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Research is a scientific

investigation of phenomena
which includes the collection,
presentation, analysis and
interpretation of facts that
link mans speculation with
reality.

Research is a systematic,
controlled and empirical
investigation about the
occurrence of a certain
phenomena guided by theories
and hypotheses and the
presumed relations of these
phenomena.
Kerlinger, 1981

Research is from the french


word cerchier to seek or
search and re means again
and signifies replications of
the search.

Webster defines it as a studious


inquiry or examination,
investigation and
experimentation aimed at
discovery and interpretation of
facts, revision of accepted
theories, laws in the light of new
facts or practical application for
such new or revised theories or
laws.

Barr defines it as any


systematic search for
understanding limited to a
particular subject that for
purposes of investigation has
been cast in problematic form
and formally defined.

Treece
and
Treece
say
research is in the broadest
sense is an attempt to gain
solutions to problems.
It is
the collection
of data in a
rigorously
controlled
situations for the purpose of
prediction and explanation.

Research is considered to a
formal , systematic and
intensive process of
carrying on a scientific
analysis for the purpose of
discovering and
development of an
organized body of
knowledge.
-Best

Treach describes research


as essentially a problemsolving process, a
systematic, intensive study
toward fuller scientific
knowledge of the subject
studied.

Research discover answers


to questions through the
application of scientific
procedures that have been
developed to increase the
likelihood that information
gathered will be relevant,
reliable and unbiased.
-Claire, Seltiz

Research is an honest, scientific


investigation undertaken for the
purpose of discovering new facts
or establishing a new
relationships among facts
already known which will
contribute to the present body of
knowledge and can lead to an
effective solution of existing
problems.
-CRPNS

Research involves a
systematic search for and
validation of knowledge
about issues of the
importance of the nursing
profession.

Vreeland says research is


concerned with the
systematic study and
assessment of problems and
phenomena finding ways to
improve nursing practice and
patient care.

Importance of Research
- Professionalism
-Accountability
-Social Relevance of
Research
-Research and Decision
Making

The Consumer-Producer Continuum of


Research
- Consumers
-Producers
-In Between
*participation in journal club
*attending prof. conferences
*incorporate research finding
*assist in data collection
*evaluate completed research
*review propose methods of gathering info
* collaborate in the dev of idea for
research project

Sources of Knowledge
- Tradition
- Authority
-Logical Reasoning
-Disciplined Research

Ontologic Assumption
(What is the nature of
reality?)
Positivists Paradigm
- Reality exists; there is a real
world driven by natural causes.
Naturalistic Paradigm
-Reality is multiple and
subjective, mentally
constructed by individuals.

Epistemologic Assumption
(How is the inquirer related to those
being researched?)
Positivist Paradigm
-Inquirer is independent from those being
researched; the findings as not
influenced by the researcher.
Naturalist Paradigm
-The inquirer interacts with those being
researched; finding are the creation of
the interactive process.

Axiologic Assumption
(What is the role of values in the
inquiry?)
Positivist Paradigm
-Values and biases are to be held in
check; objectivity is sought.
Naturalistic Paradigm
-Subjectivity and values are inevitable
and desirable.

Methodologic Assumption
(How is knowledge obtained?)
Positivist Paradigm
-Deductive processes
- Emphasis on discrete, specific concepts
-Verification of researchers hunches
-Fixed design
-Tight controls over contexts
-Emphasis on measured, quantitative information;
statistical analysis
-Seeks Generalization
Naturalistic Paradigm
-Inductive Processes
-Emphasis on entirety of some phenomenon, holisitc
-Emerging interpretations grounded in participants
experiences
-Flexible Design
-Emphasis on Narrative information, qualitative analysis
-Seeks patterns

Quantitative Research is the investigation of


phenomena that lead themselves to precise
measurements and quantification, often
involving a rigorous and controlled design.
Quantitative Analysis in the manipulation of
numeric data through Statistical procedures
for he purpose of describing phenomena and
assessing the magnitude and reliability of
relationships among them.

