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PythagoreanTheorem

Thestudentwillbeableto:
ValidateandapplyPythagorean
Theoremtofinddistancesinreal
worldsituationsorbetweenpoints
inthecoordinateplane.

CCSS

8.GUnderstandandapplythe
PythagoreanTheorem.
6.ExplainaproofofthePythagoreanTheoremandits

converse.

7.ApplythePythagoreanTheoremtodetermineunknownside
lengthsinrighttrianglesinrealworldandmathematical
problemsintwoandthreedimensions.

8.ApplythePythagoreanTheoremtofindthedistancebetween
twopointsinacoordinatesystem.

ThePythagoreanTheorem:
ThePythagoreanTheoremunderliesseveral
formulasandidentitiesthatarememorized.Related
formulasinclude
TheDistanceformula
TheLawofCosines(Highschool)
TheequationofaCircle
Sometrigonometricidentities.(Highschool)
Often,studentsmemorizetheseformulasin
isolation,withoutbeingawareoftheirconnectionto
thePythagoreanTheorem.

Whatisarighttriangle?
hypotenuse

leg
right angle
leg

Itisatrianglewhichhasananglethatis
90degrees.
Thetwosidesthatmakeuptherightangle
arecalledlegs.
Thesideoppositetherightangleisthe
hypotenuse.

ThePythagoreanTheorem
Inarighttriangle,ifaandbarethe
measuresofthelegsandcisthe
hypotenuse,then

a2+b2=c2.
Note:Thehypotenuse,c,isalways
thelongestside.

a +b =c
2

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/proof/puzzle/theorem.html

PythagorasTheorem
In a right-angled
triangle, the square on
the hypotenuse is
equal to the sum of the
squares on the other
two sides.

c
c

2
Pythagoras of Samos

Hypotenus
e

(6 C BC)

b
a

a +b
2

=c

TheRightTriangle

hypotenuse
leg

Rightangle

leg

1.Squarebothlegs
1

10 11

12 4ft

13

14 15
4ft

16

3ft
1

3ft

2.Countthetotalsquares
1

10 11

12 4ft

13

14 15
4ft

16

9+16=25

3ft
1

3ft

3.Putthatnumberofsquareson
thehypotenuse 21
16

1
5
9
13

22
11 17 23
24
6 12 18
7 13 19
25
1
2 3 4
8 14
20
2
3
15
6 7 8
9
4
10
10 11 12 4
5
ft
14 15 16
3
4ft
1 ft2
3

9+16=25

3ft

4. Count the number of squares


that touch the hypotenuse.
21
16

22
11 17 23
24
6 12 18
7 13 19
25
1
1 2 3 4
8 14
20
2
3
15
5 6 7 8
9
4
10
9 10 11 12 4
5
ft
13 14 15 16
3
#=5
4ft
1 ft2
3
9+16=25

3ft

5.That number is the length of the


hypotenuse. 21
16

22
11 17 23
24
6 12 18
7 13 19
25
1
1 2 3 4
8 14
20
2
3
15
5 6 7 8
9
4
10
9 10 11 12 4
5
ft
13 14 15 16
3
#=5
4ft
Length=5
1 ft2
3
9+16=25

3ft

Summary

Findthelegsandhypotenuse.
Squarethelegs(thisisaandb)
Addthemtogether
Squarerootthem
Thisisthelengthofthehypotenuse
(thisisc)

1.Findthelengthofthehypotenuse
122+162=c2
144+256=c2
400=c2

12in

16in

Takethesquareroot
ofbothsides.

400 c

C 20
Thehypotenuseis20incheslong.

2.Findthelengthofthehypotenuse
52+72=c2
25+49=c2
74=c2

5cm

7cm

Takethesquarerootof
bothsides.

74 c

C 8.6
Thehypotenuseisabout8.6cmlong.

3.Findthelengthofthehypotenuse
giventhatthelegsofarighttriangle
are6ftand12ft.
1.
2.
3.
4.

180ft.
324ft.
13.42ft.
18ft.

4.Findthelengthofthemissingleg.
4cm

10cm

42+b2=102
16+b2=100
1616
b2=84
b 84
2

b 9.2
Thelegisabout9.2cmlong.

5.Findthelengthofthemissingleg.
13in

12in

a2+122=132
a2+144=169
144144
a2=25

a 25
a 5
2

Thelegis5incheslong.

6.Findthelengthofthemissing
sideofarighttriangleifonelegis4
ftandthehypotenuseis8ft.
1.
2.
3.
4.

24ft.
4ft.
6.9ft.
8.9ft.

