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PROSES PRODUKSI

BIOINDUSTRI
(PROSES FERMENTASI)
Prof. Nyoman Semadi Antara, Ph.D.

The Potential of Microbial Cell


In natural environment, microbial cells will
almost always be in mixed cultured. They
have to interact each other, but these
interaction are limited by the potential of
each cell.
Each species of the environmental microbe
has specific potential and some of them are
potential to produce useful industrial
products.

ThePotential
Potential
The

The range
range of
of Microorganisms
Microorganisms
The

The microorganisms encompass the three


groups:
Viruses, Prokaryotes, and Eukaryotes
Other microbiologists claim three Kingdoms of
five Kingdoms of cellular life are
microorganisms, namely:
Monera : bacteria (procaryotae) and blue
green
algae
Protista : protozoa, eukaryotic algae, slime
moulds and flagellated fungi
Fungi : non-flagellated fungi

Viruses
It is not having a
cell structure
It is dependent on
its hosts metabolic
machinery
Its structure of
nucleic acid, DNA or
RNA, is surrounded
by protein and
sometimes an outer
lipid-rich envelope

Prokaryotes the
the bacteria
bacteria
Prokaryotes
Purplebacteria
bacteriaand
andthe
thegreen
greenbacteria
bacteria
Purple
Glidingbacteria
bacteria
Gliding
Sheathedbacteria
bacteria
Sheathed
Spirochaetes
Spirochaetes
Spiraland
andcurve
curvebacteria
bacteria
Spiral
Gram-negativeaerobic
aerobicrods
rodsand
andcocci
cocci
Gram-negative
Gram-negativefacultative
facultativeanaerobic
anaerobicrods
rods
Gram-negative
Gram-negativeanaerobic
anaerobicbacteria
bacteria
Gram-negative
Methaneproducing
producingbacteria
bacteria
Methane
Gram-positivecocci
cocci
Gram-positive
Gram-positiveendospore-forming
endospore-formingrods
rodsand
andcocci
cocci
Gram-positive
Groupof
ofLactobacillaceae
Lactobacillaceae
Group
Actinomycetes
Actinomycetes
Rickettsias
Rickettsias
Mycoplasmas
Mycoplasmas
Cyanophyceaeor
orCyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria
Cyanophyceae

the bacteria
The students are divided into several
groups and each group
discuss these grouping of prokaryote
microorganisms (the bacteria) and the
beneficial of them in industrial purposes.

the bacteria
bacteria
the

Bacteria are
are unicellular,
unicellular, most
most ca.
ca. 0.5-1.0
0.5-1.0 xx 2.0-10
2.0-10
Bacteria
m in
in size.
size.
m
They can
can be
be motile
motile or
or non-motile
non-motile
They
Cytoplasmic materials
materials are
are enclosed
enclosed in
in aa rigid
rigid wall
wall
Cytoplasmic
on the
the surface
surface and
and aa membrane
membrane beneath
beneath the
the wall,
wall,
on
and they
they are
are immobile.
immobile.
and
The membrane
membrane contains
contains energy
energy generating
generating
The
components.
components.
The genetic
genetic materials
materials (structural
(structural and
and plasmid
plasmid DNA)
DNA)
The
are circular,
circular, not
not enclosed
enclosed in
in nuclear
nuclear membrane,
membrane, and
and
are
do not
not contain
contain basic
basic protein
protein such
such as
as histones.
histones.
do
Cell division
division is
is by
by binary
binary fission.
fission.
Cell
Can also
also have
have flagella,
flagella, capsules,
capsules, surface
surface layer
layer
Can
protein, and
and pili
pili for
for specific
specific function.
function.
protein,
Some also
also form
form endospores
endospores (one
(one per
per cell)
cell)
Some
Gram-positive cells
cells or
or Gram-negative
Gram-negative cells
cells
Gram-positive

the bacteria
If we look at the shape and size, called
morphology, it is more simple to use
them for grouping the bacteria. The most
common shapes are rod-like, bacillus
(plural: bacilli), and sperichal, coccus
(plural: cocci)
The rods form vary from short rods
(almost look like cocci) to very long
filaments. Also form spiral and corkscrew,
oval (coccoid), comma, and branch
structure.

