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Culture Care and Diversity

A Nursing Theory
By Rabia Chaudhry

Dr. Leininger was the first


professional nurse with a PhD
in anthropology.

She brought nursing and


anthropology together and
came up with the term
transcultural nursing.

Her Culture Care Diversity &


Universality theory was one of
the earliest nursing theories
and it remains the only theory
focused specifically on
transcultural nursing. Her
theory is used worldwide.
(Leininger, 2006)

Description of the theory

The Culture Care Diversity and


Universality theory, according
to Dr. Leininger, focuses on
describing, explaining, and
predicting nursing similarities
and differences. It focuses
primarily on human care and
their culture.

In addition, The Culture Care


Diversity & Universality theory
focuses on methods of
approach that takes care of
patients and their culture.
(Leininger, 2006)

Research

Dr. Leininger developed


her theory, Culture Care Diversity and Universality
d
from a combination of anthropology & nursing beliefs & principles

1985 she first published her theory in Nursing Science Quarterly

1988 - further explained her theory in same journal

1991 - published her book Culture Care Diversity and Universality: A Theory of
Nursing

(Leininger, 2006)

Theory applied to nursing


Based on transcultural nursing model:
Transcultural nursing: is a learned branch of nursing that
focuses on the comparative study & analysis of cultures.
They apply these concepts to nursing and health-illness
practices, beliefs, and values.
Goal of Transcultural Nursing: is to provide care that is
congruent with cultural values, beliefs, and practices.
(Leininger, 1999)

Theorys Purpose & Goal


Purpose: to explicate
transcultural nursing
knowledge and practice
Goal: to identify ways to
provide culturally
congruent nursing care to
people of diverse or
similar cultures
(Leininger, 2006)

The Sunrise Enabler


The theory includes an enabler. It serves
as a conceptual guide or cognitive map
to guide nurses in the systematic study of
all dimensions of the theory.
This map or guide is called the Sunrise
Enabler.

(Leininger, 2006)

(Leininger, 2006. pp25)

Applying theory in nursing


practice

Knowledge of cultural diversity is essential


for nurses in order to provide appropriate
care to clients, families, and communities.

It also requires understanding of values,


beliefs, and practices of a clients culture.

Nursing actions must be culture-specific.

Culture Care theory not only focuses on


nurse-client interaction but the focus also
includes care for families, groups,
communities, cultures and institutions.

(Leininger, 1994)

CONCLUSION
We live in a cities/states that are rich in
diversity, and globalization has
become a fact of life, therefore, it is
essential to value diversity.
Nursing is a transcultural humanistic
profession with the central purpose of
serving individuals, groups,
communities and institutions
worldwide.
If there is evidence of nurturing caring
behaviors with the use of culturespecific care, there will be more signs
of well being and fewer signs of illness.
(Leininger, 2006)

References
Leininger, M. M.& McFarland, R. M. (2006). Culture care diversity and Universality, A world wide
Nursing theory (2nd ed). (pp1-50). Jones and Bartlette Publishers.

http://books.google.com/books?
id=NmY43MysbxIC&pg=PA24&dq=sunrise+enabler+picture&lr=#v=onepage
&q=sunrise%20enabler%20picture&f=false
Leininger, M. M. (1994). Nursing Education and International Perspective. Teaching and Learning
Transcultural Nursing. (pp 207-225). Juta & Co, Zebra Publications.
http://books.google.com/books?hl
=en&lr=&id=tHq0pWamh1oC&oi=fnd&pg=PA207&dq=leininger%27s+transcultural+nursing+theo
ry&ots=wyJJ6fqy5b&sig=xyHHQ8sHiboDBmiVqyZD0RJ7kH0#v=onepage&q=leininger's%20transcu
ltural%20nursing%20theory&f=false
Leininger, M. M.(1999). What is Transcultural Nursing and Culturally Competent Care. J Transcult
Nurs 1999; 10; 9. http://tcn.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/10/1/9.pdf