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Health Education

MODERN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH
At present, people enjoy the benefits of good

health, which was something not experienced


in the past. One of the most intelligent and
brilliant accomplishments of man is the
prevention and control of diseases like
cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, chickenpox,
diphtheria, polio, and hepatitis B. As a
consequence, the people enjoy a longer life
expectancy and are thankful for the decrease
in the number of death.

Table 1
Health Status:
Philippines
Philippine Health Status

2001
Life Expectancy at Birth 2004
Male
Female
Crude Birth Rate, 2004 (per
100 pop.)
Crude Death Rate, 2001

66.63
71.88
26.24
5.83

2004
67.53
72.78
24.63
5.66

At present, people enjoy living because of the


different advances or discoveries in science
and medicine. From misconceptions about
health, superstitious beliefs, and traditional
practices that cause early and untimely death,
people have made great progress in
discovering new procedures, facilities and
equipment, and modern technologies in
science and medicine. Some of these
discoveries are immunizations, new medicines
used in the control of diseases, and new
methods in diagnosing and treating diseases.

Immunization is the giving of vaccines to a


child so that his/her body can produce
substances that will protect him/her from
common childhood diseases. According to
authorities, three out of 100 children die of
measles, two are caused of whooping cough
or pertussis, and one is due to tetanus.

One out of 200 children born becomes


invalid for life because of polio. In the
Philippines, 10,000 children die yearly due
to these common communicable diseases:
measles, tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria,
pertussis, and tetanus.
The discovery of vaccine against small
pox by Edward Jenner, an English
physician, on May 14, 1796 was considered
a great breakthrough in the history of
medicine.

Immunization against rabies was


discovered by Louis Pasteur, a French
scientist, who also discovered
pasteurization, a process of killing
microorganisms in milk.
There were other vaccines discovered
against diseases, like anthrax, dysentery,
pertussis, influenza, and Asian flu.
In 1957, the serious case of Asian flu
epidemic was prevented because of
immunization against the disease

Dr. Emil Von Behring, a German


national, discovered the vaccine against
diphtheria. Dr. William Park of New York
continued improving the vaccine until it
was successfully used after World War II.
At present, a new modernized
program of immunization against
diseases is being implemented
throughout the world.

On April 3, 1986, former Philippine


President Corazon Aquino signed
Proclamation No. 6 implementing the
objective of the United Nations worldwide
immunization. This immunization is done
by giving the child vaccine against
whooping cough or pertussis, diphtheria,
tetanus, polio, and measles. Because of its
importance, immunization during the first
year of childs life, the table below shows
the schedule of immunization for infants.

Table 2
Schedule of Immunization for Infants
Age
After birth
6 weeks
10 weeks
14 weeks
9 months

Diseases that Can Be Prevented


by Immunization or Vaccine
- Tuberculosis
Diphtheria, whooping cough
(pertussis), tetanus,
polio
Diphtheria, whooping cough
(pertussis), tetanus,
polio
Diphtheria, whooping cough
(pertussis), tetanus,
polio
Measles

Every woman between the ages 25 to 44 should be


given vaccine against tetanus. A pregnant woman
should be given immunization.

The first vaccine used against polio was gamma


globulin, which was discovered in 1951 and 1952.
Its effect only last from 3 to 4 weeks. In 1953, Dr.
Jonas Salk discovers the vaccine against polio. In
1954, he tested a wide scale the effectiveness of
the vaccine that he discovered against polio by
immunizing 1,800,00 children. On April 12, 1955, it
was reported that the result was 80to 90 percent
effective.

At present, polio vaccine is widely


used. The discovery of Dr. Salk was
further improved by Dr. Albert B. Sabin,
a urologist from the United States of
America. Instead of injecting it, the
vaccine is given through the mouth of
the polio victim; hence, it is now
commonly called oral polio vaccine
(OPV).