Shape of
of bacteria
bacteria
Shape

Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic cells:
Eukaryotic cells:
are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells
are
generally much larger than prokaryotic cells
have rigid cell walls and thin plasma membranes
have rigid cell walls and thin plasma membranes
(contain sterol)
(contain sterol)
the cell wall does not have mucopeptide and is
the
cell wall does not have mucopeptide and is
composed of carbohydrates
composed of carbohydrates
the cytoplasm is mobile (streaming) and contain
the cytoplasm is mobile (streaming) and contain
organelles
organelles
the DNA is linear (chromosomes), contains
the
DNA is linear (chromosomes), contains
histones, and is enclosed in a nuclear membrane.
histones, and is enclosed in a nuclear membrane.
The eukaryotic microorganisms are:
The eukaryotic microorganisms are:
Fungi
Fungi
Algae
Algae
Protozoa
Protozoa

Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes -- fungi
fungi
Yeasts
Yeasts unicellular
unicellular
Molds
Molds multicellular
multicellular
Molds
Molds

are
are non-motile,
non-motile, filamentous
filamentous and
and branches
branches
the
the cell
cell wall
wall is
is composed
composed of
of cellulose,
cellulose, chitin,
chitin, or
or

both
both
are
are composed
composed of
of hyphae
hyphae (large
(large number
number of
of
filaments),
filaments), an
an aggregate
aggregate of
of hyphae
hyphae called
called
mycellium.
mycellium.
aa hyphae
hyphae can
can be
be vegetative
vegetative or
or reproductive,
reproductive, the
the
reproductive
reproductive hyphae
hyphae usually
usually extend
extend and
and form
form
exospores,
exospores, either
either free
free (conidia)
(conidia) or
or in
in sack
sack
(sporangium).
(sporangium). Shape,
Shape, size
size and
and color
color of
of spores
spores are
are
used
used for
for taxonomic
taxonomic classification.
classification.

fungi
fungi

Yeast
Yeast
the cells
cells are
are oval,
oval, spherical,
spherical, or
or elongated
elongated
the

(5-30 xx 2-10
2-10 m),
m), non-motile.
non-motile.
(5-30
the cell
cell wall
wall contains
contains polysaccharides
polysaccharides
the
(glycans), protein
protein and
and lipids.
lipids.
(glycans),
the cytoplasm
cytoplasm has
has aa finely
finely granular
granular
the
appearance for
for ribosomes
ribosomes and
and organelles.
organelles.
appearance
the nucleus
nucleus is
is well
well defined
defined with
with nuclear
nuclear
the
membrane
membrane

fungi

Eukaryotes -- algae
algae
Eukaryotes

The algae
algae are
are photosynthetic
photosynthetic
The
eukaryotic microorganisms.
microorganisms.
eukaryotic
The major
major primary
primary producers
producers in
in the
the sea
sea
The
and in
in lakes,
lakes, but
but are
are also
also found
found in
in the
the
and
surface layer
layer of
of soil.
soil.
surface
Many can
can live
live heterotrophically.
heterotrophically.
Many

microalgae

algae
algae
The algae
algae have
have been
been classified
classified traditionally
traditionally by
by
The
pigmentation and
and life
life cycle:
cycle:
pigmentation

Rhodophyceae, the
the red
red algae:
algae: marrine,
marrine, multicellular,
multicellular,
Rhodophyceae,

