Anda di halaman 1dari 25

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION

TEST
PN. NORLIA
PHD CANDIDATE, IIC UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
PROF. DR. LEOW
DRLEOWCS32@GMAIL.COM

PERSONALITY TEST
Psychological measures of
personality:
1. objective tests
rating scale or self-report
measures
2. projective tests.
free response measures

PROJECTIVE TESTS
ORIGINATE FROM PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY
HUMANS HAVE CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS ATTITUDES
AND MOTIVATIONS
HIDDEN FROM CONSCIOUS AWARENESS.

PROJECTIVE TESTS
1.

RORSCHACH INKBLOT TEST - SERIES OF TEN IRREGULAR BUT SYMMETRICAL INKBLOTS

2.

HOLTZMAN INKBLOT TEST - LARGER SERIES OF INKBLOT AND REACTION TIME

3.

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST - AN INDIVIDUAL VIEWS AMBIGUOUS SCENES OF PEOPLE, AND


IS ASKED TO DESCRIBE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE SCENE-UNCONSCIOUS ATTITUDES AND
MOTIVATIONS

4.

DRAW-A-PERSON TEST -PSYCHODYNAMIC INTERPRETATION OF THE DETAILS OF THE DRAWING,


SUCH AS THE SIZE, SHAPE AND COMPLEXITY OF THE FACIAL FEATURES, CLOTHING AND
BACKGROUND OF THE FIGURE

5.

ANIMAL METAPHOR TEST PREMISED ON SELF-ANALYSIS VIA SELF-REPORT QUESTIONS. THE TEST
COMBINES FACETS OF ART THERAPY, COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY, AND INSIGHT THERAPY,
WHILE ALSO PROVIDING A THEORETICAL PLATFORM OF BEHAVIOURAL ANALYSIS. CREATE A STORY
AND THEN INTERPRET ITS PERSONAL SIGNIFICANCE.

6.

SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST - TESTS REQUIRE THE SUBJECT COMPLETE SENTENCE "STEMS"
WITH THEIR OWN WORDS. RESPONSE IS CONSIDERED TO BE A PROJECTION OF THEIR CONSCIOUS
AND/OR UNCONSCIOUS ATTITUDES, PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS, MOTIVATIONS, AND BELIEFS.

7.

PICTURE ARRANGEMENT TEST -25 SETS OF 3 PICTURES . SEQUENCE THAT THEY "FEEL MAKES
THE BEST SENSE.

8.

WORD ASSOCIATION TEST - PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPLEXES. WORD RESPONSE PROVIDING CLUES


TO THEIR UNIQUE PSYCHOLOGICAL MAKE-UP

9.

GRAPHOLOGY- PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PATTERNS OF HANDWRITING

HISTORY
- PROJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST
- 1938 AT THE HARVARD CLINIC AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY
- AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST HENRY A. MURRAY AND PSYCHOANALYST
CHRISTIANA D. MORGAN
- THE THERAPEUTIC TECHNIQUE ORIGINALLY CAME TO HIM FROM THE
"DOUBLOON CHAPTER" IN MOBY DICK-MULTIPLE CHARACTERS INSPECT THE
SAME IMAGE (A DOUBLOON), BUT EACH CHARACTER HAS VASTLY DIFFERENT
INTERPRETATIONS OF THE IMAGERY
- PICTURES FROM ILLUSTRATIVE MAGAZINES AND DEVELOPING THE TEST.
AFTER 3 VERSIONS OF PICTURES, FINAL SERIES STILL REMAINS IN USE
TODAY
- AFTER WORLD WAR II, THE TAT WAS ADOPTED MORE BROADLY BY
PSYCHOANALYSTS AND CLINICIANS TO EVALUATE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED
PATIENTS.
- LATER, IN THE 1970S, THE HUMAN POTENTIAL MOVEMENT ENCOURAGED
PSYCHOLOGISTS TO USE THE TAT TO HELP THEIR CLIENTS UNDERSTAND
THEMSELVES BETTER AND STIMULATE PERSONAL GROWTH.

