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Sistema de Combustible

Sistema de Control
Electronico

History of Common-rail System


Common-rail Engines
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

1CD-FTV
1CD-FTV (D-CAT)
1KD-FTV
2KD-FTV
1ND-TV
2AD-FTV
2AD-FHV

History of Common-rail System


Different variations on Common-rail
3 Generations

Diesel EFI

Common-rail

1st-generation
1st-generation
Common-rail
Common-rail
HP2
HP2 Supply
Supply Pump
Pump
Solenoid
Injector
Solenoid Injector

135 MPa
Max. Commonrail Pressure

2nd-generation
2nd-generation
HP3
HP3 Supply
Supply Pump
Pump
Discharge
Discharge Valve
Valve
Injector
Injector Compensation
Compensation
Code
Code

135 - 160 MPa

3rd-generation
3rd-generation
NSR
NSR +
+ DPNR
DPNR
Piezo
Piezo Injector
Injector

160 - 180 MPa

History of Common-rail System


Different variations on Common-rail
1st-generation

*: Data Matrix Code

Max.
Injector
Discharge
Common-rail Compensatio
Valve
Pressure
n

Model

Pump Type

Number
of SCV

NLP10

Bosch

Pressure
Regulating
Valve

160 MPa

A,B,C Mark

NDE120

Bosch

Pressure
Regulating
Valve

160 MPa

DMC*

CDT220, CLM20,
CDE120

HP2

No

135 MPa

Resister

CDT250, CUR10

HP3

Yes

160 MPa

QR Code

CDT250

HP3 + Flow
Damper

Yes

175 MPa

QR Code

KDJ90, KDJ12#

HP2

No

135 MPa

Resister

KDJ12# (04 -)

HP3

Yes

160 MPa

QR Code

KUN#6

HP3

No

160 MPa

QR Code

KLH1#,2#, KDN1##,
KDY2#0

HP3

Yes

135 MPa

Resister

KUN1#,25,35,
KDH20#,212,22#

HP3

No

160 MPa

QR Code

2AD-FTV

ADT251

HP3

No

167 MPa

QR Code

2AD-FHV

ADT251

HP3 + Flow
Damper

Yes

180 MPa

QR Code

Engine

1ND-TV

1CD-FTV
1CD-FTV
(D-CAT)
1KD-FTV

2KD-FTV

System Overview
Common-rail System Diagram (for IMV)
NE Signal
G Signal
Various
Signals
Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Engine
ECU

EDU

Other Injectors
Pressure
Limiter
Common-rail

Injector
Pressure
Switch

Fuel Cooler
Fuel
SCV Fuel SystemFilter
Supply Pump
Warning Light

Fuel Tank

Fuel System
Features
NE Signal

Engine
ECU

G Signal
Various
Signals

EDU
Other Injectors

Max.
Max. 160MPa
160MPa

HP3
HP3 Type
Type
Fuel Pressure
Supply
Supply Sensor
Pump
Pump

Injector
Injector
compensation
compensation
code
code
Pressure
Limiter

Common-rail
Injector
Pressure
Switch

Fuel Cooler

Warning
Warning
Supplylight
light
Pump
for
for fuel
fuel filter
filter
clogging
clogging and
and
fuel
fuel sedimenter
sedimenter

SCV

Fuel
Filter

Fuel System
WarningDetects
Light
Detects

filter
filter
clogging
clogging

Element
replacement
replacement
type
type

Element
Fuel Tank

Fuel
Fuel cooler
cooler
cools
cools return
return
fuel
fuel

Common-rail System
General
This system realize high injection pressure in all speed
range of the engine
NE Signal
G Signal

EDU
(Operates injector
at high-speed)

Engine
ECU

Various
Signals
Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Pressure
Limiter

Common-rail
(Stores high-pressure fuel)

Injector
(Injects high-pressure fuel)

SCV
Supply Pump
(Generates high-pressure fuel)

Fuel Tank

: High-pressure (Max. 160 MPa)

Common-rail System
EDU (Electronic Driver Unit)
Drive the injectors at high speed

EDU
Battery
DC / DC
Converter
Command
Pulse

IJT
#1-4

IJF

Engine
ECU

Confirmation
Pulse

Control
Circuit

High
Voltage

High-speed
operation

Injector

ECD System Components (DENSO)


EDU (Electric Driver Unit)

[for Resister Type]

