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Praktikum Geoteknik Ke-3

Pengolahan Data

Rock Quality Designation (RQD)

Rock Mass Rating (RMR)

Slope Mass Rating (SMR)

Q-system

Klasifikasi Massa
Batuan

Perhitungan RQD (Rock Quality Designation)

Perhitungannya ada
beberapa cara :
1. Perhitungan nilai
RQD berdasarkan
kor bor (Deere,
1989 dalam Hoek,
2006)
. parameter
: Data
Panjang Potongan Inti Bor 10cm

RQD
x 100%
Total
Panjang
Inti
Bor
inti bor
. Rumus :

2.

Priest dan Hudson (1976)


Error 5%
Parameter : Nilai spasi pada discontinuitas
Rumus :
RQD = 100 (0.1
+ 1) e
0,1
Dengan = 1/Spasi rata-rata

Conto :
spasi kekar, A = 0.18 m Spasi kekar, B = 0.31 m Spasi
kekar, C = 0.21 m Spasi kekar, D = 0.27 m.
Spasi kekar rata-rata sebenarnya = 0.24 m.
Maka : Frekuensi kekar, = 1/spasi = 4.17 kekar/m.
Sehingga :
RQD = 100
e
(0,1+ 1) = 93.38%
0,1

Tabel 2.5 Rock Quality Designation (RQD) (Bieniawski,


1989)

RQD (%) Kualitas Batuan

Rating

<25

Sangat jelek (very poor) 3

25-50

Jelek (poor)

50-75

Sedang (fair)

13

75-90

Baik (good)

17

90-100

Sangat baik (excellent)

20

Perhitungan RMR (Rock Mass Rating)


RMR yang digunakan yaitu RMR versi
Bienawski (1989).
Parameter :
1. Kuat Tekan
UCS
RMR = Bobot kuat tekan + bobot
Point Load
RQD + bobot spasi discontinuitas +
2. Nilai RQD
bobot kondisi discontinuitas +
3. Spasi Discontinuitas
bobot kondisi air + Bobot Orientasi
4. Kondisi Discontinuitas
Discontinuitas
Persistence
Separation
Roughness
Infiling/Gouge
Weathering
5. Kondisi Air
6. Orientasi Bidang Discontinuitas

Tabel 2.10 Panduan Klasifikasi Kondisi Kekar (Bieniawski, 1989)


Parameter
Panjang kekar
Persistence/continuit
y

Rating
<1m

1-3 m

3-10 m

10-20 m

2
0,11,0
mm

1-5 mm

> 5 mm

0
Slickensid
ed

Jarak antar
Tidak ada < 0,1 mm
permukaan kekar
(separation/apertur
e)
6
5
4
Sangat
Sedikit
Kekasaran kekar
kasar
Kasar
kasar
(roughness)
6
5
3

Tidak ada
Keras
Material pengisi

< 5 mm
> 5 mm
(infilling/gouge)
Kelapukan
(weathering)

6
Tidak
lapuk
6

4
Sedikit
lapuk
5

>20 m

Halus
1

< 5 mm

> 5 mm

Lapuk
3

Sangat lapuk
1

Hancur
0

A. CLASSIFICATION PARAMETERS AND THEIR RATINGS

Tabel 3.7 Ringkasan Rock Mass Rating System (Bieniawski,


1989)

Parameter

Point-load
strength index

2-4 MPa

1-2 MPa

>250 Mpa

100-250 MPa

50-100 MPa

25-50 MPa

5-25
MPa

1-5
MPa

<1
MPa

Rating

15

12

Drill core quality RQD

90%-100%

75%-90%

50%-75%

25%-50%

< 25%

Rating

20

17

13

Spacing of discontinuities

>2 m

0.6-2 m

200-600 mm

60-200mm

< 60 mm

Rating

20

15

10

Uniaxial comp.
Strength

Condition of discontinuities
(see E)

Ground
water

Rating
Inflow per 10 m
Tunnel length (l/m)
(Joint water press)/
(Mayor principal )
General Conditions

>10 Mpa

Very rough surfaces


Not continous
No sparation
Unweathered walll rock

Slighty rough
surfaces
Slighty rough surfaces
Separation <
Separation < 1mm
1mm
Slighty weathered
Highly
walls
weathered
walls
25

20

10

None

< 10

10-25

25-125

> 125

< 0.1

0.1-0.2

0.2-0.5

>0.5

Completely dry

Damp

Wet

Dripping

Flowing

10

Strike and dip orientations


Tunnels and mines
Foundations
Slopes
C. ROCK MASS CLASSES DETERMINED FROM TOTAL RATINGS
Rating
Class number
Rating

