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Batuan Karbonat

Danis Agoes Wiloso


Hp. 081330706235
Email: dwiloso@yahoo.com

Mingg
Topik
u ke1
Pendahuluan
2
Komposisi Mineral Batuan Karbonat.
Tugas 1
3
Komponen Penyusun Batuan Karbonat
(Grain)
4
Komponen Penyusun Batuan Karbonat
(Micrite)
5
Komponen Penyusun Batuan Karbonat
(Sparite)
6
Klasifikasi Batuan Karbonat (Folk)
7
Klasifikasi Batuan Karbonat (Dunham).
Tugas 2

Mingg
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9
10
11
12
13
14

Topik
Fasies Batuan Karbonat
Lingkungan Pengendapan Karbonat
Diagenesis Batuan Karbonat. Tugas 3
Nilai Ekonomi Batuan Karbonat
(Perminyakan)
Nilai Ekonomi Batuan Karbonat (Bahan
Industri)
Nilai Ekonomi Batuan Karbonat (Pariwisata)
Fieldtrip. Tugas 4
Ujian Akhir Semester

EVALUASI
Kehadiran
10%
Tugas (4 Tugas)
40%
Nilai UTS dan UAS
50 %

Pustaka

Flugel, E., 1982, Microfacies Analysis of Limestone, SpringerVerlag, Berlin


Scofin, T.P., 1986, An Introduction to Carbonate Sediments
and Rock, Blackie, London
Shrock, R.R., and Twenhofel, W.H., 1952, Principles of
Invertrebate Paleotology, McGraw Hill Book Company Inc.,
London
Selley, R.C., 1978, Ancient Sedimentary Enviroment,
Chapman and Hall, London
Tucker, M.E., 1981, Sedimenary Petrology andIntroduction,
Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxfor
Walker, R.G., 1982, Facies Models, Geoscience Canada
White, W.B., 1988, Geomorphology and Hidrology of Karst
Terrains, Oxford University Press, Oxford

PERATURAN
Berpakaian sopan (kaos ada kerahnya),
Celana tidak sobek-sobek, tidak bersandal
jepit
Tidak boleh makan, minum dan merokok
selama kuliah
Keterlambatan maksimum 15 menit
Hp dimatikan selama kuliah berlangsung

Mengapa mempelajari
karbonat
Worldwide, carbonates contain ~60% / ~500 juta

barrels, of recoverable oil in giant fields (O&G Jour.


1983). This includes 2/3 major reserves in Mid
East and 1/3 major reserves in N.America.

Lapangan raksasa Asean: Arun, Bombay High,


Natuna, Luconia and Cepu

Greenlee & Lehman (1992) estimate 16 million


bbls oil-equiv. occur in Mioc/Oligocene carbonate
buildups in SE Asia. These occur in a variety of
limestone and dolomite reservoirs: reefs, layered
muddy platforms, sand shoals, recrystallised
dolomite, fractures and even caves.
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Mountains
Land
Shelf

Deep water
Upwelling zones

> 100m thick


10-100 m thick
< 10 m thick
No thickness data

From Kiessling et al., 1999

Global distribution of Middle


Miocene (Serravallian) reefs

Controls on Productivity in the


Carbonate Factory

Carbonate sediments are the products of organic


biochemical processes optimal conditions are
found in clear, warm, shallow marine
environments.
Vast continental shelves and isolated banks exist
within the tropical realm, beyond the influence of
deltas, and it is in these settings that carbonate
accumulation is most prolific.
The term Carbonate Factory has been given to
such areas because of the high rates of sediment
production and accumulation of Ca-secreting
organisms found there.
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Controls on Carbonate
Productivity
Physical

Temperature

: 20-300C

Light

Bathymetry
: shallow enough to sustain warm temperatures and
afford sample light penetration.

