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CFX Multiphase 12.

0
Workshop 1

Rectangular Bubble
Column
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Introduction

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This workshop models the dispersion of air bubbles in


water in a rectangular bubble column.
Gas is supplied through a sparger at the bottom of the
bubble column and the rising action of bubbles
provides agitation of the liquid.
Although the boundary conditions are steady and the
geometry is simple, there is a transient character to the
solution
In this workshop, you will set up and run a basic bubbly
flow simulation.
In the second workshop, you will add non-drag forces
to the model.

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Rectangular Bubble Column Geometry

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Vessel Details
Height of column
Width of column
Depth of column

1.00 m
0.10 m
0.02 m

Height of sparger
Length of sparger
Width of sparger

0.01 m
0.01 m
0.02 m

Air inlet at the bottom via


a sparger (porous
aquarium stone)
Air superficial velocity:
0.002 ... 0.03 m/s
.

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Expected Behavior

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Measurements:
High speed video camera:
Gas velocity
Bubble size

Wire mesh sensor


Gas volume fraction
Bubble sizes

Bubbles dispersed
across the column

Narrow plume of
bubbles near the
inlet
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Computational Mesh

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outlet =
opening

Hexahedral mesh
(ICEM-CFD Hexa)
Mesh element size:
x=y=z=0.005m
200204 cells on
coarsest mesh
16,000 elements
21,105 nodes

inlet
(sparger)
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Importing the Mesh

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Copy the file ICEM CFD mesh file rectangularcolumn.msh from the input files folder
into a working directory. Start CFX-Pre from the ANSYS CFX 12.0 Launcher after
changing to this working directory and open a new case (File/New Case/General)
Right-click on Mesh in the Outline and select Import Mesh/ICEM CFD and import
rectangularcolumn.msh into the simulation, setting the Mesh Units to m.

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Imported Mesh

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Hightlight the imported mesh in


the Outline view. Right-click on it
and select Mesh Statistics
Note the dimensions of the
imported mesh in the pop-up
window, Note that the height of
the vertical column ranges from a
y-value of 0.0 [m] at the bottom
and 1.0 [m] at the top

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Defining the Domain Fluids (Continuous Phase)

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Double-click the Default Domain created for


your imported mesh to edit it (if a default
domain was not created, create one).
On the Basic Settings tab of the Details form
for the domain:
Set the Domain Type to Fluid Domain
Highlight Fluid 1 in the Fluid and Particle
Definition window and click on the Delete icon
to remove it
Click on the New icon in the Fluid and Particle
definition window and insert a new fluid
named water
Select the predefined constant property
material Water and set the Morphology Option
to Continuous Fluid

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Defining the Domain Fluids (Dispersed Phase)

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Still on the Basic Settings tab of the Details


form for the domain:
Click on the New icon next to the Fluid and
Particle Definition window and insert a new
fluid definition named air
For the new fluid air, select the predefined
constant property material Air at 25 C and set
the Morphology Option to Dispersed Fluid with
a size of 0.003 [m]

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Viewing the Fluid Densities

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Expand the Materials entry in the outline and


double-click on the Material definitions for the
Air at 25 C and Water materials used to
define the fluid properties for this simulation
and note the values of the constant densities
set for these fluids (1.185 kg/m3 for Air at 25
C and 997 kg/m3 for Water)
These values will be important in defining the
reference density for the buoyancy settings
for the domain as well as the hydrostatic
head for the initial guess for the pressure

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Setting the Buoyancy Properties

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Buoyancy effects are very important for gasliquid settings and therefore buoyancy
properties must be defined for the domain
On the Basic Settings form for the Domain
under the Domain Models section, set the
Buoyancy Option to Buoyant and enter the
X,Y, and Z components of the gravity vector as
[0, -9.81, 0] m/s2.
Set the buoyancy reference density to the
density of water [997.0 kg/m 3] which is the
continuous phase for this problem
Set the Reference Location option for Buoyancy
to Cartesian coordinates and enter values
consistent with the top surface of the domain [0
1 0 ] m,

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Fluid Domain: Fluid Models

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Left-Click the Fluid Models tab for the


Domain.
Leave the Homogeneous Model toggle
unchecked
Set the Free Surface Model to None since
this is a dispersed/continuous
type of flow
Set Heat Transfer option to Isothermal
with a Fluid temperature of 25 [C].
Set the Turbulence option to Fluid
Dependent

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Fluid Domain: Fluid Specific Models

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Click on the Fluid Specific Models tab on


the Domain form and select air
Set the Turbulence Model to Dispersed
Phase Zero Equation
Leave Fluid Buoyancy Model as
Density Difference.

