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(8.4.1)Water is distributed on Earth
as a solid, liquid and gas.
(8.4.1a) Define the terms solute,
solvent and solution.
(8.4.1b) Identify the importance of
water as a solvent.

Substances that will allow other substance to dissolve in

them are called

Water can dissolve more chemicals than any other


Water is an excellent solvent

Chemicals that are dissolved by solvents are called


An example of a solute might be sugar or salt

Solutions are the combination of two or more substances

in a uniform (homogeneous) mixture.

That is they are the combination of Solvent and Solute(s)

Water based solutions are called aqueous solutions

A major part of all living

organisms is made up of
water. It is crucial for the
survival of all life forms. It is
a solvent of great


Copy and paste this link to see NASAs water



It is a colourless, tasteless liquid. It has high

freezing point, boiling point, heat of
vapourisation and heat of fusion due to the
presence of extensive hydrogen bonding in
comparison to H2S and H2Se. It can dissolve
even covalent compounds like alcohol and

Why is water important?

It is necessary for life on earth.
The chemical reactions that occur within cells require
Water forms the bulk of body fluids like blood that carry
nutrients and oxygen to other cells.
Water can dissolve more chemicals than any other

An important property of water is that it has sticky ends.

This means that one end of the water molecule is slightly
Positive and the other end slightly Negative.

8.4.1c) Compare the state,

percentage and distribution of
water in the biosphere, lithosphere,
hydrosphere and atmosphere.

Zones of the Earth:

The hydrosphere refers to the worlds liquid water, including
oceans, lakes, rivers, and groundwater.
The biosphere includes all life, in the ocean and on land. Plants,
animals, insects, microbes, and humans are all part of the biosphere.
The lithosphere/geosphere is the outer portion of the solid Earth,
from the upper mantle to the soil on the surface.
The atmosphere includes air and tiny particles (aerosols) around
the Earth.
Copy and paste link to see the distribution of water:
(sign up for trial to work)

Syllabus dotpoint
8.4.1i) Perform an investigation involving calculations of
the density of water as a liquid and a solid using:

8.4.1ii) Analyse information by using models to account
for the differing densities of ice and liquid water.


8.4.1i) Perform an investigation involving calculations of the
density of water as a liquid and a solid
8.4.1ii) Analyse information by using models to account for the
differing densities of ice and liquid water.

Density (g/mL) = Mass (g)

Volume (mL)

So in word form density equals Mass over


So what we should have found close to was the density of water is
approximately 1.0 g/mL (100 g of water/100 mL of water). The density of
ice is somewhere around 0.92 g/mL, less than the density of water. Our
density calculation for ice came out to be 21.0 g/23 mL, or 0.913 g/mL,
which was pretty close.
Objects such as ice, with a density of less than 1.0 g/mL, will float in water.
Objects with a density greater than 1.0 g/mL will sink in water.
Cool link to show the students densities:

The answer as to why we got the results we did

Structure of water

Structure of Ice

The crystalline (ridged lattice) form of water is ice. It has a

highly ordered three dimensional hydrogen bonded structure.
Hydrogen bonding gives ice a rather open structure with wide
holes which are formed at low temperatures when water
molecules form many stable hydrogen bonds.

Hydrogen Bonding
8.4.2 The wide distribution and importance of water on Earth is
a consequence of its molecular structure and hydrogen bonding

Syllabus Points
(8.4.2c) Describe hydrogen bonding between
(8.4.1iii) Plan and perform an investigation to
identify and describe the effect of antifreeze or salt on the boiling point of water

How do you think salt or antifreeze would affect the
boiling point of water?

What is a Hydrogen Bond?

Hydrogen bonds are the attractive force between the hydrogen
attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an
electronegative atom of a different molecule.
Hydrogen (H) needs to be attached to a highly electronegative
Oxygen (O), Fluoride (F), Nitrogen (N) atom.

Why are O, F & N so attractive??

Electronegativity Values
F (4.0) O (3.5) N(3.0)

In each of these molecules note:

1. A hydrogen atom!
2. the hydrogen is attached directly to one of the most
electronegative elements, causing the hydrogen to acquire a
significant amount of positive charge.
3. Each of the elements to which the hydrogen is attached is not only
significantly negative, but also has at least one "active" lone pair. In
these interactions, a hydrogen atom is the donor, and the respective
electronegative atom is the acceptor of the bond.

Hydrogen Bonding in Water

Water could be considered as the
"perfect" hydrogen bonded system.
Each Oygen (O) has 2 lone pairs of
electrons therefore, 4 Hydrogen
bonds (H-bonds) can be formed.
Hydrogen-bonding network formed in
liquid water is responsible for many
of the essential and unique properties
of water.
Ice forms a crystalline lattice, held
together by a multitude of H-bonds

Hydrogen Bonding in molecules

the hydrogen is partially

positive and attracted to
the partially negative
charge on the nitrogen.
Nitrogen has only one
lone pair, thus, only one
hydrogen bond can be
made to each nitrogen.

How would you plan this experiment?

Plan and perform an investigation to identify and describe
the effect of anti-freeze (ethylene glycol) or salt on the
boiling point of water

What safety steps need to be taken?