Clarity
: turbidity adversely affects filter feeders and light
penetration

Circulation
: a feature of normal marine conditions and required for
nutrient supply

Energy
: tides, waves, currents and suspended matter may vary
from high to low with attendant variations in types of
organisms and sediment

: varies with water clarity and depth

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Controls on Carbonate
Productivity
Chemical

Salinity

- normal marine (32-38 meq/l)

Nutrients

- Steady supply

Saturation

- dependent upon temperature, pressure


(esp pCO2), salinity and concentration
of Ca++ and CO3=

Cementation (precipitation) - stabilises sediment, fills primary


pores

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Controls on Carbonate
Productivity
Biological

Growth Rates

- faster rates produce more sediment and


bigger structures more quickly
Growth Form - different growth forms reflect different
niches and produce different types of
sediment
Mineralogy
- aragonite, high mag. Calcite (HMC),
low mag. calcite (LMC)
Binding, trapping & baffling
Bioturbation
- ingestion and egestion

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CONCEPT OF CARBONATE
ROCKS

CARBONATE ROCKS OF CARBONATES ARE


SEDIMENTARY ROCKS WHICH CONSISTS OF
CARBONATE MINERALS.
THEY COMPRISE OF LIMESTONES AND
DOLOSTONES (DOLOMITES).
CARBONATE ROCKS ARE PRACTICALLY
MONOMINERALIC CONSISTING OF CALCIUM
CARBONATE MINERALS WITH FEW INSERTION OF
MAGNESIUM IN THE CRYSTAL LATTICE.
CARBONATES ARE CHARACTERIZED AND
DIFFERENTIATED BY ITS FABRIC AND TEXTURE
RATHER THAN BY ITS MINERAL COMPOSITION.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF CARBONATE
ROCKS
CARBONATE ROCKS COMPRISES LESS THAN
30% OF THE STRATIGRAPHIC SECTION.
WIDE-SPREAD CARBONATE ROCKS
INDICATE A SPECIAL TECTONIC CONDITION:
TECTONIC QUISCENCE.

CARBONATE ROCKS ALSO INDICATE A


SPECIAL DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT:
CLEAR, WARM AND GENERALLY SHALLOW
MARINE DEPOSIT.
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LIMESTONE IN RELATION TO SILICI-CLASTICS

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LIMESTONE
MARL
RELATIONSHIP
The term marl is not used in
the petroleum industry or
American literature, the term
calcareous shale is used
instead.
Marl is used as a special term
for lacustrine shales

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CARBONATE
SEDIMENTATION

CARBONATE SEDIMENTATION IS CONTROLLED BY A SINGLE


CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM EQUATION:

H+ + HCO4- +
Ca2+

CaCO4 + H2O + CO2

Increase of CO2 concentration in the solution will shift the


equation to the left, resulting dissolution of the calcium
carbonates.
Increase of CO2 concentration may due to increasing depth
(PCO2)
Input of meteoric water or input of CO2 due decay of organic
materila
Decreas of CO2 concentration will shift the equation to the right,
resulting into carbonate deposition
Decrease of CO2 concentration may be due to:
Evaporation, increase of temperature due heating of the sea
water by the sun, escpecially in shallow waters
CO2 capture by organism, especially algae for photo-synthesis
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CHEMICAL CONTROLS OF
CARBONATE SEDIMENTATION

DEPOSITION AND DISSOLUTION ARE


CONTROLLED BY
Concentrations of Ca ++ ions
Concentrations of CO4 ions

SATURATION OF Ca
Evaporation and
Temperature

++

IONS IS CONTROLLED BY

SATURATION OF CO4 IONS IS CONTROLLED BY


PARTIAL PRESSURE,
Temperature,
Atmospheric and
Biogenic activities/ particularly photosynthesis.

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CARBONATE CHEMICAL
ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITON
CARBONATES ARE DEPOSITED IN HIGH Ph
SALINE ENVIRONMENT.
CARBONATES ARE GENERALLY DEPOSITED
IN MARINE ENVIRONMENT.
SOME CARBONATES ARE ALSO DEPOSITED
IN LACUSTRINE SALINE ENVIRONMENT.