Yearly, various medicines are added to


the list of medicines recommended by
physicians in the treatment of various
diseases.
These are tranquilizers, used in the
treatment of heart disease and blood
vessels and antibiotics that are
effective against infections

Polio, meningitis, diphtheria, tetanus,


typhoid fever, and other diseases, which
used to be feared, can be controlled with
the use of the newly developed medicines.
The science of medicines owes Dr. Gerhard
Domagk the discovery in 1930 of sulfa
drugs, like sulfanilamide, sulfathiazole, and
other wonder drugs .These wonder drugs
are effective in killing microbes

Penicillin, also called the wonder drug,


was the first antibiotic discovered by
Alexander Fleming of London, England.
This was followed by the discovery of
streptomycin by Dr. Silman A. Walksman
of Rutgers University
It can be seen in the table that follows
that tuberculosis, which used to be the
number one cause of sickness and death
in the Philippines is now ranked as sixth

Table 3
Ten Leading Causes of Mobility
Number and Rate/100,000
Population
Philippines, 2000
Cause
1.Diarrhea
2.Bronchitis
3.Pneumonia
4.Influenza
5.Hypertension
6.TB Respiratory
7.Disease of the heart
8.Malaria
9.Chicken pox
10.Measles

Number

Rate

866,411
700,105
632,930
502, 718
279,992
126,489
52,957
50,869
35,306
23,287

11,34.8
917.0
829.0
658.5
366.7
165.7
69.4
66.6
46.2
30.5

Table 4
Ten Leading Causes of Mortality
Numbers and Rate/100,000
Population
Philippines, 1998
Cause

Number

Rate

1.Disease of the heart


2.Disease of the vascular system
3.Pneumonia
4.Malignant neoplasm
5.Accidents
6.Tuberculosis, all forms
7.Chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease and allied conditions
8.Diabetes mellitus
9.Other disease of the respiratory
system
10.Nephritis, nephrotic, syndrome,
and nephrosis

55,830
41,380
33,709
32,090
29,874
28,041
14,228
8,819
7,516
7,453

76.3
56.6
46.1
43.9
40.8
38.3
19.5
12.1
10.3
10.2

Modern Methods of Diagnosing Diseases

The new technologies and discoveries in


science and medicine have greatly influenced
the decline in mortality rate. The inventions,
which used to have caused too much damage
on lives and properties of the people, are now
used to save the people from sickness and
death. During World War II, the atomic bomb
was dropped at Hiroshima, Japan, which
totally burned the place because of radiation.
People were killed and there were those who
suffered deformities due to exposure to
radiation. Now, radiation is used in diagnosing
diseases and treatment of cancer.

Modern apparatuses have been


invented which is used in radiation, like
the ultrasound, ultrasonograpy,
sonoendoscopy, computed tomography,
and magnetic resonance imaging.

X-ray

The x-ray is used in taking the picture of the


body being diagnosed through radiation. To
get the picture at once, fluoroscopy is used.
Meanwhile, ultrasound, ultrasonography, and
other apparatuses do not only use radiation
but also sound waves to have clearer picture
of the body being diagnosed. With ultrasound,
an apparatus which is used to examine a
pregnant woman, the moving fetus can be
clearly seen- the sex can be identified, the
number, the position, the size, and defects of
the fetus can be revealed, too

Ultrasonograph

This is an apparatus that records


ultrasound or sound waves in
diagnosing diseases that cause
obstruction in the body, like stones in
he gall bladder and the kidney. With
the use of this apparatus, the parts
of the body being examined appear
two-dimensionally.

Sonoendoscope

This apparatus has a high


frequency of ultrasound
attached at the end of the
endoscope in order to see the
upper and lower parts of the
body being examined, like the
lungs and gastrointestinal tract.

Computer Tomograph
(CT) Machine

This is an apparatus used in diagnosing


parts of the body with x-ray which is
placed above the tissues of the parts
being examined. This apparatus uses a
computer which displays the picture of
the examined part of the body through a
TV monitor.

Magnetic Resonance
Imaging Scanner

This machine is the combination of the


features of the computed tomography
and ultrasound which uses radiation and
shows the parts of the body being
examined in various angles.

Electrocardiograph
(ECG)

This is an apparatus used in diagnosing


the condition of the heart. It pictures the
electrical activities of the heart. The
electroencephalograph (EEG) is the
machine used to examine the condition
of the brain. It takes pictures of the
electrical activities of the brain.

The use of radioisotopes therapy is one of the most

recent ways treating diseases using radiation.