What is your hypothesis?

Collecting data






What can be concluded?

Syllabus dotpoints
8.4.1d) Outline the significance of the different states of water
on Earth in terms of water as:
-A constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw
material in metabolism.
-A habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby
terrestrial habitats.
-An agent of weathering of rocks both as a liquid and solid.
-A natural resource for humans and other organisms.

Water as constituent of cells and its role as both a

solvent and a raw material in metabolism:

Water is the predominant constituent of cells

A solvent for biochemical reactions that sustain life
A raw material for metabolism (in plants)
A transport medium for nutrients and wastes
A thermal buffer that resists large temperature

Water as a habitat in which temperature extremes are less than

nearby terrestrial habitats

- Water serves as a natural habitat for many organisims

- Major advantage: tempertures vary much less in water than
on land.
- Therefore marine animals are protected form experinceing
temperature extremes.

Water as an agent of weathering of rocks

- As water freezes and thaws repeatedly, the stress due to

expansion and contraction can cause rocks to fragment
- Rain, rivers and glaciers erode loose material, craving
through mountains and shaping the landscape into its
present form.
- Weathering is the physical and chemical breakdown and
decay of rocks.

A natural resource for humans and other organisms.

For drinking, food preparation, washing and recreation
For irrigation of crops, and watering of livestock
As a working fluid in electricity generating stations and as a
coolant in them and in many industries
For generating electricity directly
In industry as a reactant, solvent and cleaning agent and for
waste disposal and settling dust
As a mode of transport (now less used planes and trains are
more widely used).

Syllabus dotpoint
8.4.2a) Construct Lewis electron dot
structures of water, ammonia and hydrogen
sulfide to identify the distribution of

Bohr - 1912
Niels Bohr

If there are negatively charged

particles around a positively
charged nucleus, why dont they
attract and collide (opposites


The Bohr-Rutherford Model

Central positive nucleus
Electrons move in orbits
(energy levels) around the
Electrons more or less stay in
their orbit unless an increase
in energy causes them to


Analysing the atom to construct the

Lewis dot structure

First step find the total number of valence electrons

For example CN
Which is 4+5+1 =10
Step 2: Put the least electronegative atom in the
centre which in this case is C (to find out
electronegativity which is a pattern on the periodic
table you have to look at the right hand top corner and
from that point electronegativity decreases down and
to the left)
Step 3: Put two electrons between atoms to form a
chemical bond

Analysing the atom to construct the

Lewis dot structure
Step 4: Complete octets on the outside of the atom.
Step 5: If central atom does not have an octet, move
electrons from outer atoms to form double or triple
Have a go on your worksheet at creating water, hydrogen
sulfide, ammonia and methane.
To review this information at home heres a utube link:

Lewis dot electron structures

They show you the distribution of electrons.


Chemical formula





Copy and paste:
Good website to visit as they go through the process of how
to draw Lewis dot structures:

Syllabus dotpoint
8.4.2b) Compare the molecular structure of
water, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, the
differences in their molecular shapes and in
their melting and boiling points

Can anyone tell me what the distributions look like??

Maybe one looks bent?
What one could that be?
Is there any other different shapes of molecules lets see
Everyone draw these examples on the above slides down
and we will investigate what they look like.
Great video on explaining shapes of molecules:

Yes, there is other shapes of molecules

Such as we found:
Water and hydrogen sulfide are a bent
Ammonia is a pyramidal shaped
Methane is a tetrahedral shaped

Syllabus dotpoint

8.4.2d) Identify the water molecule as a polar


Water is a polar molecule?

The real difference between an ionic bond and a covalent
bond is reflected in the properties of the substance.
Ionic bonds produce substances which melt well above
room temperature, conduct electricity when molten or
dissolved in water.
Covalent bonds produce substance which boil well below
room temperature (except water) and which do not
conduct electricity.
Molecules with atoms of different elements, which are not
symmetrical are polar (because the covalent bonds are
polar). Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms,
covalently bonded, and non-symmetrical, so it is polar.

Syllabus dotpoint

8.4.2i) Process information from secondary

sources to graph and compare the boiling and
melting points of water with other similar
sized molecules

Melting and Boiling points

The melting and boiling points of water are much higher
than molecules of similar size. This is because of the
strong hydrogen bonds in water and the fact that each
water molecule is hydrogen bonded to four other water
It takes a greater amount of heat energy to increase the
kinetic energy of the molecules, which is required to break
the relatively strong hydrogen bonds.

8.4.2f) Explain the following properties of water in

terms of its intermolecular forces:
Surface tension
Boiling and melting points

Surface tension
Water molecules at the surface of a
beaker, are not surrounded by other water
molecules in the same way as those
molecules in the centre of the beaker.
- Surface tension results from the
molecules on the surface of water (or any
liquid) having an overall attractive force
downwards into the rest of the water. This
downwards force creates a tension on the
surface of the water, so that it behaves like
a tightly stretched skin.
Water has a high surface tension
because of its ability to form many
hydrogen bonds.