immotile,some
someunicellular
unicellular
immotile,
Chlorophyceae: many
manyplanktonic
planktonicspecies,
species,freshwater
freshwater
Chlorophyceae:
andmarine,
marine, motil
motil by
byflagella,multicellular.
flagella,multicellular.
and
Prasinophyceae: unicellular
unicellularplanctonic
planctonicflagellated
flagellated
Prasinophyceae:
organisms, marine.
marine.
organisms,
Euglenophyceae:unicells,
unicells,motile
motileby
bysingle
singleflagellum,
flagellum,
Euglenophyceae:
commonin
innutrition
nutritionrich
richfreshwater
freshwaterpools,
pools,also
alsofound
found
common
in the
thesea
sea and
andin
in the
thesoil.
soil.
in
Bacillarophyceae,diatoms:
diatoms:in
inmcroplankton
mcroplankton of
ofsea
sea
Bacillarophyceae,
andlakes,
lakes, motile.
motile.
and
Dinophyceae,dinoflagellates:
dinoflagellates:in
inmicroplankton
microplanktonof
of
Dinophyceae,
seasand
andlake
lakes,
s,motile,
motile, some
someare
arenon
non photosynthetic.
photosynthetic.
seas
Crysophyceae:found
foundin
infreshwater,
freshwater,also
alsothe
themarine
marine
Crysophyceae:
silicoflagellates, biflagellate
biflagellatecells.
cells.
silicoflagellates,
Haptophyceae: biflagellate
biflagellateplanktonic
planktonicalgae,
algae, in
in
Haptophyceae:
marine,blooms
blooms of
ofthis
thisspecies
species can
cangive
givethe
the sea
seaaa
marine,
milkyappearance.
appearance.
milky
Cryptophyceae:unicellular
unicellularflagellates
flagellatesfound
foundas
asminor
minor
Cryptophyceae:
components of
ofplankton.
plankton.
components

algae
algae
algaeclassified
classifiedtraditionally:
traditionally:
algae
Xanthophyceae:multicellular,
multicellular,but
butfew
fewunicellular
unicellularin
inplankton
plankton
Xanthophyceae:
andsoil.
soil.
and
Eustigmatophyceae:unicellular,
unicellular,in
infreshwater,
freshwater,sometime
sometime
Eustigmatophyceae:
foundin
insoil.
soil.
found

Among aquatic
aquatic microorganisms
microorganisms microalgae
microalgae
Among
are aa very
very interesting
interesting source
source of
of aa wide
wide range
range
are
of compounds.
compounds. They
They do
do not
not only
only have
have the
the
of
capacity to
to produce
produce high-value
high-value compounds,
compounds,
capacity
but also
also the
the ability
ability to
to do
do itit using
using only
only
but
sunlight, carbon
carbon dioxide
dioxide and
and sea
sea water.
water.
sunlight,

many algae
algae produced
produced commercially
commercially
many
as source
source of
of nutrition
nutrition and
and others
others
as
functional compounds
compounds
functional

Peptides and
and protein:
protein: lectins
lectins
Peptides
(glycoprotein) have
have proved
proved to
to be
be useful
useful
(glycoprotein)
for clinical
clinical diagnosis
diagnosis and
and other
other health
health
for
application. Red
Red algae
algae (Bryothamnion
(Bryothamnion
application.
triquetrum, Solieria
Solieria robusta,
robusta,
triquetrum,
Ceratodiction spongiosum)
spongiosum)
Ceratodiction
-carotene/canthaxanthin and
and
-carotene/canthaxanthin
astaxanthin: green-algae,
green-algae,
astaxanthin:
Haematococcus pluvialis.
pluvialis.
Haematococcus
Seaweed polysaccharides
polysaccharides
Seaweed
Lipid polyunsaturated
polyunsaturated fatty
fatty acid
acid
Lipid

Eukaryotes -- protozoa
protozoa
Eukaryotes
Exhibit aa very
very wide
wide range
range of
of form
form and
and way
way of
of
Exhibit

life.
life.
Many are
are predators
predators on
on bacteria,
bacteria, fungi,
fungi, algae,
algae,
Many
yeast, or
or other
other protozoa,
protozoa, while
while some
some others
others
yeast,
are parasitic
parasitic in
in animals.
animals.
are
Sarcomastigophora: the
the flagellated
flagellated cells
cells and
and
Sarcomastigophora:

amoeboid protozoa,
protozoa, some
some are
are human
human
amoeboid
pathogens such
such as
as Trypanosoma
Trypanosoma brucei
brucei in
in the
the
pathogens
bloodstream, and
and Entamoeba
Entamoeba histolytica
histolytica in
in
bloodstream,
the gut.
gut. Some
Some flagellates
flagellates are
are symbionts
symbionts in
in
the
termite guts.
guts.
termite
Ciliphora: includes
includes the
the familiar
familiar ciliates,
ciliates,
Ciliphora:
Tetrahymena and
and Paramecium.
Paramecium. Vorticella
Vorticella
Tetrahymena
species are
are very
very important
important in
in sewage
sewage
species
treatment processes.
processes.
treatment
Sporozoa: totally
totally endoparasitic
endoparasitic in
in animals
animals or
or
Sporozoa:
man, Plasmodium
Plasmodium cause
cause malaria.
malaria.
man,

