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Solvent Extraction

Theoretical Aspects and Formulas


Applications of solvent extraction

Learning Objectives
After completing this topic, students should be
able to:
Explain the basis of solvent extraction
Give examples on applications of solvent
extractions
Able to use formulas in solving calculations

Distribution coefficient

Zaq

Zorg
KD = distribution coefficient/
partition coefficient

This assumes ideal behaviour at low concentrations

Distribution ratio
It is more meaningful to describe a different term, the
distribution ratio, which is the ratio of the concentrations of all
the species of the solute in each phase.
In this example, it is given by

(org)

(aq)

Distribution ratio
KD = distribution coefficient
Ka = acidity constant
Dc = distribution ratio

(org)

(aq)

KD

org is the phase being extracted into


aq is the phase being extracted from

C0Vaq
n solute in org = CorgVorg
n solute in aquoues = CaqVaq

(org)
(aq)

(org)
(aq)

Corg
Caq

Percentage of extraction

Percentage of extraction:

This equation is related to distribution ratio by:

Above equation show that the


fraction extraction can be increased
by decreasing the ratio of Vaq/Vorg.
For example, by increasing the
organic phase volume.
However, a more efficient way of
increasing the amount extracted
using same volume of organic solvent
is to perform successive extractions
with smaller individual volumes of
organic solvent. (multiple extraction)

Single extraction

Vorg
Vaq

Since Vorg = Vaq, VR = 1

-4
norg = 75/100 x 1.00 x 10-3 mol [X]org = 7.5 x 10 mol/0.1 L
= 7.5 x 10-3 M
= 7.5 x 10-4 mol

naq = 25/100 x 1.00 x 10-3 mol


= 2.5 x 10-4 mol

[X]aq = 2.5 x 10-4 mol/0.1 L


= 2.5 x 10-3 M

Another Example
Twenty milliliters of an aqueous
solution of 0.10M butyric acid is
shaken with 10mL ether. After the
layers are separated, it is determined
by titration that 0.5 mmol butyric
acid remains in the aqueous layer.
What is the distribution ratio, and
what is the percent extracted?

Initial mol of butyric acid


=MV
=0.10 M x 20 mL
=2.0 mmol
Extracted butyric acid
=2.0 mmol0.5 mmol
=1.5 mmol
The concentration in the ether layer
=mmol/volume
=1.5 mmol/10mL
=0.15 M

The concentration in aqueous layer


=mmol/volume
=0.5mmol/20mL
=0.025M

Therefore,

Since 1.5 mmol was extracted, the


percent extracted is

Tutorial:
For a solute with a distribution
ratio of 25.0, show by
calculation which is more
effective, extraction of 10 mL of
an aqueous solution with 10 mL
organic solvent or extraction
with two separate 5.0 mL
portions of organic solvent.

Single extraction

(i) ether

60 mL

collected

Multiple
extraction
2 portions (30 mL each)

original
ether

ether

first
30 mL

collected 1
second
30 mL

aqueous

Amount of extraction = collected 1 + collected 2

collected 2

(ii) ether
original
ether

3 portion (20 mL each)


first
20 mL

collected 1
collected 2
collected 3
second
third
20 mL

20 mL

aqueous

Amount of extraction = collected 1 + collected 2 + collected 3

Multiple extraction

For multiple Extraction of x times,

remaining concentration/
remaining mass

E = 1-qn

Initial concentration/
Initial mass

numbers of extraction
amount remaining

%E = 100 (1-qn)

Example:

The distribution constant for iodine between an organic solvent and


H2O is 85. Find the concentration of I2 remaining in the aqueous
layer after extraction of 50.0 mL of 1.00 x 10-3 M I2 with the
following quantities of the organic solvent :
(a)50.0 mL
(b)Two 25.0 mL portions
(c)Five 10.0 mL portions

Note the increased extraction efficiencies that result from dividing the
original 50 mL of solvent into two 25 mL or five 10 mL portions

SOLVENT EXTRACTION
TECHNIQUE IN THE EXTRACTION
OF METAL CHELATES, ION
ASSOCIATION COMPLEXES AN
ORGANIC SAMPLE.

Apparatus used for solvent


extraction- separatory
funnel.

Basically, in solvent extraction- solute


extracted from aqueous solution into
immiscible organic solvent.
Mixture is shaken for a minute phase
allowed to separate- bottom layer
drawn off (aqueous layer-as weak
acid).
Aqueous layer contain partially
ionized substances- will introduce pH
effects on the extraction( related to
extraction of metal chelates) .

Technique of solvent
extraction.
Technique based on fact :
Uncharged organic
molecule-tend to
dissolve in organic layer.
Charge anion- remains
in polar aqueous layer.

Metal ion:
Do not tend to dissolve
appreciably in organic layer.
To solubilize it, charge must be
neutralized with adding
something make organic like.
Two principle ways of doing this:
Extraction of ion-association
complexes.
Extraction of metal chelates.

Extraction of ion-association
complexes
Metal ion incorporated into bulky
molecule.
Associate with another ion of
opposite charge forming ion pair.
OR
Metal ion associate with another
ion of great size (organiclike).

Extraction of metal chelates


The most widely used method
Extracting metal ions by formation of
chelates molecule with organic chelating
agent.
Characteristics of chelating agents (eg:
EDTA)
Contain two or more complexing
group
Form colored chelates with metal ions
Weak acid that ionized in water;
ionizable proton displace by metal ion
when chelates form and the charge
on organic compound neutralize
charge metal ion

Effect of pH to metal ion


extraction

Different metal extract, different pH


values.
Appropriate adjustment of pH,
selectivity can be achieved in
extraction.
Complexing agent- prevent one metal
ion from reacting with chelating
agent-can enhance selectivity.