Click on water and set:


Turbulence Model to Shear
Stress Transport
Buoyancy Turbulence Option
to None
Leave Fluid Buoyancy Model as
Density Difference.

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Fluid Domain: Fluid Pairs

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Click on the Fluid Pair Models tab and:


Click on the Surface Tension Coefficient
toggle and enter a value of 0.072 N/m
(the surface tension force will not be
modeled in this tutorial but the surface
tension coefficient will be used in the
Grace correlation for the drag acting
on deformable bubbles)
Set the Interphase Transfer Option to
Particle Model
Under Momentum Transfer, set the
Drag Force Option to Grace
Enable the Volume Fraction Correction
Exponent and enter a value of 3. This value
will help keep the drag law well behaved in
the gas headspace region above the liquid
Leave Non-drag forces unset and set the Turbulence
Transfer Option to Sato
Enhanced Eddy Vicosity

Click OK to complete the domain definition

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Flow Boundary Condition Strategy


The bubble column modeled in this
simulation is semi-batch where air flows
continuously through a batch layer of
liquid
The sparger inlet at the bottom of the
vessel has only air flowing through it
(air volume fraction =1)
The outlet at the top of the geometry
will be a pressure specified opening
through which either air or water could
flow. To preserve the initial liquid
loading set in the initial guess, an air
headspace above the liquid will be
specified in the initial guess for the
volume fraction field. As long as
convergence is reasonable, only air will
leave this boundary and the initial
amount of liquid will be preserved even
for a steady simulation
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Outlet
Air
Head
Space

Batch
Liquid

Air Inlet

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Inlet Boundary Condition: inlet

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Insert an Inlet boundary named inlet


and assign it to the location INLET
On the Boundary details tab:
Set the Mass and Momentum Option
to Bulk Mass Flow Rate
Click on the expression toggle next to the
Mass Flow Rate entry box
The mass flow rate of gas will be calculated
based on its superficial velocity, the column
cross-sectional area, and the gas density
The superficial velocity, JSG, is defined as
the volumetric gas flow rate divided by the
cross-sectional area of the column:
JSG=0.01 m/s
CSA = 0.01 m x 0.2 m = 0.002 m2
Air Density = 1.185 kg/m3
Mass Flow Rate = 0.01 [m/s]*0.002 [m^2]*1.185 [kg/m^3]
Enter this expression for the Bulk Mass Flow Rate

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Inlet Boundary Condition: inlet: Fluid Values

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On the Fluid Values tab:


Highlight air and set the
Volume Fraction to 1.0
Highlight water and set the
Volume Fraction to 0.0
Click OK to create the boundary

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Opening Boundary Condition: outlet

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Insert a boundary named outlet


Set the type to Opening and the
location to OUTLET
On the Boundary Details form:
Set the Mass and Momentum Option
to Opening Pres. and Dirn.
Enter a Relative Pressure of 0.0 Pa

On the Fluid Values form:


Highlight air and set the
Volume Fraction to 1.0
Highlight water and set the
Volume Fraction to 0.0

Click OK to create the boundary

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Default Wall Boundary Condition:

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Double click the default boundary


created for the domain (Default
Domain Default for a domain named
Default Domain) to bring up the
Edit Boundary form
On the Boundary details tab, set
the Mass and Momentum option
to Fluid Dependent
On the Fluid Values tab:
Highlight air and set
Wall Influence on Flow to
Free Slip
Highlight water and set
Wall Influence on Flow to
No Slip

Click OK to update the


boundary definition

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Boundary Condition Summary

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Top Opening

Side and Bottom Walls

Sparger Inlet
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Initial Condition

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The initial condition for this simulation will set up a


gas headspace in the upper 10% of the domain
(i.e. for y > 0.9 m)
This will be implemented by using a step function
for gas volume fraction that is zero for y < 0.9 m
and 1 for y > 0.90 m.