Voltage
150V

0V

Engine ECU

Time
#1

IJT#1

INJ#1

#2

IJT#2

INJ#2

#3

IJT#3

#4

IJT#4

INJF
RINJ1

RINJ2

RINJ3

RINJ4

IJF

EDU

INJ#3
INJ#4
COM1

Injectors

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Voltage

EDU
Battery

EDU
+B

150V
0V
COM1

High
Voltage
Generation
Circuit

High
Voltage

IJT#1
IJT#2
IJT#3
IJT#4

Engine
ECU

Time

INJ#1
Control
Circuit

INJ#2
INJ#3
INJ#4

IJF

GND

GND

ECD System Components (DENSO)


EDU
Injector drive signals

IJT#1

IJF

COM1

INJ#1

System Overview
Main Components for Common-rail System
Shown for the 1KD-FTV engine on the IMV
Engine
Front

Injection Pipe

Injector

Fuel Inlet Pipe

Common-rail

Supply Pump

SCV (Suction Control Valve)


Fuel Temp. Sensor

Fuel Pressure Sensor


Pressure Limiter

System Overview
Features of Common-rail System

Injection pressure, volume and


timing are controlled electrically

High accuracy engine control

High pressure fuel

Higher atomization of fuel

Stores high pressure fuel

High pressure injection in all


engine speed range

High performance and fuel economy


Low noise and vibration
Clean emission

System Overview
Difference from Common-rail and Conventional Diesel
Common-rail Diesel
Constant high pressure
Pressure
Common-rail
Sensor

System

SCV

EDU

Conventional Diesel
Instantaneously high pressure

Governor

Timer

ECU
Supply Pump

Injector

Pump

Injection
Nozzle

Injection Volume
Control

ECU (Injector)

Pump (Governor)

Injection Timing
Control

ECU (Injector)

Pump (Timer)

Injection Pressure
Control

Supply Pump (SCV)

According to rotational speed


and injection quantity

Pressurization

Supply Pump

Pump

Distribution

Common-rail

Pump

Injection Pressure

Max. 160 MPa

Approx. 15 MPa

Common-rail System
Injector
High pressure injection for higher atomization

Return to
Fuel Tank

From
Common-rail

Injector
Compensation
Code

0.14 mm

4.2. Product Information ( QR Code )


Upper Side
Picture from Upper Side
Injector
Compensation Code

30 digits

QR code
: Quick Response

0.14 mm

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Injector
Small injection hall (0.14
mm)
[Top of Injector]

0.14 mm

Influence on Injector caused by particulate (sand,dust) Fuel


Contamination Fuel Foreign Materials
Seizure of
sliding
surface

Valve
sticking
Piston Command
sticking
Needle Nozzle
sticking

Fluid
grinding

Valve Seat
poor seal
Orifice
change flow rate
Injection hole
change flow rate
Nozzle Seat
poor oil
tight

Clogging

Injection hole
poor fuel spray
Refer to Case 1

4.2. Product Information ( Plunger Clearance )

Cylind
er

0.5 ~ 1
m

Plunger

X-Sectional
View of
Human Hair
(Magnification
)

60 m

INJECTOR

Case 1. Fuel Spray Change caused by Injection Hole Clogging


with Foreign Materials
Bottom view

Normal
Spray

clogging

Injection hole
Foreign material

Injection Hole
Clogging

Common-rail System
Injector
Construction
Solenoid Coil

Return to
Fuel Tank

From
Common-rail

Piston

Nozzle
Spring

Nozzle
Needle

Common-rail System
Injector
Controlled by engine ECU signal

Solenoid
Solenoid
TWV
Small
Orifice
From
Common-rail

Return

Large
Orifice

Common-rail System
Injector
Pilot injection reduces NOx and engine noise
Main

Injection
Volume

Pilot

NOx and
engine noise

Heat
Release
Value

TDC

Pilot
Injection Control

TDC

Conventional
Injection Control

System Overview
Sensors and Actuators

Air Flow Meter

Intake Restrictor
Valve (Step Motor)

Atmospheric
Temp. Sensor

Intake Air
Temp. Sensor

E-VRV (for EGR


Valve Control)

Turbo Pressure
Sensor

VSV (for EGR


Valve Close)
Camshaft
Position Sensor
Injector
Crankshaft
Position Sensor

VSV (for Turbo


Pressure Sensor)
Glow Plug
Water Temp.
Sensor

Illustration is for 1CD-FTV on CDE120

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump
Supplies the high pressure fuel to the common-rail
HP2

HP3

Type

HP2 (Outer Cam)

HP3 (Inner cam)

Generation

1st

2nd/3rd

SCV

2 (Time controlled)

1 (Duty-cycle)

Plunger

4 (Radial Type)

2 (Opposite type)

Weight [g (lb.)]

