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Keselamatan Kerja HENDRA
Keselamatan Kerja
HENDRA

Pokok Bahasan

  • 1. Konsep Keselamatan Kerja

  • 2. Kecelakaan Kerja

What is safety?

‘Safety’ is a word defined in the Concise Macquarie Dictionary as:

  • 1. The state of being safe: freedom from injury or danger.

  • 2. The quality of insuring against hurt, injury, danger or risk

.The words ‘safety’ and ‘safe’ give rise to an expectation that a state can exist which is free from risk.

Basic Definition

Safety adalah ilmu dan seni yang terdiri dari serangkaian metoda-metoda dalam melakukan intervensi terhadap sistem kerja
Safety adalah ilmu dan seni yang terdiri dari
serangkaian metoda-metoda dalam melakukan
intervensi terhadap sistem kerja sehingga menjamin
keamanan setiap sistem kerja yang dijalankan baik bagi
pekerja, peralatan, maupun bagi lingkungan
 Safety : Prevention of accidents by identification of the
hazards involved in an activity and elimination of them
before an accident occurs.

Keselamatan fokus pada….

Proses Kerja, meliputi

Bahan baku yang dipakai Peralatan yang digunakan Cara kerja dsb

Pekerja

Pekerja yang terlibat di dalam proses kerja

Keselamatan fokus pada…. Proses Kerja, meliputi  Bahan baku yang dipakai  Peralatan yang digunakan 

arus dilindungi jangan sampai menimbulkan kerugian (loss)

The work system

The work system

Safety Versus Health:

Safety: Fokus pada bahaya dan risiko yang menimbulkan kerugian yang bersifat AKUT. Dampak segera terlihat Contoh
Safety:
Fokus pada bahaya dan risiko yang menimbulkan kerugian yang
bersifat AKUT.
Dampak segera terlihat
Contoh : korosi, terbakar, cidera
Health:
Fokus pada bahaya dan risiko yang menimbulkan kerugian yang
bersifat KRONIS.
Dampak tidak segera terlihat (butuh waktu dan besaran bahaya)
Contoh : penyakit akibat kerja

Safety Professionals:

 Orang yang karena keahlian dan pengalamnnya mampu menerapkan prinsip-prinsip safety sehingga tercipta sistem kerja yang
 Orang yang karena keahlian dan pengalamnnya
mampu menerapkan prinsip-prinsip safety
sehingga tercipta sistem kerja yang aman
 Most Safety and Health Professionals wear several
hats:
◦ Environmental
◦ Safety and Health
◦ Security
◦ Human Resource Management

Safety Hazards

 Physical/Mechanical Hazards ◦ Terpotong ◦ Terjatuh ◦ Terjepit ◦ Tertusuk ◦ dll  Chemical Hazards
 Physical/Mechanical Hazards
◦ Terpotong
◦ Terjatuh
◦ Terjepit
◦ Tertusuk
◦ dll
 Chemical Hazards
◦ Flammable
◦ Explosive
◦ Corrosive
◦ Reactive

Safety Hazards

Electrical Hazards ◦ Electrical shock ◦ Fire  Fire and Explosion
Electrical Hazards
◦ Electrical shock
Fire
 Fire and Explosion

Safety Hazard Controls:

Eliminate the process or cause of the hazard Substitute an alternate process or material  Guard
Eliminate the process or cause of the hazard
Substitute an alternate process or material
 Guard personnel from exposure to the hazard
Install barriers to keep personnel out of the area
Warn personnel with visible or audible alarms
 Use warning labels to caution personnel to avoid the
hazard
Utilize filters to remove hazardous effluents
Provide/design proper exhaust ventilation
Consider the human interface

Beberapa program safety

Safety inspection Accident investigation Safety sign Safety training Machine safe guarding Lock out tag out Fire prevention and control Emergency response and preparedness Personal protective equipment, etc.