Some of the ways using it are as follows:
Telegraphy. This apparatus uses a gamma rays
which is used in taking a picture of the parts of the
body being examined as in x-ray.
Intrasanitary Isotope Therapy is a treatment,
which is uses radioisotopes inside the body as in
treating the kidney.
Chemotherapy is used in treating advanced cases
of cancer which cannot be treated by operation or
exposure to radiation

Some of the latest advances in the field of medicine

are the various apparatuses and procedures used in


operating on the patient, such as the following:

Laser beam. A lasers beam highly focused


energy can produce a great amount of heat. In
medicine, the heating power of lasers is often use in
eye surgery. Laser beams of certain wavelengths can
pass through the cornea (front surface of the eye)
causing no pain or damage because the cornea is
transparent and does not absorb light. Highly focused
beams can pass through the cornea and close off
broken blood vessels on the retina, a tissue in the
back of the eyeball. Lasers also can reattach a loose
retina. Lasers of different wavelength can be used to
reshape corneas, enabling some people to see clearly
without glasses or contact lenses.

Doctors also use lasers to treat skin disorder,

remove birthmarks and tattoos, and shatter


gallstones. Laser beams can replace the
standard surgical knife, or scalpel, in some
operations. The use of laser permits
extraordinary control and precision in cutting
tissues and sealing off cuts. Thus, laser
reduces bleeding and damage to nearby
healthy tissues.

Phacoemulsification or Phaco, for short, is the most

modern way of removing a cataract. It consists of opening


the bag of cataract, fragmenting it with ultrasonic
vibration, and vacuuming away the chunks using a
slender probe inserted into the eye through a small, about
3 mm in length, incision. The procedure is often quicker
than ECCE. In the hands of experienced surgeon, Phaco
takes less than 30 minutes. It can be done with less
anesthesia (using drops only) and possess less risk or
dreaded complications. The size of incision means less
inflammation. There is no need to use a suture 90% of the
time. Visual recovery is faster. Because Phaco does not
damage a lot of ocular tissues, there is minimal pain
produced requiring only little anesthesia. Hence, there are
no systematic dangers from anesthetic injections or
sedatives. Often, the patient does not need to wear patch,
and can resume most of his/her usual activities.

There are parts of the human body, like the eyes, bone, liver,

heart, and kidney from donors, which can be transplanted into


another person with defective organs with the help of new
technologies and operating procedures as well as proper care
and treatment.

The government, through the DOH, has been


continuously improving the health services and facilities in the
different regions. Hospitals and lying-in centers have been
provided to help the people, especially those living I the far
barrios and sitios.

Private hospitals also have their share in helping the


people by offering free clinic and consultations especially the
indigent patients.

Many hospitals in the country are now becoming training


centers for medical and allied medical students and
practitioners.

Greater advances and discoveries in the field

of science and technology have distributed to


progress in recent years particularly
preventing and controlling diseases than in
any area affecting the health and welfare of
man. This contribution has alleviated much
suffering, prevented deaths, and increased
the span of life. Despite the record, diseases
continue to affect people. Much remains to be
the learned to prevent and control them.

To understand disease processes, it is

important to have scientific information on the


modern concept of disease, factors in the
development and spread of diseases, ways of
prevention and control, and the role of the
individual in its prevention and control.

Disease is the visible negative reaction of


the individual to the invasion of
microorganisms, which is referred to as an
infection.

These reactions, observed in a sick person,

are as follows: body temperature is above


normal (37 degree C or 98 degree F); chills,
diarrhea or constipation, discharging nose,
dizziness, headache, watery eyes, nausea,
vomiting, and sharp, burning pain; pale face,
nail, and eyes; rash, bluish spots on the skin;
restlessness; shortness of breath; sores or
lesions; sore throat; swollen glands; and
unexplained professed sweating.

There are two types of diseases: (1)

communicable disease is due to


microorganisms and transmitted directly or
indirectly from one person to another,
through animals or insects; (2) noncommunicable disease is a disease that is not
transferable. These include diseases that are
inherited, like hemophilia, diabetes, and
others.

A communicable disease starts with an

infection, which is defined as the entrance,


growth, and multiplication or microorganisms
in the body.

There are three factors that influence the


development and spread of the disease. They
are: (1) the individual or the host carrying the
disease-producing organisms; (2) the specific
agents which caused the disease; and (3) the
environment in which the individual \and the
agent reside.

Microorganisms are the causative agents

of diseases. The number and strength of


the microorganisms enhance the
development of a disease, especially when
the resistance of the person is weak.
The entrance of the micro-organisms also
facilitates the growth of the organism
inside the body.

The individual is the host that harbors the

microorganisms. The individual has a great


influence I developing and transmitting the
germs from one person to another
Strong resistance or good health to fight

diseases. If the body resistance is weak, the


microbes, which naturally live in the body, will
overcome the weak resistance and disease
develops.