6040 (13.32)

3800 (8.38)

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump (HP3)
Construction

Check
Valve

Eccentric and
Ring Cam

Plunger

Delivery
Valve

Feed
Pump

Fuel Temp.
Sensor
SCV (Suction
Control Valve)

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump (HP3)
Construction
To fuel tank (return)

Ring Cam

Plunger
Eccentric
Cam

Common-rail System
Supply Pump
Supplies the high pressure fuel to the common-rail
Driven by crankshaft

To Common-rail
(Outlet)

To Fuel Tank
(Return)

SCV
(Suction Control Valve)

From Fuel Filter


(Inlet)

Common-rail System
Supply Pump
Fuel flow
To common-rail

From fuel
tank

Common-rail System
Supply Pump Fuel flow

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump (HP3)
Suction and pumping operation

Plunger A: Suction
Plunger B: Pumping

Plunger A: Pumping
Plunger B: Suction

Check
Valve
Plunger A
SCV

Plunger B

: From Feed Pump

: To Common-rail

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump (HP3)
Suction and pumping operation

Click!
Movie

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening small)
SCV fixed opening during suction stroke

Fuel
Pumping
Mass

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening large)

Fuel
Pumping
Mass

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening small)

Click!
Movie

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump (HP3)
Fuel control operation (SCV opening large)

Click!
Movie

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump (HP3)
The SCV opening regulates the pumping volume to
control fuel pressure
[Fuel Pressure Control]
Fuel Pressure
Sensor

SCV
Controls
SCV
opening

Common-rail
pressure
(Feedback)

Calculation of
target injection
pressure
Engine ECU

Crankshaft
Position Sensor

Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Supply Pump
SCV signals
HP3

HP2

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Common-rail
Stores high pressure fuel and supplies to injector
[Three kinds of common-rail]

Pressure
Limiter

Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Pressure
Discharge
Valve

Pressure
Limiter

Common-rail Pressure

Pressure
Discharge Valve

Fuel Pressure
Sensor

Engine Stop

Idling Full Load

Gradually become 0 MPa

20 180* MPa

*: Depending on the engine types or generations

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)
Detects the fuel pressure in common-rail and
provides feedback
To Injector

From Supply Pump

Common-rail

[Fuel Pressure Sensor]


Sensor Tip

Common-rail
Pressure

Pressure
Limiter

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PCR)

Output Voltage (V)

Output characteristic

4.2

1.0
0
160
Common-rail Pressure (MPa)

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Common-rail
Fuel pressure sensor (PR, PR2)
With 2 different circuits for

Sensor
Tips

Output Voltage (V)

Output characteristic

: Common-rail Pressure

4.44
3.89
1.40
0.85

PR (Main)
PR2 (Sub)
0
190
Common-rail Pressure (MPa)

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Injector
High pressure injection for higher atomization
Solenoid
Coil

From
Common-rail
Control
Chamber

Solenoid
Coil
Return to
Fuel Tank

Nozzle
Spring
Click!
Movie

Injector Hole
Injector Pressure
Voltage

Nozzle
Needle

Piston

Nozzle
Spring

6 or 8
135 180 MPa
150 V

Nozzle
Needle

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Injector
Difference in the injection of gasoline and common-rail
[Gasoline Engine]

[Common-rail Engine]
Engine
ECU

Engine
ECU

Constant Low
Pressure
[Approx. 0.3 MPa]

EDU

Variable High
Pressure
[30 160 MPa]

Injection Volume

Injection
Volume

High
Long
Electricity Time

Electricity Time

Common-rail
Pressure

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Injector
Injection volume correction
Injector compensation code
Injector
Compensation Code
QR Code

Injection Quantity

Compensation Code Type (QR Code)

Activation Pulse Correction TQ


Laser Marking

: Correction Point

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Injector
Injection volume correction
Difference between compensation code and one fixed
resistance value

Compensation Code Type (QR Code)