KONSEP KECELAKAAN KERJA
KONSEP KECELAKAAN
KERJA

Incident vs Accident

Accident

Undesired circumstances which give rise to ill-health or injury, damage to property, plant, products or the environment; production losses or increased liabilities.

Incident

Undesired circumstances and ‘near misses’ which could cause accidents.

Incident vs Accident Accident Undesired circumstances which give rise to ill-health or injury, damage to property,

Incident vs Accident

There are three important aspects of accident definition :

It doesn’t limit the human result to injury, but says harm to people. This Include both injury and illness.

This definition does not confuse “injury” with “accident”. They are not the same. Injuries and illnesses result from accidents. But not all accidents result in injuries and illnesses.

If the event results in property damage or process loss alone, and no injury, it is still an accident. Often accidents result in harm to people, property and process

THE ACCIDENT

An unplanned and unwelcomed event which interrupts normal activity.

Accidents are defined as unplanned occurrences which result in injuries, fatalities, loss of production or damage to property and assets.

 

Injuries Caused By Delivery Of Energy In Excess Of Local Or Whole Body Injury Threshold

     
 

Type of energy delivered

Primary injury produced

Examples and comment

 

Mechanical

Displacement, tearing, breaking, and crushing, predominantly at tissue and organ levels of body organization

Injuries resulting from the impact of moving objects such as bullets, hypodermic, needles, knives, and falling objects; and from the impact of the moving body with relatively stationery structures

Thermal

Inflammation, coagulation, charring, and incineration at all levels of body organization

First, second, third degree burns. The specific result depends on the location and manner in which the energy is dissipated.

 

Electrical

Interference with neuro-muscular function and coagulation, charring, and incineration at all levels of body organization

Electrocution, burns, interference, with neural function as in electroshock therapy. The specific result depends on the location and manner in which the energy is dissipated.

 

Ionizing radiation

Disruption of cellular and sub cellular components and function

Reactor accidents, therapeutic and diagnostic irradiation, misuse of isotopes, effects of fallouts. The specific result depends on the location and manner in which the energy is dissipated.

 

Chemical

Generally specific for each substance or group

Includes injuries due to animal and plant toxins, chemical burns, as from KOH, Br2, F2, and H2SO4, and the less gross and highly varied injuries produced by most elements and compounds when given in sufficient dose.

Accident ratio study

Accident ratio study SERIOUS OR MAJOR INJURY Includes disabling and Serious injuries MINOR INJURY Any reported
Accident ratio study SERIOUS OR MAJOR INJURY Includes disabling and Serious injuries MINOR INJURY Any reported

SERIOUS OR MAJOR INJURY

Includes disabling and Serious injuries

MINOR INJURY

Any reported injury less than serious

PROPERTY DAMAGE ACCIDENTS

All types

INCIDENTS WITH NO

VISUABLE INJURY OR DAMAGE

(Near-accidents)

Accident ratio study SERIOUS OR MAJOR INJURY Includes disabling and Serious injuries MINOR INJURY Any reported

ACCIDENT THEORIES

The Domino Theory The Human Factors Theory The Accident/Incident Theory The Epidemiological Theory The System Theory The Combination Theory Behavioral Theory Accident Theory/Model : Swiss Cheese Model

ACCIDENT THEORIES

The Domino Theory of Accident Causation

An early pioneer Herbert W. Heinrich In the late 1920s Reports of 75.000 industrial accidents Accident caused by:

88 % unsafe acts 10 % unsafe conditions 2 % unavoidable (act of God)

The Domino Theory of Accident Causation

Lack of Control Basic Causes Intermediate Causes Incident Loss
Lack of Control
Basic Causes
Intermediate Causes
Incident
Loss

THE ILCI LOSS CAUSATION MODEL

LACK OF BASIC IMMEDIAT CAUSES E CAUSES CONTROL NEAR HIT /ACCIDENT LOSS People Inadequate  Program
LACK OF
BASIC
IMMEDIAT
CAUSES
E CAUSES
CONTROL
NEAR HIT
/ACCIDENT
LOSS
People
Inadequate
 Program
Property
Personal
Factors
Job Factors
Substanda
rd Acts &
Conditions
Product
Environme
i
Program
Contact With
Energy,
Substance
or People
nt
Standards
i
Compliance
to Standards