The age, sex, and race are also important factors

in having disease. Infants, young boys, and


young girls have not yet developed strong
resistance hence, they easily become sick with
mumps, measles, chicken pox, and other
diseases. Adults are more resistant because of
the immunities they have developed in their
bodies,
Heredity also influences the development of
diseases. There are certain diseases that run in
the family and there is tendency to inherit those,
like diabetes, poor IQ, and mental illness

Habits and practices, like improper diet, may

result in diseases due to malnutrition-anemia,


color blindness, lack of sleep; excessive
tiredness; working or going to class even if
suffering from illness; abuse of prohibited
drugs; drinking of alcoholic beverages;
smoking; and self-medication.
Superstitious beliefs, customs, and tradition.

The place where the individual resides, which includes the social

economic environment, has a great influence on the development


of a disease. The physical environment includes weather,
temperature, housing, and cleanliness. The biological environment
refers to the living things that surround the individual, like
plants, trees, animals, including the microorganisms. They cause
and transmit diseases, like herbs. The social environment has
something to do with relationship existing among the people and
their social practices, which facilitate the spread the diseases,
like shaking of hands, kissing, embracing, and the like.
Dirty surroundings; lack of potable water and sanitary toilet
facilities; unhealthful preparation, storage, delivery, and service
of food; presence of flies, insects, rats, and other pests;
improper garbage disposal; and soil, air, noise, chemical, and
water pollution contribute to the speedy development and spread
of diseases in a community.

Communicable diseases continue to be a

problem in or country. According to the recent


report of DOH, most of the ten leading causes
of sickness and death in the Philippines are
communicable diseases which can be
prevented and controlled.

Some of the more common communicable


diseases are colds, pneumonia, influenza,
malaria, Dengue H-fever, leptospirosis, TB,
Hepatitis B, and HIV/AIDS.

Anybody can catch a cold. It is common viral

infection that may cause runny nose, cough, sore


throat, and sometimes, fever and pain in the joints.
Colds always go away without medication.

When you have colds, drink plenty of water and


get enough rest. No special diet is needed. However,
fruit juices, especially orange or lemon are helpful.

A stuffy or runny nose can result from colds. A lot


of mucus in the nose may cause ear infection in
children or sinusitis in adults. Other complications of
prolonged and untreated colds are pneumonia,
influenza, sore throat, laryngitis, bronchitis, asthma,
and pertussis.

In children, you may carefully draw the mucus

out of the nose with a suction bulb or syringe


without a needle.
Older children and adults may put salt water
in their palms and sniff it. This action will help
loosen the mucus.
Inhaling, hot water vapor helps clear a stuffy
nose. Sit on the chair with a bucket of very hot
water at your feet. Place a sheet over your
head and cover the bucket to catch vapor as it
rises. Inhale the vapor deeply for 15 minutes.
Repeat several times a day.

Pneumonia ranks sixth among the ten leading causes of

sickness and death in the Philippines. Pneumonia is an acute


infection of the lungs. It often occurs after other illness, such
as measles, whooping cough, flu, bronchitis, or any other
serious ailment.

The germs of pneumonia are spread by droplets through


an uncovered cough or sneeze, through a handshake, kissing,
and the use of other peoples personal belongings.

The signs and symptoms of pneumonia are rapid, shallow


breathing, sometimes with wheezing sound; cough, often with
yellow, greenish, or slightly bloody mucus; and sometimes
chest pain.

Pneumonia can be prevented by breast feeding the


infant, eating foods rich in in vitamin A, complete
immunization, and avoiding crowded places and persons sick
with pneumonia. Consult the physician when symptoms
appear.

Influenza is caused by a virus, which lowers the resistance of the

body to bacterial infection. Some of the signs and symptoms of


flu are chills, fever and headache; dry cough, sore throat; pain
joints; general weakness of the body; loss of appetite.

The spread of flu can be prevented by the following


precautions: cover mouth and nose when coughing and
sneezing; never spit on the ground or on the floor but into a
container; avoid a contact with persons sick with flu.

When a member of the family is sick with flu, isolate


him/her from the others; let him/her have plenty of bed rest;
give him/her a sponge bath; give him/her herbal medicine to
bring down the fever; let him/her eat a balanced diet; when
patient has cough, give him/her plenty of water to drink, as well
as fruit juices. Call a physician if the patient still has fever for a
week or longer.

