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Chapter11:

BJTandJFETFrequency
Response

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide1

GeneralFrequencyConsiderations

Frequencyresponseofanamplifierreferstothefrequencyrangeinwhichtheamplifier
willoperatewithnegligibleeffectsfromcapacitorsandcapacitanceindevices.
Thisrangeoffrequenciescanbecalledthemidrange.
Atfrequenciesaboveandbelowthemidrange,capacitanceandanyinductancewillaffect
thegainoftheamplifier.
Atlowfrequenciesthecouplingandbypasscapacitorswilllowerthegain.
Athighfrequenciesstraycapacitancesassociatedwiththeactivedevicewilllowerthe
gain.
Alsocascadingamplifierswilllimitthegainathighandlowfrequencies.

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

BodePlot

Slide2
ABodeplotindicatesthe
frequencyresponseofan
amplifier.
Thehorizontalscaleindicates
thefrequency(inHz)
andtheverticalscale
indicatesthegain(indB).

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

CutoffFrequencies

Slide3
Themidrangefrequencyof
anamplifieriscalledthe
Bandwidthoftheamplifier.
TheBandwidthisdefined
bytheLowerandUpper
Cutofffrequencies.
Cutoff:frequencyatwhich
thegainhasdroppedby:
0.5power
0.707voltage
3dB

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide4

LowFrequencyResponseBJTAmplifier

AtlowfrequenciesCouplingcapacitors(Cs,CC)andBypasscapacitors(CE)willhave
capacitivereactances(XC)thataffectthecircuitimpedances.

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

CouplingCapacitorCS

Slide5

ThecutofffrequencyduetoCScanbecalculated:
fLs

[Formula11.27]

1
2 (Rs Ri)Cs

using Ri R1 || R2 || re

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

[Formula11.29]

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

CouplingCapacitorCC

Slide6

ThecutofffrequencyduetoCCcanbecalculated:
fLC

1
2 ( Ro RL)Cc

[Formula11.31]

using Ro RC || ro

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

[Formula11.32]

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

BypassCapacitorCE

Slide7

ThecutofffrequencyduetoCEcanbecalculated:

fLE

1
2ReCE

using

Re RE || (

[Formula11.33]

R s
re)

[Formula11.34]

where R s Rs || R1 || R2

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide8

BodePlotofLowFrequencyResponse
BJTAmplifier

TheBodeplotindicatesthateachcapacitormayhaveadifferentcutofffrequency.
Itisthedevicethathasthehighestlowercutofffrequency(fL)thatdominatestheoverall
frequencyresponseoftheamplifier.
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide9

RolloffofGainintheBodePlot

TheBodeplotnotonlyindicatesthecutofffrequenciesofthevariouscapacitorsitalso
indicatestheamountofattenuation(lossingain)atthesefrequencies.
Theamountofattenuationissometimesreferredtoasrolloff.
TherolloffisdescribedasdBlossperoctaveordBlossperdecade.
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

dB/Decade

Slide10

dB/Decadereferstotheattenuationforevery10foldchangeinfrequency.
ForLowFrequencyResponseattenuationsitreferstothelossingainfromthelower
cutofffrequencytoafrequency1/10ththelowercutofffrequency.
Intheabovedrawnexample:
fLS=9kHzgainis0dB
fLS/10=.9kHzgainis20dB
Thereforetherolloffis20dB/decade.Thegaindecreasesby20dB/Decade.
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

dB/Octave

Slide11

dB/Octavereferstotheattenuationforevery2foldchangeinfrequency.
ForLowFrequencyResponseattenuationsitreferstothelossingainfromthelower
cutofffrequencytoafrequency1/2thelowercutofffrequency.
Intheabovedrawnexample:
fLS=9kHzgainis0dB
fLS/2=4.5kHzgainis6dB
Thereforetherolloffis6dB/octave.Thisisalittledifficulttoseeonthisgraphbecause
thehorizontalscaleisalogarithmicscale.
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide12

LowFrequencyResponseFETAmplifier

AtlowfrequenciesCouplingcapacitors(CG,CC)andBypasscapacitors(CS)willhave
capacitivereactances(XC)thataffectthecircuitimpedances.