Headspace

step((y - 0.90 [m])/1.0 [m])


We must also enter the correct hydrostatic pressure for this
initial condition relative to the buoyancy reference density of
997 kg/m^3 and the buoyancy reference position (y = 1.0 m):
P = (1.185 997)[kg/m^3]*g*(1.0[m] - y)* step((y - 0.9 [m])/1.0 [m])
* Note: g is a CFX system variable which is predefined as 9.81 [m/s^2]

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Global Initialisation

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Click the Global Initialisation icon from the menu bar


On the Global Settings tab, set the Static Pressure Option to Automatic with
Value
Enter the following expression for Relative Pressure which was given on the
previous slide (be sure to click on the Equation toggle next to the Relative
Pressure entry box):
(1.185-997) [kg/m^3] *g* (1.0 [m] - y)* step((y-0.9 [m])/1.0 [m])

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Global Initialisation: Fluid Settings

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On the Fluid Settings tab, highlight


air and set:
U, V, and W Cartesian Velocity Components to
Automatic with Value with all at 0.0 [m/s]
the Volume Fraction Option to Automatic with
Value with the expression set to:

step((y - 0.90 [m])/1.0 [m])

Highlight water and set:


U, V, and W Cartesian Velocity Components to
Automatic with Value with all at 0.0 [m/s]
Turbulence Option to Medium Intensity and Eddy
Viscosity Ratio
the Volume Fraction Option to
Automatic with Value with the
expression set to:

1 - step((y - 0.90 [m])/1.0 [m])

Click OK to complete the Initialisation


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Solver Parameters

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Click on the Solver Control icon from


the menu bar
On the Basic Settings tab:
Set the Advection Scheme Option
to High Resolution
Set the Timescale Control to
Physical Timescale and enter
a Physical Timescale of 0.01 s
Set the Max. Iterations to 100
Enter 1e-4 for the Residual Target
Leave the other settings at their
default values and click Ok to
apply the form

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Output Control: Monitor Point

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Click on the Output Control icon from the


menu bar
Click on the Monitor tab and:
Enable the Monitor Options toggle
Under Monitor Points and Expressions,
click on the New icon
Enter holdup as the name of the
new monitor point
Set the Option for Holdup to Expression
and enter the Expression Value as::
volumeAve(air.vf)@Default Domain

This gives the average volume fraction


of air in the domain, commonly known
as the gas hold-up. (If your domain
name is not Default Domain, use that
name in its place)
Click OK to create the monitor
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Write Solver File and Define Run

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Click the Define Run icon from the menu bar


Enable the Quit CFX-Pre toggle and click
Save to write the input file
Click Save and Quit when prompted to save the
simulation file

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Running the Solver

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When the Solver Manager appears, click Start Run.

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Monitoring the Residuals

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Assessing Convergence

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After 100 iterations, the run has not


converged very well in terms of the
magnitudes of the residuals
Browse the output file and check the
imbalances for mass and the volume
fraction of Air at 25 C. They are also
still quite high.
Click on the User Points tab of the
Solver Manager to display the
change in the computed gas phase
holdup over time. The initial value
near 0.10 corresponds to the initial
headspace set in the initial guess
Start CFX-Post and load the results file
from your run

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Post-Processing

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Select the -z view. Create a xy-plane for a z-value of 0.01 m and color
it according to air.Volume Fraction. Clearly, the air volume fraction field is still
evolving (The ANSYS CFX solver is time marching, even for a
steady-state run)

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Continuing the Run

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From the Solver Manager,


click on Tools/Edit CFX Solver File
and select the results file
for your current run.
Find the Solver Control
section in the Definition File Editor
and expand Convergence Control
Double-click Physical
Timescale and change it to
0.02 s. Double-click Maximum
Number of Iterations and change
it to 400
Click File/Save then File/Exit.
Click the Restart icon to resume
the run with the new settings

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Solver Monitor

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The second run will require some time to complete ( 30 - 60 minutes)

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Imbalance and Holdup

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Convergence and imbalances are still not great but we can examine the Results
File in CFD-Post to look for causes
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Post-Processing

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Start Post and load the current results file. Select the -z view. Create a XYPlane for a z-value of 0.01 m and color it according to air.Volume Fraction.
Next, clip the range by setting a user-specified range from 0 to 0.125. The
bubble plume is unsteady which causes the wiggles in the convergence
behavior.

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Comparison to Experiment

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The current steady-state simulation results predict an oscillating relatively


narrow plume of bubbles rising up the center of the column. The
experimental pictures show that the length of the initial narrow plume of
bubbles is much shorter than what the simulation predicts

Bubbles dispersed
across the column

Narrow plume of
bubbles near the
inlet
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Adding Non-Drag Forces

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One reason for the difference between


the experimental bubble plume
and the simulation prediction is the
neglecting of several important
non-drag forces including lift, turbulent
dispersion, and wall lubrication.
These will be included in the second
workshop.

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