A number of medicinal plants may be used to treat


influenza, like yerba buena and lagundi.

Malaria is a disease commonly prevalent in the tropical places, like the

Philippines. It caused by a parasite which is caused by a transmitted through


a bite of an infected mosquito called anopheles.

The anopheles breeds in clean, clear, and slow moving a stream with
over-hanging vegetation that keeps sunlight out.

A person with malaria has these signs: chills, fever, excessive sweating,
headache, enlarged spleen, and anemia. If one or all of these signs are
observed, have the blood smear taken at the health center or barangay
health station for examination. If found positive for malaria, consult a
physician and take the prescribed medicine.

To prevent malaria, always sleep under a mosquito net, wear long


sleeved shirts, long pants or long skirts, or pajamas at night; tie your work
animals near the house to attract the mosquitoes toward them and away from
the people inside the house. As much as possible, put up screens on doors
and windows of the house. If you need to go to a malaria-infested area,
consult a doctor for a preventive measures you can take.

In order to control malaria, have the house and surroundings sprayed


with DDT under supervision of a sanitary inspector or any health worker.

Dengue H-fever is a contagious disease

caused by virus. The common victims are


children between 5 to 9 years old. The
mosquitos which transmit H-fever are the
Aedes aegyti and Aedes albopictus. These
mosquitoes live in clear stagnant water
collected in gutters, old tires, flower vase, tin
cans, and the like; they bit only during the
day.

Sudden rise in body temperature which lasts

for 2 to 7 days
Painful muscles and joints
Headache
Weakness
Reddish spots or rashes
Pain in the stomach
Bleeding nose and gums
Vomiting
Stool is dark due to bleeding

Cover tightly any water container, inside and outside the house,

which ca be a breeding place o mosquitoes and wrigglers, like tin


cans, bottles, drums, pails, tires of vehicles.
Keep the surroundings dry and clean.
Clean flower vase very well and change water in the vase often
Cover tightly any water container to prevent mosquitoes from
breeding inside it.
Clean gutter regularly to prevent water from staying in it.
Bury tin cans, bottles, and other containers, which may become
breeding places of mosquitoes.
Sleep under a mosquito net.
Screen the house- the windows and the doors to prevent
mosquitoes from getting inside.
Avoid mosquito bites.
Report at once to the nearest health centers the suspected cases
of H-fever

Leptospirosis is a contagious disease caused by leptospira

virus found in the urine of the rats. The urine with the virus is
carried by dirty floodwater. It is very dangerous for a person
who has open wound to wade in the floods. The virus might
also acquired by drinking contaminated with leptospira virus,.

Th symptoms of leptospirosis are high fever, headache,


vomiting, and jaundice or yellowish skin.

Leptospirosis can be prevented by cleaning the


environment, proper disposal of garbage to prevent breeding
of rats, and drinking clean and safe water. During rainy days
and floods, water should be boiled for five minutes before
drinking it. If the source is doubtful, use tall boots when there
is flood. If possible, do not go out and wade in the flood. Just
stay home.

Tuberculosis, or commonly called as TB, is a serious disease in the

Philippines. It remains as one of the leading causes of sickness as well as


deaths in our country today. TB of the lungs is contagious and can affect
any person, young or old. Tb germs are spread when a patient coughs,
sneezes, o talks without covering the mouth and nose. TB is not hereditary,
it is acquired.
Childhood TB can be prevented by having the child immunized with
BCG vaccine.
The signs and symptoms of a person ill with TB are as follows: chest
and back pain, cough which last for more than two weeks, traces of blood in
the sputum, low-grade afternoon fever, and loss of appetite and of weight.
Tuberculosis can be prevented by covering the mouth and nose when
coughing and sneezing, not spitting on the ground or on the floor. Instead,
spit into a rolled paper or container which should be burned or buried
afterwards. One should have enough physical and mental rest, eat
nutritious foods and balanced-diet, and consult a health worker or go to the
nearest health center for possible sputum examination.
A person found TB should take all the prescribed medication regularly
without fail. He should not stop taking medication even when signs and
symptoms disappear. If treatment is not followed according to instructions,
the signs and symptoms will recur.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is the inflammation of the liver caused viral infection. At


present Hepatitis B is one of the dreaded diseases in the
Philippines.
Hepatitis B is a very dangerous disease because a person may
harbor the virus without showing any sign or symptom of being
sick.
Hepatitis B is acquired when the virus enters the body through
the open skin or the mucus membrane, like the lining of the mouth,
anus, and genitals. The common way of transferring the disease is
through blood transfusion, use of an unsterilized needle for
injection and tattooing; and pedicure and manicure.
The signs and symptoms of Hepatitis B include fever,
headache, pain in the right upper side of the abdomen due to
inflamed liver and yellowish urine and skin. Other symptoms can be
seen only after the blood test.
Hepatitis B can be prevented through immunization, avoid the
use of unsterilized needles, maintaining a clean and healthful
environment, and building a strong body resistance. One should
see a physician once signs and symptoms are observed and felt.