Slickenside surfaces
or
Split gauge > 5 mm thick
Gauge < 5mm thick
Or
or
Separation > 5 mm continuous
Separation 1-5 mm
continuous

30

Rating
15
B. RATING ADJUSTMENT FOR DISCONTINUITY ORIENTATIONS (See F)

Description

For this low range uniaxial


compressive test is preferred

4-10 MPa

Strength
of
intact rock material

Range of values

Very
favourable
0
0
0
100-81
I
Very good
rock

Favourable

Fair

-2
-2
-5

-5
-7
-25

80-61
II

60-41
III

Good rock

Fair rock

Unfavour
able
-10
-15
-30
40-21
IV
Poor
rock

Very unfavourable
-12
-25

< 21
V
Very poor rock

PeritunganSlope Mass Rating (SMR)


Parameter :
Nilai RMR
Nilai F1, F2, F3 (Hasil analisis kinematik, berdasarkan
tipe kelongsoran yang paling besar potensi terjadinya)
Nilai F4 (Berdasarkan metode penggalian/peledakan)
Rumus :
SMR = RMR + (F1.F2.F3) + F4

Tabel 3.9. Faktor Penyesuaian untuk kekar dan diskripsi dari kelas
SMR (Romana, 2003)
Adjusting Factor For Joints
F, F)
Plane Failure
Toppling

j = Dip
(F, Direction of Joint

s = Dip
Direction of
Slope

j = Dip of
Joint

Very Favourable

Favourable

Fair

Unfavourable

Very
Unfavourable

> 30

30 - 20

20 10

10 - 5

< 5

0,15

0,40

0,70

0,85

1,00

35 - 45

> 45

0,85

1,00

|j - s| =
|j - s - 180| =
F Value
Relationship

F Value

F = (1 - Sin |j - s|)

|j| =

<20

20 - 30

Planar Failure
Toppling

0,15

0,40

Relationship
Planar Failure
Toppling

j - s =
j + s =
F Value

F Value

0,70
1,00

>10
<110

10 - 0
110 - 120

0
>120

0 -(-10)
-

<(-10)
-

-6

-25

-50

-60

F (Bieniawski Adjustment Rating For Joint Orientation)


Natural Slope
15

Kelas
SMR
Deskripsi masssa batuan

30 - 35

F = tg j

Relationship
F Adjusting Factor for Excavation
Method

s = Dip of Slope

I
81-100
Sangat baik
Benar-benar

F = Empirical Values for Method of Excavation


Smooth
Blasting or
Prespliting
Blasting
Mechanical
10

DESCRIPTION OF SMR CLASSES


II
III
61-80
41-60
Baik
Normal

Deficient
Blasting

-8

IV
21-40
Buruk

V
0-20
Sangat buruk
Benar-benar

Perhitungan Nilai QSystem

Parameter :
(a) RQD;
(b) Jumlah Set Kekar (Jn)
(c) Angka Kekasaran Kekar (Jr)
(d) Derajat Alterasi (Ja)
(e) Angka Reduksi Kondisi Air (Jw)
(f) kondisi tekanan/faktor reduksi tegangan (SRF)

Rumus :

Input parameters to Q system


Joint set number (Jn)

Very poor
Poor
Fair
Good
Excellent

Massive, no or few joints


One joint set
One joint set plus random
Two joint sets
Two joint sets plus random
Three joint sets
Three joint sets plus random
Four or more joint sets, heavily jointed, "sugar-cube", etc.
Crushed rock, earthlike

RQD = 0 - 25%
25 - 50
50 - 75
75 - 90
90 - 100

Notes:
(i) Where RQD is reported or measured as < 10 (including 0), a nominal value of 10 is used to evaluate Q
(ii) RQD intervals of 5, i.e. 100, 95, 90, etc.
are sufficiently accurate

Jn = 0.5 - 1
2
3
4
6
9
12
15
20

Notes: (i) For tunnel intersections, use (3.0 x Jn); (ii) For portals, use (2.0 x Jn)

Desciption and ratings for the parameter Jr (joint roughness number)


a) Rock-wall contact,
b) rock-wall contact before 10 cm shear
Discontinuous joints
Jr = 4
Rough or irregular, undulating
3
Smooth, undulating
2
Slickensided, undulating
1.5
Rough or irregular, planar
1.5
Smooth, planar
1.0
Slickensided, planar
0.5
Note : i) Descriptions refer to small scale features,
and intermediate scale features, in that order

c) No rock-wall contact when sheared


Zone containing clay minerals thick enough to prevent rock-wall
contact
Sandy, gravelly or crushed zone thick enough to prevent rockwall contact