The viscosity of a liquid is a measure
of its resistance to flow.
When a liquid flows the molecules slide over one another. If the
molecules have strong intermolecular attractions and are long and thin
and easily tangle the liquid will have a high viscosity, e.g. tar and
honey. If the molecules have weak intermolecular attractions and are
smaller then liquid has a low viscosity.
Viscosity decreases as temperature rises.
Gases have the lowest viscosity.
Viscosity relates directly to the strength of the forces between
molecules and the size of the molecules. These forces determine how
easily the molecules move past each other.
The viscosity of water is greater than many other similar liquids, e.g.

Intermolecular forces control how well molecules stick together. This

affects many of the measurable physical properties of substances:
Intermolecular forces control how well molecules stick together.
This affects many of the measurable physical properties of
Melting and Boiling Points
-If molecules stick together more (have stronger forces), they'll be
tougher to break apart.
-Stronger intermolecular forces higher melting and boiling points

Intermolecular forces control how well molecules stick together. This

affects many of the measurable physical properties of substances:
-Viscosity is a measure of how well substances flow.
- Related to the ease with which molecules can move past each other.
Viscosity increases with stronger intermolecular forces caused by
increase in the molecular weight, and decreases with higher
-Stronger intermolecular forces higher viscosity.
Surface Tension
-Surface tension is a measure of the toughness of the surface of a
Surface tension results from the net inward force experienced by
the molecules on the surface of a liquid.

Video links
Surface tension:


Melting and boiling points:

Syllabus dot points

8.4.3a) Explain changes, if any, to particles
and account for those changes when the
following types of chemicals interact with
A soluble ionic compound such as sodium
A soluble molecular compound such as sucrose.
A soluble or partially soluble molecular
element or compound such as iodine, oxygen
or hydrogen chloride.

Ionic Compounds
Most ionic compounds are soluble in water
One example is sodium chloride (NaCl) which is a
soluble ionic compound which we will look at the
particle changes during dissolution.
At room temperature and standard pressure, NaCl has
a solid crystalline structure. When introduce into
liquid it looses its crystalline structure. This is because
NaCl dissociates to form Na+ and Cl- ions.

At molecular level NaCl dissociating


A summary as to what is happening:

Water is a polar molecule that contains a slightly
negative end (O) and two slightly positive ends (H+)
Due to the electrostatic attraction, the H+ is attracted
to the Cl, while the O is attracted to the Na+.
The electrostatic attraction that exists between these
particles is stronger than the ionic bond that exists
between Na+ and Cl.
Hence, the ions attach to the water molcules and are
broken away from the structure.

Molecular Compounds
The solubility of a molecular compound in water depends
on its polarity
Polar Molecular compounds:
Polar molcules generally souble in water
Are electrostatically attracted to the water molecules and
surrounded, resulting in dissolution. For example sucrose:

What happens:
As you can see in the picture on the last slide, sucrose
contains many O-H groups. Just like the O-H group in
water, the O-H groups in surcrose are polar and hence;
1. The O form the O-H groups will form hydrogen bonds
with the H+ from water.
2. The H+ from the O-H groups will form hydrogen bonds
with the O from water.
. When crystalline sucrose is dissolved in water, the
inthermolecular forces of sucrose are overcome by
hydrogen bonding to water
. Link:

Soluble or partially soluble molecular

element or compound
Water only partially dissolves these in small amounts as
they are very small and so they are sparingly soluble. This
is because of the fact that they are small molecules and
hence have weak dispersion forces in comparison to larger
non-polar molecules and so water is able to overcome the
dispersion force and therefore the molecule such as
oxygen or iodine is slightly attracted to the temporary
dipoles in the water

Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrogen chloride is a covalent molecular gas it is very
soluble in water.
Hydrogen chloride molecules ionise when dissolved in

HCl(g) H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

As you can see it splits into ions when placed into water.

Syllabus dotpoints
8.4.3a) Explain changes, if any, to particles and
account for those changes when the following types of
chemicals interact with water:
A covalent network structure substance such as silicon
A large substance with large molecules, such as
cellulose or polyethylene.

Covalent Network Molecules

There structure is where all the atoms of that
structure are bonded together by strong covalent
bonds in an ordered structure. Sand (SiO) is an
example of this, with each Si and O atoms covalently
bonded together.
SiO is insoluble in water, non polar compound
meaning water cannot form hydrogen bonds or dipole
dipole interactions. Why is this???

Large molecules
An example of a polymer found in nature is

Structure of a large molecule

Very large molecules like cellulose are called polymers
which have many repeating monomer units (more than
Because of the length of the chains, there is a large
surface area for intermolecular forces between these
In addition, polymers such as cellulose and proteins can
fold into each other to hold together even more tightly.
For this reason, polymers such as cellulose are insoluble in
water as the hydrogen bonds that form between water and
cellulose are much weaker than the total strength of
hydrogen bonds that exist between each cellulose

What is an ionic compound?
What is a covalent network molecule?
What is a polymer?
What causes these substances to be soluble or in
soluble???? Write a page worth to explain why they are
insoluble or soluble and explain what each of them are and
give me examples.

Summary picture