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

CouplingCapacitorCG

Slide13

ThecutofffrequencyduetoCGcanbecalculated:

fLC

1
2 (Rsig Ri)CG

using

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

[Formula11.35]

Ri RG

[Formula11.36]

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

CouplingCapacitorCC

Slide14

ThecutofffrequencyduetoCCcanbecalculated:

1
2 (Ro RL)CC

[Formula11.37]

Ro RD || rd

[Formula11.38]

fLC

using

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

BypassCapacitorCS

Slide15

ThecutofffrequencyduetoCScanbecalculated:

fLS
using

1
2ReqCS

[Formula11.39]

1
gm

[Formula11.41]

Req RS ||

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

rd

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide16

BodePlotofLowFrequencyResponse
FETAmplifier

TheBodeplotindicatesthateachcapacitormayhaveadifferentcutofffrequency.
Thecapacitorthathasthehighestlowercutofffrequency(fL)isclosesttotheactualcutoff
frequencyoftheamplifier.
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

MillerEffectCapacitance

Slide17

AnyPNjunctioncandevelopcapacitance.Thiswasmentionedinthechapterondiodes.
InaBJTamplifierthiscapacitancebecomesnoticeablebetween:
theBaseCollectorjunctionathighfrequenciesinCEBJTamplifierconfigurationsand
theGateDrainjunctionathighfrequenciesinCSFETamplifierconfigurations.
ItiscalledtheMillerCapacitance.Iteffectstheinputandoutputcircuits.

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

MillerInputCapacitance(CMi)

Slide18

CMi (1 Av)C f

Itcanbecalculated:

[Formula11.42]

NotethattheamountofMillerCapacitanceisdependentoninterelectrodecapacitance
frominputtooutput(Cf)andthegain(Av).
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide19

MillerOutputCapacitance(CMo)

CMo (1

Itcanbecalculated:

1
)Cf
Av

Ifthegain(Av)isconsiderablygreaterthan1: CMo Cf
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

[Formula11.43]

[Formula11.44]
Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide20

HighFrequencyResponseBJTAmplifiers

Capacitancesthatwillaffectthehighfrequencyresponse:
Cbe,Cbc,Ccejunctioncapacitances
Cwi,Cwowiringcapacitances
CS,CCcouplingcapacitors
CEbypasscapacitor
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide21

HighFrequencyCutoffInputNetwork(fHi)

1
fHi
2RThiCi

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

[Formula11.46]

using

RThi Rs || R1 || R2 || Ri

[Formula11.47]

and

Ci CWi Cbe CMi CWi Cbe (1 Av)Cbc

[Formula11.48]

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide22

HighFrequencyCutoffOutputNetwork(fHo)

1
fHo
2RThoCo

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

[Formula11.49]

using

RTho RC || RL || ro

[Formula11.50]

and

Co CWo Cce CMo

[Formula11.51]

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

hfe(or)Variation

Slide23

Thehfeparameter(or)ofatransistorvarieswithfrequency.

f
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

1
2midre(Cbe Cbc)

[Formula11.55]

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide24

FullFrequencyResponseofaBJTAmplifier

NotethehighestLowerCutoffFrequency(fL)andthelowestUpperCutoffFrequency(fH)
areclosesttotheactualresponseoftheamplifier.
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide25

HighFrequencyResponseFETAmplifier

Capacitancesthatwillaffectthehighfrequencyresponse:
Cgs,Cgd,Cdsjunctioncapacitances
Cwi,Cwowiringcapacitances
CG,CCcouplingcapacitors
CSbypasscapacitor
RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide26

HighFrequencyCutoffInputNetwork(fHi)

1
fHi
2RThiCi

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

[Formula11.61]

using

RThi Rsig || RG

[Formula11.62]

and

Ci CWi Cgs CMi

[Formula11.63]

CMi (1 Av)C gd

[Formula11.64]

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide27

fHo

HighFrequencyCutoffOutputNetwork(fHo)

1
2RThoCo

[Formula11.65]

using

RTho RD || RL || rd

and

Co CWo Cds CMo


CMo (1

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

[Formula11.66]

1
)Cgd
Av

[Formula11.67]

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

MultistageFrequencyEffects

Slide28

Eachstagewillhaveitsownfrequencyresponse.Buttheoutputofonestagewillbe
affectedbycapacitancesinthesubsequentstage.Thisisespeciallysowhendetermining
thehighfrequencyresponse.Forexample,theoutputcapacitance(Co)willbeaffectedby
theinputMillerCapacitance(CMi)ofthenextstage.

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide29

TotalFrequencyResponseofaMultistageAmplifier

Oncethecutofffrequencieshavebeendeterminedforeachstage(takingintoaccountthe
sharedcapacitances),theycanbeplotted.
AgainnotethehighestLowerCutoffFrequency(fL)
andthelowestUpperCutoffFrequency(fH)
areclosesttotheactualresponseoftheamplifier.
RobertBoylestad

DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

SquareWaveTesting

Slide30

Inordertodeterminethefrequencyresponseofanamplifierbyexperimentation,youmust
applyawiderangeoffrequenciestotheamplifier.
Onewaytoaccomplishthisistoapplyasquarewave.Asquarewaveconsistsofmultiple
frequencies(byFourierAnalysis:itconsistsofoddharmonics).

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Slide31

SquareWaveResponseWaveforms

Iftheoutputoftheamplifierisnotaperfectsquarewavethentheamplifieriscuttingoff
certainfrequencycomponentsofthesquarewave.

RobertBoylestad
DigitalElectronics

Copyright2002byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.