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Biodiesel General Definitions

Biodiesel is a domestic,
renewable fuel for diesel
engines derived from fats and
oils such as soybeans and
animal fats.
Biodiesel can be used in any
concentration with petroleumbased diesel fuel in existing
diesel engines with little or no
modification.

Biodiesel is not
raw vegetable
oil!
Biodiesel must be produced by
a chemical process that
removes glycerin from the oil.

Biodiesel blend, n. -- a
blend of biodiesel fuel
meeting ASTM D 6751 with
petroleum-based diesel fuel
designated BXX, where XX
is the volume percent of
biodiesel.

Petroleum (Liquid Fuel) Picture


We currently import over
50% of our petroleum needs
- 70% by 2025.
Once roughly half the oil has
been extracted, it becomes
harder and more expensive
to get at the remainder.
The key date is not when the
oil runs out, but when
production peaks, meaning
supplies decline. The peak
may come by about 2020.

Proved Oil Reserves 2003

Biodiesel Properties &


Attributes
B100 - Energy content of
#1, 8% less than #2
High Cetane (avg. over 50)
Sulfur free
Cold flow - B2 the same as
#2 petroleum diesel
Energy Balance (3.24 to 1)
Biodegradable and NonToxic

Emissions Reductions with Biodiesel


Blends

Emission Type
B2

B100

B20

Total Unburned Hydrocarbons -67%


-20%
-2.2%
Carbon Monoxide
-48%
-12%
-1.3%
Particulate Matter
-47%
-12%
-1.3%
When
considering the combined benefit of all these reductions,
Oxides
of increase
Nitrogen (NO
+ 2%***
X)
the
small
in nitrogen
oxides +10%
(NOx) should not
+0.2%
overshadow
the net environmental gain with biodiesel use in

North Carolina. Biodiesel is a viable part of the overall effort to


improve our air quality.
B. Keith Overcash, PE, NC DE&NR, DAQ

Biodiesel Production
100 lbs. of fat or oil
+
10 lbs. methanol
catalyst
100 lbs. biodiesel (B100)
+
10 lbs. of glycerin

Soybeans (90-95% of
current market), Waste
Greases, Edible &
Inedible Tallow,
Cottonseed, Sunflower,
Canola/Rapeseed

B100 Fuel
Survey
Results

Distribution Outlets, June 2005

ASTM D 6751 Biodiesel Fuel


Specification
Fuel quality is of the
utmost concern and
importance to the
biodiesel industry.

ASTM International Specification


D6751: Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel

ASTM D 6751 is the


specification for
biodiesel fuels
irrespective of the
feedstock source and/or
processing method.
Standard ensures safe
operation in a
compression ignition
engine.

In 2002, ASTM International issued a standard specification for biodiesel fuel called
D6751. This specification states that the only form of biodiesel that can be legally resold
for commercial operations must meet ASTM specifications.
TABLE 1: Detailed Requirements for Biodiesel (B100)
Property

Test Method

Limits

Units

Flash point (closed cup)


Water and sediment
Kinematic viscosity, 40C
Sulfated ash
Sulfur
Copper strip corrosion
Cetane number
*Cloud point
Carbon residue
Acid number
Free glycerin
Total glycerin
Phosphorus content
Distillation temperature,
atmospheric equiv. temp

D 93
D 2709
D 445
D 874
D 5453
D 130
D 613
D 2500
D 4530
D 664
D 6584
D 6584
D 4951
D 1160

130.0 min
0.050 max
1.96.0
0.020 max
0.05 max
No. 3 max
47 min
Report to customer*
0.050 max
0.80 max
0.020
0.240
0.001 max
360 max

C
% volume
mm2/s
% mass
% mass
N/A
N/A
C
% mass
mg KOH/g
% mass
% mass
% mass
C

Biodiesel & Original Equipment


Manufacturers (OEMs)
Many Engine Manufacturers
Support Biodiesel Blends:
John Deere
Caterpillar
Cummins
Detroit Diesel
International
Testimonials for each of
these companies available
on the NBB website -

www.biodiesel.org

B100 Must Meet


ASTM D6751 !!!
Most OEM HQs have
B20 experience:
Wont void warranty, but
remember OEMs dont
make fuel and therefore
they wont warranty fuel.
Problems caused by the
fuel are the responsibility
of the fuel supplier.

Federal Biodiesel Tax Incentive


American Jobs Creation Act 2004 (Biodiesel Tax Exemption)
Federal Excise Tax Credit
through 12/31/2011
1 per percent of agribiodiesel
blended into diesel fuel
Applies to first-use
vegetable oils and animal
fats
per percent of other
biodiesel
blended into diesel fuel
Credit taken at the blender
level

Biodiesel:

Looking Forward

Current Potential: 1.7 Billion gal/year


5.5% of national on-hwy. Demand

Near-Term Potential: (2015): 3.5 Billion


6.8% of national on-hwy. demand in 2015

Long-Term Potential: (2030): 10 Billion

Educational Resources for


Biodiesel
BEN: Biodiesel
Education Network

Web-based resource
specifically for petroleum
marketers
Partnership between
NBB/PMAA
www.pmaa.org
www.biodiesel.org