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A Continuation

Reliability Models
Reliability Allocation
Component Selection and Application
Redundancy in Design
Design Review and Evaluation

Reliability Models
- A model that can serve as the basis for accomplishing reliability
allocation, reliability prediction, analysis and evaluation such as
stress-strength analysis, and subsequent design analysis and evaluation
tasks
- Reliability characteristics are identified for each component, each block,
and all the other areas for requirements

Reliability Allocation
- Allocation from top-level requirements down to subsystem level, unit level,
and down to the level needed to provide a meaningful input to design
- STEPS:
1. Identify elements where the design is known and where reliable data
are available and can be assessed
2. Identify new areas (no data available) and assign complexity or weight
factors to each applicable block.

Component Selection and


Application
- A fundamental approach to attaining a high level of reliability is
to select and apply the components and materials of known
reliabilities and capable of meeting system requirements.
Design for reliability must consider:
a. Selection of standardized components and materials
b. Test and evaluation prior to design acceptance.

Redundancy in Design
- sometimes, it is necessary to enhance a system reliability by providing
two or more similar functional paths but may imply increase in
weight and space, power consumption, complexity, and cost
- The calculation of system reliability requires knowledge of the type of
redundancy used and the individual block reliabilities.
- INSERT BLOCK DIAGRAM PAGE 395

Redundancy in Design
Example: Supposed that it is desired to calculate the reliability for the network.
The approach is to first calculate the reliability fo the redundant subsystems C-F;
apply the product rule for A, B, and the resulting networks in this path; the
determine the combined reliability of the two overall redundant paths (to include
subsystem G). It is assumed that the reliability of each of the individual
subsystem is as follows:
A=0.97
B=0.98
C=0.92
D=0.92
E=0.93
F=0.90
G=0.99

Redundancy in Design
Reliability
of the redundant network including subsystems C and

D:
)(
Reliability of the redundant network including subsystems E and
F:
)(
Reliability of the path is:
)(
Reliability of the combined network is:
)(

Redundancy in Design
When

determining the reliability of the standby systems,


Poisson distribution may be used because they display
the constantcharacteristic of this distribution.
)
)
IMAGEIN PAGE 397

Redundancy in Design
An
additional term in the Poisson distribution is added for each
subsystem in standby.
Ex. Suppose that one must determine the system eliability for a
configuration consisting of one operating subsystem and one
identical standby operating for a period of 200 hours. It is assumed
that reliability of the switch is 100%. The failure rate ) for each
subsystem is 0.002 failure per hour.
)
); = (0.002)(200)=0.4
)

Design Review and Evaluation


- Design configuration and characteristics of components
are evaluated in terms of compliance with the initially
specified reliability requirements (e.g. developing a
design review checklist)

Reliability Analysis Methods


1. Define System requirements
2. Accomplish functional analysis
3. Accomplish requirements allocation
4. Identify failure modes
5. Determine causes of failure
6. Determine effects of failure
7. Identify failure detection means
8. Rate failure mode severity
9. Rate failure mode frequency
10.Rate failure mode probability
11.Analyze failure mode criticality
12.Initiate recommendations for product/process improvement