ACCIDENT THEORIES

The Human Factors Theory of Accident Causation

Focus to HUMAN ERROR Three broad factors that lead to human error :

Overload imbalance workload and person’s capacity Inappropriate Response/Incompatibility Inappropriate Activities

ACCIDENT THEORIES

The Human Factors Theory of Accident Causation

Human Factors Theory Overload Overload Inapp. Response Inapp. Response Inapp. Activities Inapp. Activities • • Detecting
Human Factors Theory
Overload
Overload
Inapp. Response
Inapp. Response
Inapp. Activities
Inapp. Activities
• Detecting a hazard
• • Environmental Environmental
Detecting a hazard
• • Performing Performing task task
Factors
but
Factors
but
without the requisite
without the requisite
(noise, distraction)
not correcting it
(noise, distraction)
not correcting it
training
training
• Internal Factors
• Removing safeguards
Internal Factors
Removing safeguards
• Misjudging the
Misjudging the
(personal problems,
from machines and
(personal problems,
from machines and
degree
degree
emotional stress)
equipment
emotional stress)
equipment
of risk involved with
of risk involved with
a
a
• Ignoring safety
• • Situational Situational Factors Factors
Ignoring safety
given task
given task
(unclear instruction,
(unclear instruction,
risk
risk
level)
level)

ACCIDENT THEORIES

The Accident/Incident Theory of Accident Causation

Extension of the human factors theory By Dan Petersen Elements of this theory :

Overload Ergonomic Traps Decision of Error Systems Failure

ACCIDENT THEORIES

The Accident/Incident Theory of Accident Causation

ACCIDENT THEORIES The Accident/Incident Theory of Accident Causation

ACCIDENT THEORIES

The Epidemiological Theory of Accident Causation

Study causal relationship between environmental factors and accidents or diseases

The key components :

Predisposition Characteristics

Susceptibility of people

Perceptions

Environmental factors

Situational Characteristics

Risk assessment by individuals

Peer pressure

Priorities of the supervisor

Attitude

ACCIDENT THEORIES

The Epidemiological Theory of Accident Causation

ACCIDENT THEORIES The Epidemiological Theory of Accident Causation

ACCIDENT THEORIES

The Systems Theory of Accident Causation

System is a group of regularly interacting and interrelated components that together form a unified whole.

The following components :

Person (host) Machine (agency) Environment

Behavioral Theory

Behavioral Theory

Accident Theory/Model : Swiss Cheese Model

James T. Reason (1990)
James T. Reason (1990)

Accident Causation

Accident Causation

Perilaku Tidak Aman

Perilaku Tidak Aman

Perilaku Tidak Aman

Perilaku Tidak Aman

Apa yang salah….?

Apa yang salah….?

Inadequate guards/barriers

Inadequate guards/barriers

Unsafe condition

Unsafe condition

Statistik kecelakaan (OSHA)

INCIDENT RATE (IR)

Is a measure of recordable occupational injuries. It expressed as the ratio of the number of recordable injuries to the total man- hours worked, multiplied by 200,000 man-hours (100 employees, 40 hours, 50 weeks a year)

IR = I (200,000) H

IR = Incident rate I = Number of injuries H = man-hours for the number of injuries, I

Statistik kecelakaan (OSHA)

SEVERITY RATE (S)

The accident severity rate is defined as the number of lost days due to occupational injuries per specific number of annual worker- hours. The standard for accident severity rate is also 200,000 man- hours worked.

S = (LD)(200,000) H

S = Accident severity rate LD = Number of lost days due to injuries H = Total man-hours worked

ACCIDENT COST Direct Cost Indirect Cost (Fenomena gunung es)

ACCIDENT COST

Direct Cost Indirect Cost

(Fenomena gunung es)