Qualitative Research is the investigation of


phenomenon, typically in an in-depth and
holistic fashion, through the collection of
narrative materials using a flexible research
design.
Qualitative Analysis refers to the organization
and interpretation of nonnumeric data for the
purpose of discovering important underlying
dimension and patterns of relationships.

BASIC RESEARCH TERMINOLOGY


1. The Study
2. Phenomena, Concepts, and Constructs
3. Theories and Conceptual Models
4. Variables
a. Continuous, Discrete, and Categorical Variables
b. Active Versus Attribute Variables
c. Dependent Versus Independent Variables
d. Heterogeneity
e. Operational Definitions of Variables
5. Data
6. Relationships
7. Research Control

Major Steps in A Quantitative Study


1. Phase 1: The Conceptual Phase
a. Step 1: Formulating and Delimiting the
Problem
b. Step 2: Reviewing the Related Literature
c. Step 3: Defining the Theoretical
Framework
d. Step 4: Formulating Hypotheses

2. Phase 2: The Design and Planning Phase


a. Step 5: Selecting a Research Design
b. Step 6: Identifying the Population to be Studied
c. Step 7: Specifying Methods to Measure the Research
Variables
d. Step 8: Designing the Sampling Plan
e. Step 9: Finalizing and Reviewing the Research Plan
f. Step 10: Conducting the Pilot Study and Making
Revisions

3. Phase 3: The Empirical Phase


a. Step 11: Collecting the Data
b. Step 12: Preparing the Data for Analysis
4. Phase 4: The Analytic Phase
a. Step 13: Analyzing the Data
b. Step 14: Interpreting the Results
5. Phase 5: The Dissemination Phase
a. Step 15: Communicating the Findings
b. Step 16: Utilizing the Findings

Activities in a Qualitative Study


1. Conceptualizing and Planning a
Qualitative Study
2. Conducting the Qualitative Study
3. Disseminating Qualitative Findings

Research Purposes and Research Questions

Purpose

Types of Questions: Quantitative


Research

Types of Questions: Qualitative


Research
What is the phenomenon?
What is its name?

Identification

Description

How prevalent is the phenomenon?


How often does the phenomenon
occur?
What are the characteristics of the
phenomenon?

What are the dimensions of the


phenomenon?
What variations exist?
What is important about the
phenomenon?

Exploration

What factors are related to the


phenomenon?
What are the antecedents of the
phenomenon?

What is the full nature of the


phenomenon?
What is really going on here?
What is the process by which the
phenomenon evolves or is
experienced?

Explanation

What are the measurable


associations between phenomena?
What factors caused the
phenomenon?
Does the theory explain the
phenomenon?

How does the phenomenon work?


Why does the phenomenon exist?
What is the meaning of the
phenomenon?
How did the phenomenon occur?

Purpose

Types of Questions:
Quantitative Research

Prediction and control

What will happen if we alter a


phenomenon or introduce an
intervention?
If phenomenon X occurs, will
phenomenon Y follow?
How can we make the
phenomenon happen or alter its
nature or prevalence?
Can the occurrence of the
phenomenon be controlled?

Types of Questions:
Qualitative Research

Key Terms Used in Quantitative and Qualitative Research


Concept
Person contributing
information

Quantitative Term
Subject
Study participant
Respondent

Qualitative Term
Study participant
Informant

Person undertaking the study Researcher


Investigator
Scientist

Researcher
Investigator
_

That which is being


investigated

_
Concepts
Constructs
Variables

Phenomena, topics
Concepts
_

System of organizing
concepts

Theory, theoretical
framework
Conceptual framework,
conceptual model

Theory
_

Information

Data (numeric values)

Data (narrative descriptions)

Connections between
concepts

Relationships (cause-andeffect, functional)

Patterns of association

Example of Terms Relating to Research Problems


Term

Example

Topic or focus
Research problem

Side effects in chemotherapy patients


Nausea and vomiting are common side effects among chemotherapy
patients, and interventions to date have been only moderately successful in
reducing these effects. New interventions that can reduce or prevent these
side effects need to be identified.