Injection Quantity

Injection Quantity

Correction Resister Type

Activation Pulse Correction TQ

Activation Pulse Correction TQ


: Correction Point

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Overview ECU Inputs
Basic Parameters
Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VA)

Injector

Correction Parameters
Intake Air Temp. Sensor (THA)

EDU

Water Temp. Sensor (THW)


Fuel Temp. Sensor (THF)
Air Flow Meter (VG)
Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)
Vehicle Speed Sensor (SPD)
Fuel Pressure Sensor (PCR)

Engine
ECU

EGR Valve

Ignition Switch (STA)


Blower Switch (BLW)
A/C Amplifier (AC)
Alternator (ALT)

DLC3

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Overview ECU Outputs

Injector (Timing and duration)


Pressure Discharge Valve
Suction Control Valve
Various Sensor

EDU (Power supply)

Engine
ECU

Intake Restrictor Valve


VN Turbo (Nozzle vane control)
Glow Plug
EGR Valve
DLC3

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Crankshaft Position Sensor (Ne)

Crankshaft Position Sensor

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (VPA, VPA2)
Magnets

Hall
ICs

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Air Flow Meter [Hot Wire Type] (VG)

Temp.
Sensing
Element

Intake Air
Temp. Sensor
Platinum Hot
Wire Element

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Turbo Pressure Sensor (PIM)

Turbo Pressure
Sensor

Engine
ECU
VSV (for Turbo
Pressure Sensor)

ECD System Components (DENSO)


EGR System
System diagram
Intake Restrictor Valve
Position Sensor

Intake
Restrictor
Valve

Intake Restrictor
Valve Control Motor

EGR Valve
Position
Sensor

Engine
ECU
Vacuum
Pump

Vacuum
Damper
EGR Valve

Engine

E-VRV
(for EGR valve control)

Atmospheric
Pressure
Sensor

Crankshaft
Position Sensor
Accelerator Pedal
Position Sensor
Water Temp.
Sensor
Turbo Pressure
Sensor
Intake Air Temp.
Sensor

ECD System Components (DENSO)


EGR System
EGR valve (Step Motor Type)
EGR Valve
(Step Motor)

To Intake
Manifold
EGR
Valves
From
Exhaust
Manifold

ECD System Components (DENSO)


EGR System
EGR valve (Linear Solenoid Type)

EGR Valve
Position
Sensor
Linear
Solenoid

EGR
Valves

To Intake
Manifold
From
Exhaust
Manifold

ECD System Components (DENSO)


EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Step Motor Type)

Air Out
Reduction Gears

Intake
Restrictor Valve

Air IN
Step Motor
Throttle Valve Fully Opened Switch

ECD System Components (DENSO)


EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
A quick response and high precise are realized by
driving a direct valve shaft

Intake Restrictor Valve


Position Sensor

Rotary Solenoid Type


Torque Motor

Magnet
Steel Layer
Hall IC
Magnet
Magnet

ECD System Components (DENSO)


EGR System
Intake Restrictor Valve (Rotary Solenoid Type)
Intake restrictor shutter valve position sensor
Magnet
Output Voltage (V)

Hall IC
VC

Engine
ECU

VLU

E2

5
3.51

1
0.71
0

20
0
(Full Close)

Intake Shutter
Valve Position
Sensor

70
(Full Open)

Intake Shutter Valve


Opening Angle (deg)

100

ECD System Components (DENSO)


Variable Nozzle Vane Type Turbocharger
Nozzle Vane Position Sensor
Non-contact type position sensor
Hall ICs

Magnets

Cross-section
0
-55

55

Output Voltage (V)

Output characteristic of
main, sub sensor
4.5
pe
O
VN

2.5
0.5
-55

Cl o
N
V

se

0
55
Sensor shaft rotation angle ()

Common-rail System
Diagnosis
DTCs for common-rail system
Trouble Area

DTC No.

Detection Item

Detection Condition

Fail-safe

Trouble Area

P0200
(97)

Injector Circuit / Open

Open or short in EDU circuit


EDU
Injector
Engine ECU

P0627
(78)

Fuel Pump Control Circuit


/ Open

Open or short in (SCV) circuit


SCV
Engine ECU

P1229
(78)

Fuel Pump System

Short in supply pump (SCV) circuit


Supply pump (SCV)
Engine ECU

P1601
(89)

Injector Correction
Circuit Malfunction
(EEPROM)

Injector compensation code


Engine ECU