HIV/AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a

disease that is a worldwide problem. Research says


thee are almost five to ten million people affected by
human immune-deficiency virus (HIV).

When person has AIDS, all his natural body


defenses against infection are destroyed, causing
death. AIDS is not inherited, it is acquired. It affects
anybody. The various ways of getting the disease are
through sexual acts, the use of unsterilized needles
like those used by drug abusers, and blood
transfusion. Mothers who have HIV/AIDS may infect
their newborn babies. HIV/ AIDS is not transmitted
by using personal things of other people, like
toothbrush, razor, hairbrush; or by embracing,
kissing, using the telephone using the same
beddings, and using public toilet and swimming pool.

Some of the signs and symptoms of AIDS include the

following: enlarged and swollen nodules; sudden lost


of weight-10 lbs in less than two month; always
feeling tired; mouth sores, unexplained diarrhea,
cough and fever, excessive headache; and
appearance of white patches in the mouth and throat.

Parents have the obligation to inform their children


to about AIDS to prevent it.
Prevention may be done by being a faithful husband
or wife. A person with AIDS should not donate blood
and use needles that are not sterilized. It is advisable
to use disposable needles to prevent HIV/AIDS.
Women suspected of HIV should avoid being pregnant.
It was reported that babies by mothers with AIDS have
50% chance of having the AIDS virus. Most of these
babies die before they reach the age of three.

Prevention of AIDS is a
Personal Responsibility
Care in

Blood transfusion
Donating organs of the body
Accepting artificial insemination

Advising men with AIDS to avoid transferring

virus to others
Advising women with AIDS to avoid
pregnancy
Practicing safe and clean sex
Avoiding injection using unsterilized needles

Disseminate information
through education
Characteristics of AIDS
Ways of acquiring AIDS
Prevention of AIDS

Basic information and knowledge

about the communicable diseases


that have been discussed earlier is
important in planning actions to
prevent them. To have an effective
means of control, all actions should
be directed at the source o infection,
early treatment, immunization,
segregation, and quarantine

People should help maintain a clean, safe,

and healthful environment. Avoiding


crowded places will also help prevent
communicable diseases. Building a strong
resistance is important, too. Body strength
can be attained through balanced-diet with
safe water to drink, exercise, adequate
sleep, relaxation and rest, and personal
and community health.

Consult a doctor who can advise you on


the diagnosis and treatment of
communicable diseases.

Non-communicable
diseases
Non-communicable diseases are neither

contagious nor transferable. These are


health problems of all ages. It is
important to know that these diseases
are preventable and can be delayed in
order to lessen their serious effects.
Some of these non-communicable
diseases are cardiovascular illness,
cancer, and diabetes.

Cardiovascular Diseases
According to the DOH report of the

ten leading causes of death in our


country, cardiovascular diseases or
diseases in the heart and blood
vessels rank second. The most
common heart diseases are the
congenital heart disease, rheumatic
fever, rheumatic heart, high blood
pressure, and stroke.

Congenital heart disease


is developed during the first three

months of pregnancy. When the


pregnant mother acquires German
measles, takes medicine without the
prescription of the physician, and is
exposed to x-ray during the first three
months of pregnancy, her baby could
acquire congenital heart disease. The
blue baby, on the other had, is a
victim of a congenital heart disease.

Rheumatic fever and


rheumatic heart
are diseases of children ages 5-15 years old.

