Anda di halaman 1dari 46

Keselamatan Kerja

HENDRA

Pokok Bahasan
1. Konsep Keselamatan Kerja
2. Kecelakaan Kerja

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

What is safety?
Safety is a word defined in the Concise Macquarie
Dictionary as:
1. The state of being safe: freedom from injury or danger.
2. The quality of insuring against hurt, injury, danger or
risk
.The words safety and safe give rise to an expectation
that a state can exist which is free from risk.

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

Basic Definition
Safety adalah ilmu dan seni yang terdiri dari
serangkaian metoda-metoda dalam melakukan
intervensi terhadap sistem kerja sehingga menjamin
keamanan setiap sistem kerja yang dijalankan baik bagi
pekerja, peralatan, maupun bagi lingkungan
Safety : Prevention of accidents by identification of the
hazards involved in an activity and elimination of them
before an accident occurs.

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

Keselamatan fokus pada.


Proses Kerja, meliputi
Bahan baku yang dipakai
Peralatan yang digunakan
Cara kerja
dsb

Pekerja
Pekerja yang terlibat di dalam proses kerja

arus dilindungi jangan sampai menimbulkan kerugian (loss)

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

The work system

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

Safety Versus Health:


Safety:
Fokus pada bahaya dan risiko yang menimbulkan kerugian yang
bersifat AKUT.
Dampak segera terlihat
Contoh : korosi, terbakar, cidera

Health:
Fokus pada bahaya dan risiko yang menimbulkan kerugian yang
bersifat KRONIS.
Dampak tidak segera terlihat (butuh waktu dan besaran bahaya)
Contoh : penyakit akibat kerja

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

Safety Professionals:
Orang yang karena keahlian dan pengalamnnya
mampu menerapkan prinsip-prinsip safety
sehingga tercipta sistem kerja yang aman
Most Safety and Health Professionals wear several
hats:

Environmental
Safety and Health
Security
Human Resource Management

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

Safety Hazards
Physical/Mechanical Hazards

Terpotong
Terjatuh
Terjepit
Tertusuk
dll

Chemical Hazards

Flammable
Explosive
Corrosive
Reactive
11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

10

Safety Hazards
Electrical Hazards
Electrical shock
Fire

Fire and Explosion

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

11

Safety Hazard Controls:


Eliminate the process or cause of the hazard
Substitute an alternate process or material
Guard personnel from exposure to the hazard
Install barriers to keep personnel out of the area
Warn personnel with visible or audible alarms
Use warning labels to caution personnel to avoid the
hazard
Utilize filters to remove hazardous effluents
Provide/design proper exhaust ventilation
Consider the human interface
11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

12

Beberapa program safety


Safety inspection
Accident investigation
Safety sign
Safety training
Machine safe guarding
Lock out tag out
Fire prevention and control
Emergency response and preparedness
Personal protective equipment,
etc.

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

13

KONSEP KECELAKAAN
KERJA

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

15

Incident vs Accident
Accident
Undesired circumstances which give rise to
ill-health or injury, damage to property,
plant, products or the environment;
production losses or increased liabilities.
Incident
Undesired circumstances and near misses
which could cause accidents.

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

16

Incident vs Accident
There are three important aspects of accident
definition :
It doesnt limit the human result to injury, but says
harm to people. This Include both injury and illness.
This definition does not confuse injury with
accident. They are not the same. Injuries and
illnesses result from accidents. But not all accidents
result in injuries and illnesses.
If the event results in property damage or process loss
alone, and no injury, it is still an accident. Often
accidents result in harm to people, property and
11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

17

THE ACCIDENT

An unplanned and unwelcomed


event which interrupts normal
activity.

11/13/16

Accidents are defined as


unplanned occurrences
which result in injuries,
fatalities, loss of
production or damage to
property and assets.
KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

18

Injuries Caused By Delivery Of Energy In Excess Of Local Or Whole Body Injury Threshold
Type of energy
delivered

Primary injury produced

Examples and comment

Mechanical

Displacement, tearing, breaking, and


crushing, predominantly at tissue and organ
levels of body organization

Injuries resulting from the impact of moving objects such as bullets,


hypodermic, needles, knives, and falling objects; and from the impact
of the moving body with relatively stationery structures

Thermal

Inflammation, coagulation, charring, and


incineration at all levels of body organization

First, second, third degree burns. The specific result depends on the
location and manner in which the energy is dissipated.

Electrical

Interference with neuro-muscular function


and coagulation, charring, and incineration
at all levels of body organization

Electrocution, burns, interference, with neural function as in


electroshock therapy. The specific result depends on the location and
manner in which the energy is dissipated.

Ionizing radiation

Disruption of cellular and sub cellular


components and function

Reactor accidents, therapeutic and diagnostic irradiation, misuse of


isotopes, effects of fallouts. The specific result depends on the
location and manner in which the energy is dissipated.

Generally specific for each substance or


group

Includes injuries due to animal and plant toxins, chemical burns, as


from KOH, Br2, F2, and H2SO4, and the less gross and highly varied
injuries produced by most elements and compounds when given in
sufficient dose.