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CARBONATE COMPENSATION
DEPTH

IN OCEANS:
Partial pressure of CO2 increases with depth.
Temperature decreases with depth.

HENCE:

Solubility of carbonate minerals (arragonite and


calcite) increases with depth.

CARBONATE MINERALS ARE DISSOLVED AT


CERTAIN DEPTH CALLED RESPECTIVELY :
Arragonite Compensation Depth (ACD)
Calcite Compensation Depth (CCD)

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CARBONATE DEPOSITONAL
ENVIRONMENTS
Carbonates are generally warm water
sediments.
Carbonates are generally shallow water
sediments; deep water carbonates are
restricted to pelagic limestones.
Carbonates are generally deposited in clear
marine waters, free of fine clastics

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WORLD WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF


CARBONATE SEDIMENTATION

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DEPTH DISTRIBUTION OF CARBONATE


SEDIMENTATION

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SEDIMENTARY PROCESSES OF CARBONATES

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Klasifikasi Batuan
Karbonat
Secara umum, klasifikasi batuan karbonat
ada 2 macam, yaitu: klasifikasi deskriptif
dan klasifikasi genetik.
Klasifikasi deskriptif merupakan klasifikasi
yang didasarkan pada sifat-sifat batuan
yang dapat diamati dan dapat ditentukan
secara langsung, seperti fisik, kimia, biologi,
mineralogi atau tekstur.
Klasifikasi genetik merupakan klasifikasi
yang lebih menekankan pada asal usul
batuan.

Klasifikasi Grabau (1904)


Menurut klasifikasi Grabau, batugamping dapat dibagi
menjadi 5 macam, yaitu:
a. Calcirudite, yaitu batugamping yang ukuran butirnya lebih
besar daripada pasir (>2 mm).
b. Calcarenite, yaitu batugamping yang ukuran butirnya sama
dengan pasir (1/16 2 mm).
c. Calcilutite, yaitu batugamping yang ukuran butirnya lebih kecil
dari pasir (<1/16 mm).
d. Calcipulverite, yaitu batugamping hasil presipitasi kimiawi,
seperti batugamping kristalin.
e. Batugamping organik, yaitu hasil pertumbuhan organisme
secara insitu seperti terumbu dan stromatolite.

Klasifikasi Folk (1959)


Parameter utama yang dipakai pada
klasifikasi ini adalah tekstur deposisi. Folk
menyatakan bahwa proses pengendapan
batuan karbonat dapat disebandingkan
dengan proses pengendapan batupasir atau
batulempung

Klasifikasi Dunham (1962)


Dunham membuat klasifikasi batugamping
berdasarkan tekstur deposisi batugamping, yaitu
tekstur yang terbentuk pada waktu pengendapan
batugamping, meliputi ukuran butir dan susunan
butir (sortasi). Ada beberapa hal yang perlu
diperhatikan sehubungan dengan pengklasifikasian
batugamping berdasarkan tekstur deposisinya, yaitu:
1. Derajat perubahan tekstur pengendapan
2. Komponen asli terikat atau tidak terikat selama proses
deposisi
3. Tingkat kelimpahan antar butiran (grain) dan lumpur
karbonat

Klasifikasi Embry and Klovan (1971)


Klasifikasi ini didasarkan pada tekstur pengendapan dan
merupakan pengembangan dari klasifikasi Dunham
(1962)
Berdasarkan cara terjadinya, Embry & Klovan (1971)
membagi batugamping menjadi dua kelompok, yaitu
batugamping allochton dan batugamping autochton.
Batugamping autochton adalah batugamping yang komponen
penyusunnya berasal dari organisme yang saling mengikat
selama pengendapannya.
Batugamping allochton adalah batugamping yang komponennya
berasal dari sumbernya oleh fragmentasi mekanik, kemudian
mengalami transportasi dan diendapkan kembali sebagai
partikel padat.