Factors that
that influence
influence microbial
microbial
Factors
growth Intrinsic
Intrinsic Factors
Factors
growth

Factors inherent
inherent to
to the
the
Factors
media/substrate of
of the
the growth
growth are
are
media/substrate
considered intrinsic
intrinsic factors
factors which
which
considered
may stimulate
stimulate or
or retard
retard the
the
may
growth of
of microbial,
microbial, including:
including:
growth

pH (acidity)
(acidity)
pH
Water Activity
Activity (moisture)
(moisture)
Water
Oxidation-reduction potential
potential (oxygen
(oxygen
Oxidation-reduction
or ionic)
ionic)
or
Nutrition (food)
(food)
Nutrition

protozoa

extrinsic factors
factors
extrinsic

Environment factors
factors that
that influence
influence
Environment
microbial growth
growth are
are considered
considered extrinsic
extrinsic
microbial
factors, such
such as:
as:
factors,
Temperature
Temperature

Eachspecies
speciesof
ofmicrobe
microbehas
hasan
anoptimal
optimaltemperature
temperature
Each
ofgrowth
growth
of
Temperatureregulate
regulatethe
theexpression
expressionof
ofgene
gene
Temperature
Thegrowth
growthtemperature
temperaturecan
canalso
alsoinfluence
influenceaacells
cells
The
thermalsensitivity.
sensitivity.
thermal

Gas composition
composition
Gas

relatesto
tothe
theoxygen
oxygenconcentration.
concentration.Many
Manymicrobes
microbes
ItItrelates
areinhibited
inhibitedin
inlow
lowconcentration
concentrationor
orwithout
withoutof
of
are
oxygen,but
butsome
somemay
maygrow
groweven
eventhough
thoughin
inthe
the
oxygen,
absentof
ofoxygen.
oxygen.
absent
appliedin
infood
foodpreservation
preservationusing
usingcontrolled
controlledor
or
ItItisisapplied
modifiedatmosphere
atmospherestorage.
storage.
modified

Growth
Growth kinetics
kinetics
Four phase of microbial growth:

Log
Total
mikroba

Fase lag

Fase
logaritmik

Fase stasioner

Waktu

Fase
kematian

growth kinetics
kinetics
growth

During the
the log,
log, or
or exponential,
exponential, growth
growth
During
phase microbes
microbes (bacteria)
(bacteria) reproduce
reproduce by
by
phase
binary fision.
fision. Thus,
Thus, during
during this
this phase,
phase,
binary
first-order reaction
reaction can
can be
be used
used to
to
first-order
describe the
the change
change in
in cell
cell number
number
describe
The number
number of
of microbes
microbes (N)
(N) at
at any
any time
time is
is
The
directly proportional
proportional to
to the
the initial
initial number
number
directly
of microbes
microbes (N
(Noo))
of
The microbiologists
microbiologists frequently
frequently use
use td
td to
to
The
describe growth
growth rates
rates of
of microbes
microbes and
and
describe
to describe
describe specific
specific growth
growth rates
rates
to

death kinetics
kinetics
death

The killing
killing of
of microbes
microbes by
by energy
energy input,
input,
The
acid, bacteriocin,
bacteriocin, and
and other
other lethal
lethal agents
agents
acid,
is also
also governed
governed by
by first-order
first-order kinetics
kinetics
is
By this
this kinetic
kinetic reaction,
reaction, itit can
can be
be
By
predicted the
the number
number of
of microbes
microbes (viable
(viable
predicted
cells) remaining
remaining after
after treatment,
treatment, such
such as
as
cells)
in sterilization
sterilization process.
process.
in
In microbiology,
microbiology, D
D value
value (amount
(amount of
of time
time
In
required to
to reduce
reduce N
Noo by
by 90%)
90%) is
is the
the most
most
required
frequently used
used as
as kinetic
kinetic constant.
constant. D
D
frequently
values are
are inversely
inversely proportional
proportional to
to the
the
values
rate constant,
constant, k,
k, for
for aa given
given temperature.
temperature.
rate