Jr = 1.0
1.0

Notes:
i) Add 1.0 if the mean spacing of the relevant joint set is greater than 3 m
ii) Jr = 0.5 can be used for planar, slickensided joints having
lineations,
provided the lineations are oreintated for minimum strength

Descriptions and ratings for the parameter Ja (joint alteration number)


Contact
between joint
walls

JOINT WALL CHARACTER


Healed or welded joints:
CLEAN JOINTS Fresh joint walls:
Slightly altered joint walls:
COATING OR Friction materials:
THIN
Cohesive materials:
FILLING
FILLING OF:

Condition
filling of quartz, epidote, etc.
no coating or filling, except from staining (rust)
non-softening mineral coatings, clay-free particles, etc.
sand, silt calcite, etc. (non-softening)
clay, chlorite, talc, etc. (softening)
Type
Partly wall contact

Wall contact
Ja = 0,75
1
2
3
4
No wall contact

Thin filling (< 5 mm)

Partly
or
no
wall
contact

Friction materials
Hard cohesive materials
Soft cohesive materials
Swelling clay materials

sand, silt calcite, etc. (non-softening)


compacted filling of clay, chlorite, talc, etc.
medium to low overconsolidated clay, chlorite, talc, etc.
filling material exhibits swelling properties

Dry excavations or minor inflow, i.e. < 5 l/min locally


Medium inflow or pressure, occasional outwash of joint fillings
Large inflow or high pressure in competent rock with unfilled joints
Large inflow or high pressure, considerable outwash of joint fillings
Exceptionally high inflow or water pressure at blasting, decaying with time
Exceptionally high inflow or water pressure continuing without noticeable decay

Thick filling

Ja = 4
6
8
8 - 12

Description and ratings for the parameter Jw (joint water reduction factor)
pw < 1 kg/cm
1 - 2.5
2.5 - 10
2.5 - 10
> 10
> 10

Ja = 8
5 - 10
12
13 - 20
2

Jw = 1
0.66
0.5
0.3
0.2 - 0.1
0.1 - 0.05

Note: (i) The last four factors are crude estimates. Increase Jw if drainage measures are installed
(ii) Special problems caused by ice formation are not considered

Description and ratings for parameter SRF (stress reduction factor)


A.
Weakness
zones
intersecting
excavation

Multiple weakness zones with clay or chemically disintegrated rock, very loose surrounding rock (any depth)
Single weakness zones containing clay or chemically disintegrated rock (depth of excavation < 50 m)
Single weakness zones containing clay or chemically disintegrated rock (depth of excavation > 50 m)
Multiple shear zones in competent rock (clay-free), loose surrounding rock (any depth)
Single shear zones in competent rock (clay-free), loose surrounding rock (depth of excavation < 50 m)
Single shear zones in competent rock (clay-free), loose surrounding rock (depth of excavation > 50 m)
Loose, open joints, heavily jointed or "sugar-cube", etc. (any depth)

Notes:

SRF = 10
5
2.5
7.5
5
2.5
5

Reduce these valued of SRF by 25 - 50% if the relevant shear zones only influence, but do
(i) not intersect the excavation

Low stress, near surface, open joints


Medium stress, favourable stress condition
High stress, very tight structure. Usually favourable to stability, may be except for walls
Moderate slabbing after > 1 hour in massive rock
Slabbing and rock burst after a few minutes in massive rock
Heavy rock burst (strain burst) and immediate dynamic deformation in massive rock
stress problems

Note:

rock, rock
B. Competent

Tabel Q-System
Tabel Q-System Versi Indo
nesia

Rock quality designation (RQD)

(ii) For strongly anisotropic stress field (if measured): when 5 < s 1 / s 3 <10, reduce s c to 0.75 s c .
When s 1/ s 3 > 10, reduce s c to 0.5 s c
Few case records available where depth of crown below surface is less than span width. Suggest SRF
(iii) increase
from 2.5 to 5 for low stress cases

C. Squeezing rock
D. Swelling rock

Plastic flow of incompetent rock under the


influence of high pressure
Chemical swelling activity depending on
presence of water

Mild squeezing rock pressure


Heavy squeezing rock pressure
Mild swelling rock pressure
Heavy swelling rock pressure

s /s

1
>c 200
200 - 10
10 - 5
5-3
3-2
<2

s /s

c
<q 0.01
2.5
0.01 - 0.3
1
0.3 - 0.4
0.5 - 2
0.5 - 0.65
5 - 50
0.65 - 1
50 - 200
>1
200 - 400

sq / sc
1-5
>5

5 - 10
10 - 20
5 - 10
10 - 15

Tabel 2.18 Kualitas massa batuan berdasarkan Q-system


(Barton, 1973)