Rheumatic fever is the inflammation and the swelling


of joints, skin, and heart muscles usually after an
attack of sore throat caused by the infection of a
microorganism known as streptococcus. Rheumatic
fever may be mistaken for flu; however, the big
difference is its effect on the heart. If not treated early
enough, rheumatic fever may result in rheumatic heart
disease. Rheumatic heart disease is the permanent
damage of the heart valves and heart muscles caused
by rheumatic fever. This is more dangerous than
rheumatic fever and may need heart surgery. High
blood pressure is the rise of blood pressure above
normal level of ones age, a condition that needs
priority attention. According to the report of the
Philippine Heart Center, one out of ten persons with
ages 15 and above has high blood pressure or
hypertension

Hypertension
is also known as the silent killer. The

symptoms of hypertension are headache


and pain at the back of the head,
dizziness, blurring of vision, redness o
face, tiredness, difficulty in breathing, fast
heartbeat, sometimes chest pain, nose
bleeding, fainting spells, and ringing in
the ear. Hypertension can be prevented
by avoiding smoking, fatty and salty food,
worries and tensions, drinking alcohol
beverages,, exercise, adequate relaxation
and adequate check-up by a physician.

Coronary heart disease


disease is the narrowing or blocking of the coronary

arteries due to hardening and fat deposits, especially


cholesterol. This disease usually affects individuals
who are 40 years old and above. One sign is chest
pain that extends to the shoulder, hands, jaw, and
back. The pain disappears three to five minutes after
the patient have rested. But if the pain becomes
intense, which lasts for 30 minutes or more, with
difficulty in breathing, paleness, excessive
perspiration, dizziness, vomiting, and abnormal drop
of blood pressure, the person is already having
stroke. To prevent coronary heart disease, avoid
smoking, excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages,
worries, tensions, and eating fatty and salty foods.
Diabetes may also cause coronary heart disease.
Exercise, maintain normal blood pressure for the
age, and have a regular check-up with the physician.

A stroke
occurs when there is sudden partial or

complete blockage of the arteries that


carry blood to the brain. The signs and
symptoms of stroke are dizziness,
unconsciousness, weakness, numbness of
arms and feet, slurred speech, blurred
vision, and unexplained pain in the head.
To prevent stroke, avoid smoking and
eating fatty foods; avoid too much
worries and tensions; maintain normal
blood pressure and weight for the age;
exercise and follow doctors advice.

Cancer
Cancer is a disease caused by fast and abnormal growth of calls
in the body. It affects all kinds of individuals: male, female,
young, old, rich and poor. According to authorities, 75% of
people who are 50 years old and above have cancer. Composing
3% of those affected are children (0 to 14 years old). According
to the recent report of the DOH Philippine Control Program, one
out of every 1,000 living Filipinos at present may develop
cancer. The nine danger signals of cancer are: (1) irregular
bowel movement and urination; (2) wound does not heal; (3)
abnormal bleeding; (4) lump and tightening of the breast and
other parts of the body; (5) indigestion and difficulty in
swallowing; (6) mole or warts that swell and change colors; (7)
persistent cough, hoarse voice, and pain in the throat; (8) loss
of weight; and (9) anemia.

Cancer can be prevented when detected early. Some of the


ways of preventing cancer are avoiding excessive smoking;
drinking alcoholic beverages; overexposure to sunlight; eating
fatty, salty, and smoked foods; excessive use of food
preservatives; being overweight; and exposure to dangerous
chemicals, like asbestos, vinyl, chloride, and nickel.

Diabetes
Diabetes is a disease which weakens

the bodys ability to produce or


properly use in inulin, a hormone in
the pancreas that is needed to
convert sugar, starches, and other
foods into energy. Usually, the
carbohydrates we get from food we
eat are changed into glucose, a
simple sugar. It is absorbed by the
blood, giving us energy.

The use of sugar in the body is controlled

of insulin, a hormone produced in the


pancreas. If there is an adequate amount
of insulin in the body, glucose is used or
stored in the liver for the future use. In
case of diabetic person, insulin does not
function well; hence, glucose is not used
properly. As a consequence, glucose is
accumulated in the blood and tissues and
it is excreted through the urine.
Researches have shown that if one of the
parents has diabetes, the children have a
greater chance of becoming diabetic, too.

Furthermore, over weight women are more

likely to have diabetes than men.


Some of the signs and symptoms of diabetes
are frequent urination, feeling of weakness,
excessive thirst, presence of ants in urine
deposits, increased level of sugar as per
blood examination, slow healing of wounds,
loss of weight, and low resistance against
infection.

Diabetes can be prevented by maintaining


an ideal body weight, eating a balanced diet
(high in protein and low in carbohydrates,
sugar, and fats); regular urine examination,
and check-up with the doctor.

Stay
healthy..
. Stay
fit.

Mrs.
Jingle V.
Catulpos