaddedtoblocka
fluidbackwardmotion&
topreventlossoftrap
waterseal.

27

2.2 Sanitary stacks

Inamulti-storeybuilding,stackisusedtocarrysoil/wastewaterfrom
allsanitaryappliancesateachfloordowntotheexternal
undergroundseweragesystem.

Inadditiontocorrectlymovingthewastewater,asanitarysystem
needstosatisfythefollowing:

Protectionfromhealthrisk
Protectionfromfoulair
Sufficientcapacityformaximumdesignflow
Self-cleansingofsystembynormalflow
Minimalchanceofblockage
Easyaccesstoallparts
Longtermresistancetoeffectsofwastewater
Longtermresistancetoleakage
Protectionfromeffectsofgroundpressure&movement
Protectionfromextremesofweather.

28

Thereare3typesofsanitarypipesystemusedforcollection&disposalof
soil&wastefromvarioustoiletfixturesinabuilding.Theyare:
1)
2)
3)

Singlestacksystem
Onepipesystem
Twopipesystem.

1) Single Stack System


o) Allsoil&wastewaterenterasingle
stackpipe.
o) Noseparateventilationpipeisused.
Stackpipeservesalsoasventpipe.
o) Sanitaryfittingsshouldbeinstallednear
singlestackpipetoreducelengthof
branchingpipe.
o) Systemresultsinsavingsinlabor&
materialprovidedworkmanshipisgood.

29

2) One Pipe System


o
o
o

Allsoil&wastewaterenterasingle
stackpipe.
Aseparateventilationpipeisused.
Asbothsoil&wastewaterrunthrough
thepipes,thepiperemainsclean&
lesserpossibilityofchoking.
Moreeconomicalthan2pipesystem,
requireslesserspace.

30

3) Two Pipe System


o
o
o
o
o

2separatestackpipes,oneforsoilwater
&anotherforwastewater.
Suitablewhensoilfittingsarelocatedfar
fromwastefittings.
Nopossibilityofsoilwaterbackingupin
wastefittings.
2ormorepipesinsystemlooksunsightly
&takesextraspace.
Extrapipesmeansmoremaintenance.

31

Comparison
System

Advantages

Disadvantages

SingleStackSystem

Requireonlyonesingle
stackpipe

Ventilationislessefficient

OnePipeSystem

Lesspossibilityof
choking

Requirespipelineforvent
pipes

TwoPipeSystem

Moreeffectivedrainage

Extrapipemeansmore
maintenance
Unsightlypipeworktakes
upmorespace

32

2.3 Sanitary Traps


Afeatureneededbyallsanitaryappliances.
Thereare2typesoftraps:

1.
2.

Water seal traps:Ittrapsbadsmells,gases&pestswhichare


harmfultohealth.
Interceptor traps:Ittrapssolids&substances(e.g.hair,grease)at
inlettopreventitfromenteringthewastewaterpipe.

WATER SEAL TRAPS

Atrapwithacurvedsectionofdrainpipethat
fillsupwithsomeflushingwater,providinga
seal.

PipesthatpenetrateawallhaveaP trap &


thosethatgothroughthefloorhaveanS trap.

Thewaterheldbythetrapisreplacedeach
timethefixtureisused.

33

P Trap
Locatedbetweenthesewerpipe&the
WCorwashbasin.

S Trap
SameasP-trap.ThedebrisintheS-trap
canberemovedonceeverymonthby
removingthecleaningeyeplug.

34

Bottle Trap
Thistrapispopularbecauseitcanbeusedif
thespacebetweentheappliance&thesewer
isrestricted&iftheP-trapcannotbeused.

Anti-siphon traps
Thistrappreventsbacksiphonage&located
betweenthesanitaryappliance&thesewer.

35

Gully Trap

Agullytrapisabasininthegroundwhichreceivespipedwastewater
fromthekitchen,bathroom&laundrybeforeitisemptiedintothesewer.

Thebasinhasawatersealtopreventfoulodoursofthesewerreaching
thesurface.

Thetoporsurroundisraisedabovegroundleveltopreventstormwater
&otherforeignmatterenteringthesewer.
Floor
Level