BENEFIT
1. MARKETING - IDENTIFY POTENTIAL ASSOCIATIONS
BETWEEN BRAND IMAGES AND THE EMOTIONS THEY MAY
PROVOKE UNCONSCIOUS. RESPONSE- UNAWARE OF
WHAT THEY DISCLOSE
2. ADVERTISING- EVALUATE RESPONSES TO
ADVERTISEMENTS
3. MANAGEMENT- ASSESS ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND
OTHER DRIVES
4. SOCIOLOGY - ASSESS THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS,
5. ANTHROPOLOGY - STUDY CULTURAL MEANING
6. PSYCHOLOGY- INTERPRETING THE MEANING OF THE
RESPONSES GIVEN BY A SINGLE SUBJECT.
7. BUSINESS - PEOPLE ASSESSMENT

LIMITATION
1. DISCREPANCY BETWEEN STATISTICAL VALIDITY AND CLINICAL VALIDITY.
2. LACK OF SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE
3. TECHNIQUES USED FOR RESPONSIVE TOOLS IS AN INAPPROPRIATE
METHOD OF MEASUREMENT
4 THERE IS NO STANDARDIZATION FOR EVALUATING ONES TAT RESPONSES
5. EACH EVALUATION IS COMPLETELY SUBJECTIVE BECAUSE EACH
RESPONSE IS UNIQUE.
6. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY ARE CONSEQUENTLY, THE LARGEST QUESTION
MARKS
7. STANDARDIZATION IS ABSENT AMONGST CLINICIANS, WHO OFTEN ALTER
THE INSTRUCTIONS AND PROCEDURES.
8. POOR PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES

TYPE OF APPERCEPTION TEST


CHILDREN APPERCEPTION TEST (BELLAK & BELLAK, 1949)
ROBERT APPERCEPTION TEST FOR CHILDREN (MCAURTHUR & ROBERTS,
1982)
CHILDREN APPERCEPTION STORY TELLING TEST (SCHNEIDER, 1989)
SYMONDS PICTURE STORY TEST FOR ADOLESCENTS (SYMONDS, 1939)
SENIOR APPERCEPTION TEST (BELLAK & BELLAK, 1973)
GERONTOLOGICAL APPERCEPTION TEST (WOLK & WOLK, 1971)
THOMPSON THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (THOMPSON, 1949)

According to judgement and interpreter


Using scoring system and expertise of interpreter
According to purpose of evaluation : Conception and theoretical framework and expertise of examiner

Open ended: allow researcher to make inferences


Part 1: Respondent tell story
Part 2: Respondent complete multiple choice questions / Quantitative approach (Teglasi, 1991)
Identity a) content b) Form to create scoring criteria

Stimulus : Stimulus ambiguity (Frank, 1939; Murstein, 1965; Kaplan, 1967)


Instruction and Administrative procedure: Encouragement, verbal and nonverbal
Bell (1948) unaware of the criteria for analyzing responses as source of ambiguity

Interpretati
on

Responses

Demand
Task

PROJECTION TECHNIQUES

STORY TELLING TASK AND STIMULUS


CONTENT
STRUCTURE FEATURES
PICTURE STIMULUS

UNDERSTANDING STIMULUS HELPS THEMATIC PROJECTIVE INSTRUMENTS


(MURSTEIN, 1965)
DEPENDS ON THE ABILITY TO REVEAL INFORMATION ABOUT HOW THE
RESPONDENT ORGANISE EXPERIENCE AND PROCESS INFORMATION.

ELEMENT OF STIMULUS
DEGREE OF COMPLEXITY
AMBIGUITY
EMOTIONAL TONE
NUMBER OF DISTRACTING DETAILS OR DISPARATE ELEMENTS

STRUCTURAL DIMENSIONS
DEGREE OF AMBIGUITY
REFERS TO PROPS OR CUES TO INTERPRETATION

EMOTIONAL PULL
POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EMOTIONS INHERENT IN THE PICTURES

DEGREE OF COMPLEXITY
NUMBER OF DISPARATE ELEMENTS SUCH AS BACKGROUND-FOREGROUND,
DISCREPANT EMOTIONS

AMBIGUITY
CREATE MULTIPLE INTERPRETATION (MURSTEIN, 1965)
MODERATE AMBIGUITY AND NOT HIGHLY AMBIGUOUS
MODERATE AMBIGUITY = PROVIDE ENOUGH CUES TO ELICIT THEMES HINTED
BY THE PICTURE

EMOTIONAL PULL
STORY IN THE PICTURE SHOULD COVERS
CONFLICTS
AGGRESSION
ADVERSITY OF NEGATIVE PULL (RITZLER, SHARKEY, & CHUDY, 1980) : TENDENCY
TO PROVIDE NEGATIVE STORY

ELEMENTS TO DETERMINE THE STRENGTH OF THE INSTRUMENTS

DISPARATE ELEMENTS
LINK TO COMPLEXITY TO FORM COHERENT STORY

IMPORTANT TIPS FOR T.A.T


IT IS A TEST OF YOU IMAGINATION AND YOU HAVE TO IMAGINE AND WRITE A STORY.
REMEMBER IT IS A STORY WRITING AND NOT DESCRIBING THE PICTURE.
YOU STORY SHOULD CLEARLY HAVE A HERO. NOW THIS HERO IS VERY IMPORTANT.
THE THING A PERSON WRITES OR SAYS OR IN OTHER WORDS THE KIND OF REACTION A
PERSON GIVES DEPICTS HIS/HER PERSONALITY
SO MAKE THE HERO A POSITIVE CHARACTER.
THE STORY SHOULD HAVE A PAST, A PRESENT AND A FUTURE. THE PICTURE WHICH
IS SHOWN ACCORDING TO WHICH YOU FRAME THE STORY MUST APPEAR SOMEWHERE IN
THE STORY, MOST LIKELY IN THE PRESENT PART OF THE STORY.

