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Unit 2 - Kinematics

SP1. Students will analyze the relationships between force, mass, gravity, and the
motion of objects.
Calculate avg velocity, instantaneous velocity, and acceleration in a given
frame of reference

Compare and Contrast scalar and vector quantities.

Compare graphically and algebraically the relationships among position,


velocity, acceleration, and time.
WHAT IS MOTION?
HOW DO WE DESCRIBE MOTION?

What is Motion?
Motion = a change in position
In order to describe a change need a Frame of

Reference
EX: Describe the motion of the pencil.

vs the Sun
vs the Earth

** Most common frame of reference is the


surface of the earth

Frame of Reference
Reference point used to compare distances,

displacements, speeds, velocities, etc.

To measure motion, one point must

be considered as nonmoving

Sports use reference points


Football?
Basketball?
Baseball?
And many others

SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES


describe magnitude only

speed
Time
distance
mass
volume

describe magnitude and

direction

velocity
acceleration
displacement
forces

What is Motion?
Distance total change in position (how far)
Displacement total distance from starting point

and direction

Distance?
2m
1m
6m

8m

Displacement?
2m
1m

6m

8m

Distance vs. Displacement Examples


6m
Distance=

3m
9m
Displacement =

9 m right

3m
6m
Distance= 9 m Displacement =

3m
6m

3 m left

Distance= 9 m Displacement =

a2 b2 c2

6m 2 3m 2 c 2
c 6.71m
northeast

Distance versus Displacement


To determine displacement draw a diagram of the path

taken
Example: 8 m east, then 6m north, then 2 m east, then 1 m
south
2m
6m

1m

8m

Simplify the diagram to a right triangle

Use Pythagorean Theorem to determine the displacement

Speed and Velocity


speed is the rate at which

velocity is the speed and

distance is covered
scalar quantity

direction of an object
vector quantity

Descriptors of Speed/Velocity
Instantaneous Velocity

velocity at a given point in time

What tools do we use to find the instantaneous speed


of a car?
Constant Speed

speed that does not change

Constant Velocity

speed and direction do not change perfect straight line


motion

What three controls in our car change velocity?

Acceleration change in motion


any change in velocity is called acceleration

change in speed
change in direction

vector quantity
has two units of time in the unit!!!!!!!!!

Acceleration EQ
A car is traveling around a track with its cruise control
set at 30 m/s. Does the car undergo acceleration?
Sample problem:
In 5 seconds a car moving in a straight line to the
north increase its speed from 50 km/hr to 75 km/hr.
What is the magnitude of its acceleration?

Free Fall
Falling bodies accelerate due to gravity
If a body falls under the influence of gravity only, it

is said to be in Free Fall


We ignore air resistance when studying free fall
All bodies in free fall, regardless of weight, will
accelerate at the same rate
The acceleration due to gravity is:
g = 9.8 m/s2

Acceleration-Free Fall Equations


When initial velocity is zero, vf = at
TIME (s)

VELOCITY (m/s)

9.8

19.6

29.4

39.6