Statement of purpose

The purpose of the study is to test an intervention to reduce chemotherapyinduced side effects specifically, to compare the effectiveness of patientcontrolled and nurse-administered antiemetic therapy for controlling
nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients.

Research Question

What is the relative effectiveness of patient-controlled antiemetic therapy


versus nurse-controlled antiemetic therapy in chemotherapy patients with
regard to (a) medication consumption and 9b) control of nausea and
vomiting?

Term

Example

Hypotheses

1.

Subjects receiving antiemetic therapy by a patient-controlled pump will


report less nausea than subjects receiving the therapy by nurse
administration.
2.
Subjects receiving antiemetic therapy by a patient-controlled pump will
vomit less than subjects receiving the therapy by nurse administration.
3. Subjects receiving antiemetic therapy by a patient-controlled pump will
consume less medication than subjects receiving the therapy by nurse
administration

Aims or objectives

This study seeks to accomplish the following objectives: (1) to develop and
implement two alternative procedures for administering antiemetic therapy for
patients receiving moderate emetogenic chemotherapy (patient controlled
versus nurse controlled); (2) to test three hypotheses concerning the relative
effectiveness of the alternative procedures on medication consumption and
control of side effects; and (30 to use the findings to develop
recommendations for possible changes to therapeutic procedures.

Examples of Research Questions From the Research Literature


Research Question

Variables or Concept

Quantitative Studies
How do childrens preoperative focus of attention
on the stress of surgery relate to their
preoperative coping? (La Montagne, Johnson,
Hepworth, & Johnson, 1997)

Childrens focus of attention (IV)


Preoperative coping (DV)

What is the relationship between anger


frequency, intensity, and suppression and blood
pressure among women? (Thomas, 1997)

Anger frequency, intensity, and suppression (IV)


Blood pressure (DV)

Qualitative Studies
How do recently graduated nurses describe
nursing care provided to culturally diverse clints
in hospital settings? (Kirkham, 1998)
Among those responsible for selecting a nursing
home for an elderly family member or friend, why
and how does the decision to institutionalize get
ade? (McAuley, Travis, & Safewright, 1997)

Perceptions of nursing care provided to culturally


diverse clients

Examples of Simple and Complex Hypotheses


Hypotheses

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Simple Complex

Older patients are at


higher risk of
experiencing a fall than
younger patients.

Age of patients

Falling behavior

Simple

Infants born to heroinaddicted mothers have


lower birthweights than
infants with no addicted
mothers

Addiction versus
nonaddiction of
mother

Birthweight of infant

Simple

Structured preoperative
support is more effective
in reducing surgical
patients perceptions of
pain and requests for
analgesics than
structured postoperative
support

Timing of nursing
intervention

Patients pain perceptions;


requests for analgesics

Complex

Health practices

Complex

Positive health practices Self-esteem; social


are favorably affected by support
high self-esteem and
greater amounts of social
support.

Sources of Research Problems


-Experiences
-Literature- published research
reports
-Social Issues
-Gaps Between Ideal and Practice
-Theory
-Ideas From External Sources

Development and Refinement of Research Problems


-Selecting the Topic
-Narrowing the Topic
-Evaluating Research
Problems
a. Significance of the Problem
b. Researchability of the Problem
c. Feasibility of Addressing the Problem
- Time and Timing
- Cooperation of Others
- Facilities And Equipment
- Money
- Experience of the Researcher
- Ethical Considerations

Testing Hypothesis
-an inductive hypothesis is a generalization based on
observed relationship. Patterns, trends or
associations are observed and uses this as a basis
for tentative explanation or prediction.
-deductive hypothesis has a starting point of theories
that are applied to particular situations.
-a workable hypothesis staes a
. relationship between
two or more variables and is capable of empirical
testing.
Directional hypothesis is one that specifies the
expected the expected direction of the relationship

THE END