IMPORTANT TIPS FOR T.A.T


REMIND YOUR RESEARCHER TO OBSERVE THE PICTURE VERY CAREFULLY AND NOTE DOWN
THE MINUTEST DETAIL IN YOUR MIND, THEY WILL HELP YOU IN FRAMING THE STORY NICELY.
NEVER WRITE A PRE-CONCEIVED STORY. ALSO DO NOT TRY TO FORCEFULLY FIT SOMETHING
IN THE PICTURE. WRITE ONLY AROUND WHAT IS SHOWN.
NOW SOME PICTURES MAY APPEAR TOTALLY NEGATIVE. A GLOOMY FACE, A DEAD BODY, AN
ACCIDENT SCENE ETC. WHAT TO DO THEN? IN THESE CASES DONT OVERLOOK AND AVOID
WHAT IS VERY EVIDENTLY VISIBLE, INSTEAD TRY TO MAKE A POSITIVE ENDING.
DONT UNNECESSARILY PUT NEGATIVITY IN YOUR STORY. A SAD FACE DOESNT IMPLY DEATH
ALL THE TIME, SO DO NOT MAKE NEGATIVE STORIES. YOU HAVE TO MAKE IT POSITIVE.

IMPORTANT TIPS FOR T.A.T


GENERALLY THE STRUCTURE OF THE STORY IS THAT THERE IS A HERO. THERE IS SOME
INFORMATION RELATED TO HOW THINGS LED TO THE PRESENT SCENARIO (THE PICTURE),
THEN THE HERO SOLVES THE PROBLEM THUS GIVING A POSITIVE ENDING.
GIVE REALISTIC AIM, AND PRACTICAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS. DO NOT
GIVE IMPRACTICAL VIEWS OR CHILDISH IMAGINATION.
AN IDEAL STORY LIES BETWEEN 80-100 WORDS.
CHOOSE THE AGE AND PROFESSION OF THE MAIN LEAD OF YOUR STORY VERY
CAREFULLY. THE AGE SHOULD BE EXACTLY WHAT IS EVIDENT FROM THE PICTURE. AND
CHOOSE THE PROFESSION ACCORDING TO THE AGE.

IMPORTANT TIPS FOR T.A.T


IN CASE OF MANY CHARACTERS IN THE CLIP, CHOOSE THE ONE CLOSEST TO
SCENARIO AGE AS YOUR HERO. IN CASE OF PICTURES IN WHICH IT IS
VERY DIFFICULT TO DETERMINE THE AGE, THERE ALSO CHOOSE THE AGE
NEAREST TO YOURS. BUT DO NOT FORCEFULLY GIVE THE AGE OF VERY
EVIDENT CHARACTERS NEAR TO YOUR AGE. FOR EG. IF IN THE PICTURE ONLY
ONE CHILD OF 5 YEARS IS SHOWN THEN DO NOT WRITE HIS AGE AS 21
YEARS IN THE STORY.
A GOOD STORY HAS A MOTTO, HOWEVER SMALL IT MAY BE, BUT IT SHOULD
BE PRACTICAL, MATURE AND REALISTIC MOTTO.

PROCEDURE
TELL A STORY
RELATE THE CHARACTERS IN THE STORY
GIVEN SCENARIO TO TELL THE STORY AGAIN
RELATE STORY WITH THE CHARACTERS
RESEARCHER GIVES

INTRODUCTION OF HERO
IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM
FIGURE OUT THE HEROS PLAN
CHECK RESOURCES (OTHER ELEMENTS IN THE PICTURE)

ASK HOW DOES IT END

NO NO IN T.A.T
DONT DESCRIBE THE PICTURE: TELL THEM TO CHECK DESCRIPTIVE POWER,
RATHER YOUR IMAGINATION IS THE THING
DONT DECORATE YOUR HEROWITH VALUES / QUALITIES
CONCLUSION LESS STORIES ARE USELESS

INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES IN T.A.T


POSITION OF SITTING
TONE OF VOICE
TECHNIQUES APPLIED

CLARIFICATION
EXPECTATION
CONFRONTATION
CONGRUENCY
ENCOURAGEMENT
ENGAGEMENT
FOCUSING
PARAPHRASING
REFLECTION OF FEELING