First-order kinetics
kinetics can
can be
be used
used to
to describe
describe
First-order
exponential growth
growth and
and inactivation
inactivation
exponential
Growtha

Thermal inactivationb

Iradiationc

N = Noet

N = Noe-kt

N = Noe-D/Do

2.3log(N/No) = t

2.3log(N/No) = -(kt)

t = [2.3 log(N/No)]/

t = -[2.3 log(N/No)]/k

td = 0.693/

D = 2.3/k

N, cell number (cfu/g); No, initial cell number (cfu/g); t, time (h); , specific
growth rate (h-1); td, doubling time (h); bk, rate constant (h-1); D, decimal reduction
time (h); cDo, rate constant (h-1); D, dose (Gy)
a

Organism

(h-1)

td (h)

Optimal conditions

2.3

0.3

Limited nutrients

0.20

3.46

Psychotroph, 5oC

0.023

30

0.1 0.3

6.9 20

Bacteria

Molds, optimal

Cell Nutrition
Nutrition
Cell

The availability
availability of
of suitable
suitable nutrients
nutrients is
is clearly
clearly aa
The
major factor
factor determining
determining whether
whether the
the microbes
microbes will
will
major
grow or
or not
not in
in aa particular
particular environment.
environment.
grow
There are
are four
four useful
useful ways
ways to
to classify
classify potential
potential
There
nutrient mlocules:
mlocules:
nutrient

Asesential,
esential,or
oruseful
usefulbut
butdispensable
dispensable
As
Usedas
asbuilding
buildingblocks
blocksfor
formacromolecules,
macromolecules,or
oras
asenergy
energy
Used
sources,or
oras
asboth
both
sources,
Asmacronutrient
macronutrientrequired
requiredin
inlarge
largequantities,
quantities,or
oras
as
As
micronutrients
micronutrients
Asmacromolecules
macromoleculesrequiring
requiringbreakdown
breakdownbefore
beforeentry
entryto
to
As
thecell,
cell,or
orsmall
smallmolecules
moleculesreadily
readilyentering
enteringas
assoluble
soluble
the
nutrients.
nutrients.

The major
major elements
elements of
of the
the cell
cell are
are carbon,
carbon,
The
hydrogen, oxygen,
oxygen, nitrogen,
nitrogen, sulphur
sulphur and
and
hydrogen,
phosphorous.
phosphorous.

Cell Nutrition
Nutrition
Cell

Carbon dioxide
dioxide is
is utilized
utilized as
as sole
sole carbon
carbon source
source only
only
Carbon
by autotrophs.
autotrophs. Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are
are commonly
commonly utilized
utilized
by
as sources
sources of
of carbon.
carbon. Organic
Organic acids
acids are
are readily
readily used
used
as
directly as
as sources
sources of
of carbon
carbon by
by most
most microbes.
microbes.
directly
Protein and
and their
their constituent
constituent organic
organic acids
acids are
are
Protein
utilized as
as carbon
carbon sources
sources by
by proteolitic
proteolitic microbes.
microbes.
utilized
Nitrogen is
is abundant
abundant as
as gaseous
gaseous dinitrogen,
dinitrogen, but
but
Nitrogen
only few
few prokaryotic
prokaryotic organisms
organisms and
and some
some of
of blueblueonly
green algae
algae can
can utilize
utilize it.
it. Other
Other sources
sources of
of nitrogen,
nitrogen,
green
such as
as nitrate,
nitrate, amonia,
amonia, amino
amino acids,
acids, nucleotides,
nucleotides,
such
uric acid
acid and
and urea,
urea, can
can also
also provide
provide cells
cells
uric
requirements for
for nitrogen.
nitrogen.
requirements
Some organisms
organisms can
can utilize
utilize hydrogen
hydrogen sulphide
sulphide as
as
Some
source of
of sulphur.
sulphur. Organic
Organic sulphur
sulphur as
as amino
amino acids
acids
source
cysteine and
and methionine
methionine can
can also
also be
be used.
used.
cysteine
Probably all
all organisms
organisms can
can utilize
utilize soluble
soluble inorganic
inorganic
Probably
phosphate.
phosphate.