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ME1035 METROLOGY AND

QUALITY CONTROL

UNIT- I
INTRODUCTION TO METROLOGY

Metrology

Metrology defines

as

the

Science

of

pure

measurement.

But

in

engineering

purposes,

it

in

restricted

to

measurements

of

length

and

angles

and

other

qualities

which

are

expressed

in

linear

or

angular

terms.

Units and Standards

Units of Measurement:
C.G.S. System of Units
Centimeter Gram Second system of unit
M.K.S. System of Units:
Meter kilogram second system of units
International System (SI) of Units:
the meter (m), kilogram (k), second (s), and
ampere (A) of the MKSA system and, in
addition, the Kelvin (K) and the candela (cd)
as the units of temperature and luminous

Terminology in instrumentation

Precision

Degree
of
repetitiveness. If an instrument is not
precise it will give different results for
the same dimension for the repeated
readings.
Accuracy The maximum amount
by which the result differ from true
value(ie) Closeness to true value

Calibration
is the process of establishing the
relationship between a measuring
device and the units of measure. This
is done by comparing a device or the
output of an instrument to a
standard
having
known
measurement characteristics.
Sensitivity
It is ratio between output signal to

Readability is a measure of an
instrument's ability to display
incremental changes in its output
value.
True size Theoretical size of a
dimension which is free from errors.
Actual size size obtained through
measurement with permissible error

Repeatability
is
the
variation
in
measurements taken by a single person or
instrument on the same item and under the
same conditions. A measurement may be said
to be repeatable when this variation is smaller
than some agreed limit.
Reproducibility is one of the main principles
of the scientific method, and refers to the
ability of a test or experiment to be accurately
reproduced, or replicated, by someone else
working independently.

LEGAL METROLOGY
Legal metrology is that part of metrology which treats units
of measurement, methods of measurement and the
measuring instruments, in relation to the statutory,
technical and legal requirements.
It
assures security
and appropriate
accuracy of
measurements.
Lack of legislation regarding various measures will lead to
great uncertainty.
It is directed by a national organisation viz., National service
of Legal metrology whose object is to resolve problems of
legal metrology in a particular country.
Its functions are to ensure the conservation of national
standards and to guarantee their accuracy by comparison
with international standards and also to impart proper
accuracy to the secondary standards of the country by
comparison with international standards.

Methods of measurement.
1. Direct Method

2. Indirect Method

3. Comparison Method

4. Coincidence Method.
Classification of measuring
instruments.
1. Angle measuring instruments

2. Length measuring instruments

3. Instruments for surface finish

4. Instruments for deviations.

Sources of error

Controllable Errors Calibration Errors ,ambient Conditions , Stylus


pressure, avoidable errors
Random Errors
These occur randomly and the specific causes
of such errors cannot be determined, but likely
sources of this type of error are small variations
in the position of setting standards and
workpiece, slight displacement of lever joints in
the measuring joints in the measuring
instrument,

Parallax Error :
On most dials the indicating finger
or pointer lies in a plane parallel to
the scale but displaced a small
distance
away
to
allow
free
movement of the pointer. It is then
essential to observe the pointer
along a line normal to the scale
otherwise a reading error will occur.

Line and End standard


measurements
Line standard
Length is expressed as the distance
between two lines.
End standard
Length is expressed as the distance
between two flat parallel faces

PRINCIPLE OF LEAST
SQUARES

Assessment of deviation of errors relative to some


particular datum may be done with the help of the principle
of least squares.
The principle states that the most probable value of
observed quantities is that which renders the sum of the
squares of residual errors a minimum.
Let the most probable value be assumed as x
Then the deviation of any particular value from the most
probable value x is (x-x). From the least sqaure principle
(x-x) should be minimum (i.e)
(x-x)
= -2 (x-x) = 0
dx

Therefore,

x nx = 0 or x = x/n = arithmetic mean

Linear measuring instruments

Straight edge.
Outside caliper.
Inside caliper.
Vernier caliper
Screw gauge
vernier height gauge
vernier depth gauge
Dial gauges

Comparators
Classification of comparators
Mechanical
Electrical and Electronics comparators
Optical comparators
Pneumatic comparators
Fluid displacement comparators
Projection comparators.
Multi check comparators
Automatic Gauging Machines
Electro-Mech. Comparators.

Classification of measuring
Instruments
According to the functions:
Length measuring instrument
Angle measuring instrument
Instrument for checking deviation
from geometrical forms
Instrument for determining the
quality of surface finish.

According to the accuracy.


1. Most accurate instruments
Example - light interference instrument
2. Less accurate instrument
Example - Tool room Microscope,
Comparators, Optimizer
3. Still less accurate instrument
Example - Dial indicator, vernier caliper.

Angular measurements
Measuring the angle of Taper.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Vernier bevel Protractor


Tool room microscope
Sine bar and dial gauge
Auto Collimator
Taper measuring machine
Roller, Slip gauge, and micrometer.

Angle measurement
Sine bar
Sine Centre:
Sine Table
Taper Measurement
Using Precisions Balls and Rollers

Slip Gauges
Direct precise measurement, where the accuracy of the work
piece demands it.
For checking accuracy of venire calipers, micro metes, and such
other measuring instruments.
Setting up a comparator to specific dimension.
For measuring angle of work piece and also for angular setting
in conjunction with a sine bar.
The distances of plugs, spigots, etc. on fixture are often best
measured with the slip gauges or end bars for large dimensions.
To check gap between parallel locations such as in gap gauges
or between two mating parts.
Slip gauges are rectangular blocks of high grade steel with
exceptionally close tolerances. These blocks are suitably
hardened though out to ensure maximum resistance to wear.
They are then stabilized by heating and cooling successively in
stages so that hardening stresses are removed.

Surface finish measurement


Surface finish refers to the quality finish
or roughness over the surface.
Surface texture :
Repetitive or random deviations form the
normal surface which form the pattern of
the surface. Surface texture include
roughness, waveness, lay and flows.
Primary texture : This refers to the
roughness of a surface, as opposed to its
waviness (secondary texture)

Methods of measuring surface finish

1. Surface Inspection (or) comparison method


2. Direct Instrument
a) Touch Inspection
b) Visual Inspection
c) Scratch Inspection
d) Microscopic Inspection
e) Surface photograph
f) Micro - Interferometer
g) Wallace surface Dynamometer
h) Reflected light Intensity

Roughness measurement
Maximum Peak to Valley. Height of
Roughness.
Root Mean Square Value (R.M.S.
Value)..
Centre Line Average Method (C.L.A.
Value)

Surface finish measuring


instruments
Profilometer.
The Tomlinson Surface Meter
Taylor-Hobson Talysurf.