Chemical

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

19

Accident ratio study


SERIOUS OR MAJOR INJURY
Includes disabling and Serious injuries
MINOR INJURY
Any reported injury less than serious
PROPERTY DAMAGE ACCIDENTS
All types
INCIDENTS WITH NO
VISUABLE INJURY OR
DAMAGE
(Near-accidents)

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

20

ACCIDENT THEORIES
The Domino Theory
The Human Factors Theory
The Accident/Incident Theory
The Epidemiological Theory
The System Theory
The Combination Theory
Behavioral Theory
Accident Theory/Model : Swiss Cheese Model

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

21

ACCIDENT THEORIES
The Domino Theory of Accident Causation
An early pioneer Herbert W. Heinrich
In the late 1920s Reports of 75.000 industrial accidents
Accident caused by:
88 % unsafe acts
10 % unsafe conditions
2 % unavoidable (act of God)

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

22

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

Loss

Incident

Intermediate Causes

Basic Causes

Lack of Control

The Domino Theory of Accident Causation

23

THE ILCI LOSS CAUSATION MODEL

Inadequate
Program
i Program
Standards
i Compliance
to Standards

11/13/16

IMMEDIAT
E CAUSES

BASIC
CAUSES

LACK OF
CONTROL

Personal
Factors

Job Factors

Substanda
rd Acts &
Conditions

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

LOSS

NEAR HIT
/ACCIDENT

Contact With
Energy,
Substance
or People

People
Property
Product
Environme
nt

24

ACCIDENT THEORIES
The Human Factors Theory of Accident
Causation
Focus to HUMAN ERROR
Three broad factors that lead to human error :
Overload imbalance workload and persons capacity
Inappropriate Response/Incompatibility
Inappropriate Activities

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

25

ACCIDENT THEORIES
The Human Factors Theory of Accident Causation
Human Factors Theory

Overload
Overload

Inapp.
Inapp. Response
Response

Inapp.
Inapp. Activities
Activities

Environmental
Environmental
Factors
Factors
(noise,
(noise, distraction)
distraction)

Detecting
Detecting a
a hazard
hazard
but
but
not
not correcting
correcting it
it

Performing
Performing task
task
without
without the
the requisite
requisite
training
training

Internal
Internal Factors
Factors
(personal
(personal problems,
problems,
emotional
emotional stress)
stress)

Removing
Removing safeguards
safeguards
from
from machines
machines and
and
equipment
equipment

Situational
Situational Factors
Factors
(unclear
(unclear instruction,
instruction,
risk
risk
level)
level)

Ignoring
Ignoring safety
safety

Misjudging
Misjudging the
the
degree
degree
of
of risk
risk involved
involved with
with
a
a
given
given task
task

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

26

ACCIDENT THEORIES
The Accident/Incident Theory of Accident
Causation
Extension of the human factors theory
By Dan Petersen
Elements of this theory :
Overload
Ergonomic Traps
Decision of Error
Systems Failure

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

27

ACCIDENT THEORIES
The Accident/Incident Theory of Accident Causation

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

28

ACCIDENT THEORIES
The Epidemiological Theory of Accident
Causation
Study causal relationship between environmental factors
and accidents or diseases
The key components :
Predisposition Characteristics
Susceptibility of people
Perceptions
Environmental factors

Situational Characteristics

Risk assessment by individuals


Peer pressure
Priorities of the supervisor
Attitude

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

29

ACCIDENT THEORIES
The Epidemiological Theory of Accident
Causation

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

30

ACCIDENT THEORIES
The Systems Theory of Accident
Causation
System is a group of regularly interacting and
interrelated components that together form a
unified whole.
The following components :
Person (host)
Machine (agency)
Environment

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

31

Behavioral Theory

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

32

Accident Theory/Model : Swiss Cheese Model

James T. Reason (1990)

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

33

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

34

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

35

Accident Causation

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

36

Perilaku Tidak Aman

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

37

Perilaku Tidak Aman

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

38

Apa yang salah.?

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

39

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

40

Inadequate guards/barriers

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

41

Unsafe condition

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

42

Statistik kecelakaan (OSHA)


INCIDENT RATE (IR)
Is a measure of recordable occupational injuries. It expressed as
the ratio of the number of recordable injuries to the total manhours worked, multiplied by 200,000 man-hours (100 employees,
40 hours, 50 weeks a year)
IR = I (200,000)
H
IR = Incident rate
I = Number of injuries
H = man-hours for the number of injuries, I

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

43

Statistik kecelakaan (OSHA)


SEVERITY RATE (S)
The accident severity rate is defined as the number of lost days
due to occupational injuries per specific number of annual workerhours. The standard for accident severity rate is also 200,000 manhours worked.
S = (LD)(200,000)
H
S = Accident severity rate
LD = Number of lost days due to injuries
H = Total man-hours worked

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

44

ACCIDENT COST
Direct Cost
Indirect Cost
(Fenomena gunung
es)

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

45

11/13/16

KECELAKAAN KERJA - HENDRA

46