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EE 230: Optical Fiber Communication Lecture 15

WDM Components

From the movie


Warriors of the Net

ITU Grid
Wavelengths for CWDM and frequencies for
DWDM defined by International
Telecommunication Union, a part of the United
Nations located in Geneva
Central frequency is 193.1 THz, equivalent to
1552.52 nm
Frequencies for 50 GHz channel spacings are
thus defined as 193.1 + 0.05n THz where n is
a positive or negative integer

Active vs. Passive Devices


Passive: requires no electrical power
and transfer function cannot be
modified by user
Active: allows user to manipulate what
it does to light pulses. Requires power.

Platforms for WDM components


Discrete optics: thin-film filters,
microelectromechanical systems
(MEMS), isolators, circulators
All-fiber components: couplers, MachZehnder interferometers
Planar lightwave circuits (PLC):
arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWG),
couplers, MZs, etc.

Coupler parameters
Splitting ratio: P2/(P1+P2)
Excess loss: 10 log (P0/P1+P2)
Insertion loss: 10 log (Pin/Pout)
Crosstalk: 10 log (P3/P0)

Coupling as function of length

P2 P0 sin z e
2

Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

c
2neff L

where neff is determined from the Pcore/P graphs

Multiplexing/demultiplexing criterion
1 1
2neff
L
1 2
where L is the path length difference
between the two arms

Wavelength dependence of MZ output


For wavelengths 1 entering at input port 1, and
2 entering at input port 2,

nL
2 nL
cos

PO1 sin
1
2
2

Wavelength adjustment (trim)


Coarse adjustment possible with fiber
MZs by heating and pulling shorter arm
to increase channel spacing
Fine adjustment for both fiber and PLCs
done with UV irradiation to line
transmission peaks up with ITU grid

Example
To multiplex four wavelengths separated
by 50 GHz (0.4 nm)
How many stages needed?
2. (log2 W). How many total MZs?
3. Two in one stage, one in the next.
What is L for each stage?

Example, continued
If first frequency is ITU center, what are
other three, and their wavelengths?
193.10, 193.15, 193.20, and 193.25 THz
1552.52, 1552.12, 1551.72, and 1551.32
nm
If neff=1.45, determine L values

Example, continued
First stages have 100 GHz channel
spacing, one for even-numbered
wavelengths and one for odd. L
equals c/2n(100x109)=1.0 mm
Second stages have 50 GHz channel
spacing. L =c/2n(50x109)=2.1 mm
As channel spacing gets smaller, it gets
easier to make MZs (larger L)!

General MZ expression
For a multiplexer or demultiplexer with N
wavelengths, you need n=log2N stages where
the path length difference for stage i is

c
Li n i
2 n

Arrayed-Waveguide Grating

AWG channel spacing

cdxns nc

2
mc L f ng
where ns=input/output waveguide index,
nc=central waveguide array index, and

dnc
ng nc
d

Tuning an AWG
Each input waveguide corresponds to a
different center wavelength and channel
spacing. Several waveguides around
the center one will correspond to the
correct channel spacing within the
tolerance, and the peak wavelengths
will vary from one waveguide to
another.

WDM Muxes and Demuxes

Grating Based Demultiplexer

Optical Filters

Interference Filter Based WDM

Thermal drift in waveguide devices

nL
L
n
1 n
1 L 1 n

T nL T
nL T
T
n T
L T n T

n/T for silica=7.5x10-6 per degree


for silicon=2.63 ppm per degree
d/dT = 12 pm per degree (red shift)
2/3 due to thermooptic effect, 1/3 to CTE

Effect of thermal drift


Channel spacing=100 GHz=0.8 nm=800 pm
DWDM device completely transparent every
800 pm, opaque between
Silica-on-silicon drifts 12 pm/
Device becomes a beam stop if temperature
changes by ?
33! Passive devices routinely T stabilized;
customers unhappy

Athermalization Techniques
Mechanical compensation: flex entire
chip, adjust point at which signal
injected into device
Materials compensation: design
waveguide to be inherently athermal