ApplicationofPythagoreanTheorem
Thescreenaspectratio,orthe
ratioofthewidthtothelength
ofaHDTVis16:9.Thesize
ofatelevisionis
givenby the diagonal distance across
the screen. If an HDTV is 41 inches
wide, what is its diagonal screen size?

What are the dimensions of a 65 inch


HDTV?

ApplicationofPythagoreanTheorem
Abaseballdiamondisasquarewith90foot
sides.Whatistheapproximatedistancethe
catchermustthrowfromhometosecond
base?

The Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem

The Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem


Acommonapplicationoftheconverseofthe
PythagoreanTheoremisusedbycarpentersto
makesureacornerthattheyareconstructingforms
arightangle.Herearethesteps:
1.Startingatthecorner,measure3unitsalong
onedirectionandmakeamark.
2.Measure4unitsalongtheotherdirectionandmakeamark.
3.Measurethedistancebetweenthemarks.
4.Ifthelengthisequalto5units,thenthecornerformsarightangle(90)
Ifthelengthislessthan5units,thenthecornerislessthan90
Ifthelengthisgreaterthan5units,thecornerisgreaterthan90

Why?Since32+42=52,thenthetriangleisarighttrianglebythe
converseofthePythagoreanTheorem.

5.Themeasuresofthreesidesofatriangle
aregivenbelow.Determinewhetherthe
triangleisarighttriangle.
73
,3,and8
Whichsideisthelongest?
Thesquarerootof73isabout8.5,therefore
itmustbethehypotenuse.
PlugyourinformationintothePythagorean
Theorem.Itdoesntmatterwhichnumber
isaorb.

73
Sides:,3,and8
32+82=()
73 2

9+64=73
73=73
Sincethisistrue,thetriangleisa
righttriangle!!Ifitwasnottrue,it
wouldnotbearighttriangle.

Threerighttrianglessurroundashadedtriangle;
togethertheyformarectanglemeasuring12unitsby14
units.Thefigurebelowshowssomeofthedimensions
butisnotdrawntoscale.
14

7
12

5
9

Istheshaded
trianglea
right
triangle?
Provide
prooffor
youranswer.

14

245
12

15

50

No,the
shaded
triangleis
notaright
triangle.
2

15 50 245
2

225 50 245
275 245

TheDistanceFormula
Thedistanceformulaisoften
memorizedinthesquarerootform
withnoconnectiontoprevious
learning.
Manystudentsdonotmakethe
connectionthatthedistanceformula
issimplythePythagoreanTheorem
algebraicallymanipulated
bysolvingford,whichisthe
hypotenuseofarighttriangle..

DerivingtheDistanceFormula

y2 y1
C

x1, y2

x2 x1

TheDistance
fromPointAto
PointB
wouldbeequal
tothelengthof
thehypotenuse
oftriangle
ABC.

DerivingtheDistanceFormula

a b c
2

x1, y2

x2 x1 y2 y1 c

y2 y1
C

x2 x1

x2 x1 y2 y1
2

DistanceForm
ula

x2 x1 y2 y1
2

FindtheDistanceBetween:
1. PointsAandB
2. PointsBandC
3. PointsAandC

Roland went on a hike to visit a cave in the mountains. To begin his


hike he faced west and hiked for 3 miles. Then he turned to the
south and traveled for 2 miles. After a water break Roland again
continued west for 4 miles. Turning North he continued for 3
miles. Next Roland turned left for 2 miles, and then he took a right
and continued on his hike for a final 6 miles until he discovered the
location of the cave.

As the crow flys,


how far is the cave
from where Roland
started his hike?

West 3 miles
South 2 miles
West 4 miles
North 3 miles
Left 2 miles
Right 6 miles

9 2 72 c2
81 49 c2
130 c2
130 c2
c 11.4 miles

9
7

PythagoreanTheoreminthe3rdDimension
Whatisthelongestcurtainrodyoucanfitinthisbox?
Note:Fishingpolesonlycomeinincrementsoftenthofafoot.

2 4 c
2

4 16 c

20 c

?20

?2

c 20

PythagoreanTheoreminthe3rdDimension
Whatisthelongestcurtainrodyoucanfitinthisbox?
Note:Fishingpolesonlycomeinincrementsoftenthofafoot.
2

3 20 x
2

9 20 x

?
20

29 x

x 29
5.3851
Thelongestrodis5.3feet

PythagoreanTheoreminthe3rdDimension
Deriveaformulathatwillalwaysworktofindthediagonalofany
rectangularprism.

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